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@CT:Contents About the Author Preface @CT:1. Origins: A Different Kind of War @H1:Yalta @H1:From San Francisco to Potsdam @H1:1946: A Year of Learning @H1:All Over But the Shoutin? Notes Documents 1.1: Franklin Roosevelt Talks to the Press about the Shape of the Peace to Come, August 29, 1944 1.2: Agreement at Yalta, February 11, 1945 1.3: United Nations Charter, June 26, 1945 1.4: Agreement at Potsdam, August 1, 1945 1.5: Stalin?s ?Campaign? Speech in Moscow, February 9, 1946 1.6: The ?Long Telegram,? February 22, 1946 1.7: ?The Sinews of Peace,? Churchill at Fulton, Missouri, March 5, 1946 1.8: Comrade Stalin Responds to Churchill?s Remarks, March 14, 1946 1.9: Nikolai Novikov, Soviet Ambassador in Washington, Telegram, September 27, 1946 1.10: United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Effects of the Atomic Bombs, July 1, 1946 @CT:2. Harry Truman: The President Decides on War @H1:The Truman Doctrine @H1:The Marshall Plan @H1:Election Year Crises @H1:Collective Security @H1:The Two Evils: McCarthyism and Communist Subversion @H1:Cold War Sticker Shock @H1:The Korean War @H1:Truman Fires MacArthur @H1:Compromise in a War of Absolutes Notes Documents 2.1: The Truman Doctrine Speech, March 12, 1947 2.2: Truman Loyalty Oath, March 21, 1947 2.3: The Marshall Plan, June 5, 1947 2.4:The Deputy Foreign Minister of the U.S.S.R. responds to the Marshall Plan, September 25, 1947 2.5: Cominform Manifesto, October 5, 1947 2.6: Berlin Air Lift, June 24, 1948May 12, 1949 2.7: Desegregation of Armed Forces, July 26, 1948 2.8: The Vandenberg Resolution, June 11, 1948 2.9: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), April 4, 1949 2.10: Inaugural Address, January 20, 1949 2.11: The President Unveils the Soviet Atom Bomb, September 23, 1949 2.12: The Founding of the People?s Republic of China, October 1, 1949 2.13: ?Enemies from Within,? Senator Joseph McCarthy?s speech to the Republican Women?s Club of Wheeling, West Virginia, February 9, 1950 2.14: National Security Council Report #68 (NSC 68), April 7, 1950 2.15: United Nations Security Council Resolution, June 25, 1950 2.16:White House Press Release on Korea, June 27, 1950 2.17: President Truman Addresses the Public about Korea, July 19, 1950 2.18: Soviet and Chinese Involvement in the Korean War, a View from the Former Soviet Union, August 9, 1966 2.19: ?No Substitute for Victory,? General Douglas MacArthur denounces the President?s Conduct of the War, April 5, 1951 2.20: Truman Fires MacArthur, April 11, 1951 2.21: The President Defends his Conduct of the War and the Dismissal of a War Hero, April 11, 1951 2.22: Truman on the Court, June 5, 1952 @CT:3. Dwight Eisenhower: Defense within Limits @H1:Korea, the Cold War, and the Garrison State @H1:The New Look @H1:The New Look in Action: First-Term Crises @H1:The Middle Way is Tested at Home and Abroad @H1:Second Term D?j? vu @H1:The Shock of the New @H1:The Arms Race and the Sino-Soviet Split @H1:Conclusion Notes Documents 3.1: Eisenhower Contemplates the Contradictions of Capitalism, July 2, 1953 3.2: ?The Chance for Peace,? April 16, 1953 3.3: National Security Council Report #162/2 (NSC #162/2), October 30, 1953 3.4: First Strike? Eisenhower to Dulles, September 8, 1953 3.5: ?Massive Retaliation,? January 12, 1954 3.6: The H-Bomb, Subversion, and ?Falling Dominoes,? April 7, 1954 3.7: Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, September 8, 1954 3.8: Formosa Resolution, January 29, 1955 3.9: ?Ridgway Sees Jeopardy in Army Cut,? February 1, 1955 3.10: The President Replies to General Ridgway, February 3, 1955 3.11: Bricker Amendment, [MISSING DATE] 3.12: ?Atoms for Peace,? December 8, 1953 3.13: Eisenhower Ruminates on ?Atoms for Peace,? December 10, 1953 3.14: The Eisenhower Doctrine, January 5, 1957 3.15: the Kitchen Debate, July 24, 1959 3.16: U2 Cover Story is Launched, May 3, 1960 3.17: Administration Refines Cover Statement, May 7, 1960 3.18: Eisenhower Takes Responsibility for U.S. Flight, May 11, 1960 3.19: Eisenhower?s Farewell Address, January 17, 1961 @CT:4. John F. Kennedy: Taking the Fight to the Enemy @H1:Threat and Response @H1:Beyond Crisis @H1:Conclusion Notes Documents 4.1: ?Pay Any Price, Bear Any Burden,? January 20, 1961 4,2: ?More Difficult than War,? April 20, 1961 4.3: ?Defeat is an Orphan,? April 21, 1961 4.4: Off the Record on the Bay of Pigs, April 25, 1961 4.5: From Fallout Shelters to the Moon, May 25, 1961 4.6: Opportunities for Service, June 6, 1962 4.7: Gromyko and Kennedy Conceal What They Know, and Exchange Warnings, October 18, 1962 4.8: Telegram, ?Situation is Completely Satisfactory,? October 19, 1962 4.9: The President Informs the Public, October 22, 1962 4.10: Soviet Analysis of Kennedy?s Actions, October 23, 1962 4.11: Khrushchev Offers a Deal, October 26, 1962 4.12: A Second Letter Makes a New Demand, October 27, 1962 4.13: The Back Channel, October 27, 1962 4.14: The Formal Exchange of Letters, October 2627, 1962 4.15: Speech at American University, June 10, 1963 4.16: ?Ich bin ein Berliner,? June 26, 1963 @CT:5. Lyndon Johnson: The Credibility Gap @H1:Crisis Management @H1:Enduring Challenges @H1:The Vietnam War @H1:Tet @H1: Conclusion Notes Documents 5.1: ?I Thought it was a Conspiracy,? President Lyndon Johnson Recalls the Day He Became President, November 22, 1963 5.2: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, July 1, 1968 5.3: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, August 7, 1964 5.4: Chairman Mao?s View of the War in Vietnam, October 5, 1964 5.5: Why We Fight: a Defense Planner?s Analysis of U.S. War Aims, November 29, 1964 5.6: Why We Fight, the View from the Other Side, March 30, 1965, and April 2, 1965 5.7: A Mekong River TVA: President Lyndon Johnson?s Speech at Johns Hopkins University, April 7, 1965 5.8: Walking a Tightrope in Vietnam, Notes of the 553rd meeting of the National Security Council, July 27, 1965 5.9: Hawks, Doves, and Vietnam, 1973 5.10: Public Opinion Supporting the Vietnam War, May 1965May 1971 5.11: The Federal Bureau of Investigation Sees a ?Grim? Outlook for the Summer, May 23, 1967 5.12: The Mansfield Resolution, October 25, 1967 5.13: General Earl Wheeler, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Raises the Nuclear Issue with Combatant Commanders in Vietnam, February 1, 1968. 5.14: Telegram, ?FRACTURE JAW,? Admiral Alexander Sharp, Commander in Chief, Pacific Command, to General Earle Wheeler, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Nuclear Planning Is Under Way, February 2, 1968 5.15: National Security Advisor Walt Rostow?s Memo to President Lyndon Johnson concerning the ?Nuclear Issue,? February 2, 1968 5.16: National Security Advisor Walt Rostow?s Mea Culpa: He Had Not Meant to Set in Motion Formal Staff Work for a Nuclear Contingency, February 3, 1968 5.17: President Lyndon Johnson?s Press Conference, February 16, 1968 5.18: The President?s Team Considers General Westmoreland?s Request for 200,000 Additional Troops, March 26, 1968 5.19: The President Prepares his Generals to Brief the ?Wise Men,? March 26, 1968 5.20: President Lyndon Johnson Announces a Unilateral Bombing Halt, and Withdraws from the Presidential Election, March 31, 1968 @CT:6: Richard Nixon: D?tente and the China Card @H1:A Secret Plan @H1:A Secret War @H1:The War at Home @H1:The Opening to China @H1:D?tente @H1:?Peace with Honor? @H1:The Imperial Presidency Notes Documents 6.1: President Richard M. Nixon Asks the Support of the ?Silent Majority? for ?Vietnamization,? Address to the Nation, November 3, 1969 6.2: President Richard M. Nixon?s Address to the Nation on the Cambodian Incursion, April 30, 1970 6.3: The Supreme Court?s Per Curiam Opinion on the Pentagon Papers Case, June 30, 1971 6.4: The Cooper-Church Amendment to the Foreign Military Sales Act, June 29, 1970 6.5: President Richard Nixon Tells National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger to ?Get the Hell Out? of Vietnam and Hope for the Best, Oval Office Conversation, March 11, 1971 6.6: President Richard M. Nixon and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger Discuss the Fate of Vietnam and the 1972 Election Campaign, Telephone Conversation, March 19, 1971 6.7: President Richard Nixon and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger Discuss Diversionary Benefits of a China Opening, April 14, 1971 6.8: National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger Spells Out U. S. Aims in Vietnam for the Chinese, Excerpt from Kissinger?s Briefing Book, July 1971 6.9: Chairman Mao Zedong Lays the Groundwork for Rapprochement, Biographical Excerpt, April 4, 1971 6.10: ?Ping Pong Diplomacy,? New York Times Editorial, April 10, 1971 6.11: Deputy National Security Assistant Alexander Haig Offers U.S. Intelligence on Soviet Threat to the People?s Republic of China and Lobbies Prime Minister Chou En- Lai to Help Make the President?s Visit a Success, Memorandum of Conversation, January 3, 1972 6.12: Chairman Mao Zedong Likens U.S. Diplomatic Moves to ?a Cat Feeling Sad for a Mouse,? Conversation with Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, January 4, 1972 6.13: The Shanghai Communiqu?, Joint Statement, February 27, 1972 6.14: ?Additional Measures to Expose Imperialist Policies,? Document Produced by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, January 21, 1971 6.15: Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin, September 3, 1971 6.16: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) Interim Agreement, May 26, 1972 6.17: Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems, May 26, 1972 6.18: Senator Henry ?Scoop? Jackson Proposes to Amend United States/Soviet Trade Bill, October 4, 1972 6.19: President Richard Nixon Announces the End of the (American) War in Vietnam, Televised Address, January 23, 1973 6.20: The War Powers Resolution, November 7, 1973 6.21: President Richard Nixon Discusses the Arab-Israeli War Amidst the Impeachment Crisis, News Conference, October 26, 1973 6.22: Former President Richard Nixon Speaks on Presidential Power, May 9, 1977 @CT:7: Gerald Ford: The Caretaker President @H1:The President Stumbles @H1:D?tente @H1:Proxy Wars, Large and Small @H1:Congress Resurgent @H1:A Farewell to Arms? @H1:The Final Slip Notes Documents 7.1: Helsinki Accord, Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe, August 1, 1975 7.2: ?Ominous Developments in Vietnam,? NSC Staffer William L. Stearman?s Memorandum to Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, March 12, 1975 7.3: President Gerald Ford Answers Questions about Defeat in Vietnam, Interview with Walter Cronkite, Eric Sevareid, and Bob Schieffer of CBS News, April 21, 1975 7.4: President Gerald Ford Breaks Free of Vietnam (and Henry Kissinger), Address at Tulane University, April 23, 1975 7.5: President Gerald Ford Announces the End of the American War in Vietnam, April 29, 1975 7.6: U.S. Congress Reveals CIA Cold War Assassination Plots, Church Committee Interim Report, November 11, 1975 7.7: Summary of CIA Plots Against Cuban President Fidel Castro, 19601965 7.8: The Church Committee Report on Internal Intelligence and the Rights of Americans in the Cold War, April 26, 1976 7.9: President Gerald Ford?s Executive Order 11905 Prohibiting U.S. Participation in Assassination, February 18, 1976 7.10: President Gerald Ford Answers Questions about the Battle for the Mayaguez, April 1976 7.11: Intelligence Community Experiment in Competitive Analysis, Soviet Strategic Objectives: An Alternate View (Report of Team ?B?), December 1, 1976 7.12: President Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter Debate the Status of Eastern Europe, the Second Presidential Debate, October 6, 1976 @CT:8: Jimmy Carter: Human Rights and a Mid-Course Reversal @H1:Human Rights @H1:Arms Control and Deterrence @H1:A ?Killer Rabbit? and a ?Peacock Throne? @H1:Afghanistan @H1:Presidential Ineptitude and Cold War Menace Notes Documents 8.1: President Jimmy Carter Telegrams his Support to Andrei Sakharov, February 6, 1977 8.2: President Jimmy Carter Advocates a Foreign Policy to Promote Human Rights, Commencement Address at the University of Notre Dame, May 22, 1977 8.3: President Jimmy Carter?s Speech at the United States Naval Academy, June 7, 1978 8.4: President Jimmy Carter?s New Year?s Greetings to the People?s Republic of China, January 1, 1979 8.5: SALT II Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on Arms Limitations, June 18, 1979 8.6: NATO Agrees to Deploy Cruise Missiles at Special Meeting of Foreign and Defense Ministers, December 12, 1979 8.7: Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin and Afghan Prime Minister Nur Mohammed Taraki Discuss Islamic Rebellion and Soviet Intervention in Afghanistan, March 17 or 18, 1979 8.8: President Jimmy Carter?s Personal Reaction to the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, ABC News Interview, December 31, 1979 8.9: President Jimmy Carter?s State of the Union Address, January 21, 1980 8.10: Report to the Central Committee, Communist Party of the Soviet Union on the Situation in Afghanistan, January 27, 1980 8.11: President Jimmy Carter Condemns the Banishment of Andrei Sakharov, January 23, 1980 8.12: KGB Chairman Yuri Andropov Analyzes the Western Response to Andrei Sakharov?s Punishment, Report to the Central Committee of the Communist Party, January 24, 1980 8.13: President Jimmy Carter Defends His Decision to Resume Selective Service Registration in a Question-and-Answer Session with Student Leaders, February 15, 1980 8.14: Army Chief of Staff General Edward Meyer Declares U.S. Has a ?Hollow Army,? Congressional Hearing, May 29, 1980 8.15: President Jimmy Carter and Governor Ronald Reagan?s Presidential Debate, October 28, 1980 @CT:9: Ronald Reagan: Reviving the Cold War and the Presidency @H1:Rebels, Dissidents, and Allies: The Building Blocks of a New Cold War Assertiveness @H1:Confrontation @H1:?Star Wars? and an Arms Buildup @H1:The Freeze Movement and a Desire to Improve Superpower Relations @H1:The Use of Force @H1:Second Term?Second Chances @H1:Conclusion Notes Documents Document 9.1: President Ronald Reagan Approves Covert Action to Overthrow a Communist Government in Latin America, December 1, 1981 Document 9.2: A Cold-War Christmas, President Ronald Reagan Responds to the Imposition of Martial Law in Poland, December 23, 1981 Document 9.3: America?s NATO Allies Condemn the Soviet-Directed Crackdown in Poland, but Decline to Join a US Embargo against the Soviet Union, NATO Ministerial Communiqu?, January 11, 1982 Document 9.4: NATO and Warsaw Pact Force Comparisons, 1982-1983 Document 9.5: The Reagan Administration?s National Security Strategy, National Security Decision Directive 32, May 20, 1982 Document 9.6: President Ronald Reagan Proclaims before the British Parliament that Communism will be Placed on the ?Ash Heap of History,? June 8, 1982 Document 9.7: The Reagan Administration Puts Forth a Long-Range Plan for Confronting the Soviet Union, National Security Decision Directive 75, January 17, 1983 Document 9.8: President Ronald Reagan attests that the Soviet Union is the Focus of Evil in the World, March 8, 1983 Document 9.9: President Ronald Reagan Announces the Strategic Defense Initiative, or ?Star Wars,? Program, March 23, 1983 Document 9.10: The House of Representatives Passes a Nuclear Freeze Resolution, H.J. Res. 13, May 4, 1983 Document 9.11: President Ronald Reagan?s Address to the Nation and Other Countries on United States-Soviet Relations, January 16, 1984 Document 9.12: Secretary of Defense Casper Weinberger Announces a Restrictive Doctrine on the Use of Force, November 28, 1984 Document 9.13: President Ronald Reagan Acknowledges Fault in the Iran-Contra Affair, March 4, 1987 Document 9.14: ?Mr. Gorbachev: Tear Down This Wall!? President Ronald Reagan Makes a Prescient Rhetorical Demand in Berlin June 12 1987 Document 9.15: The Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty, December 8, 1987 Document 9.16: Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev Implicitly Renounces the Use of Force to Retain the Soviet?s Hold on Eastern Europe, December 7, 1988 @CT:10: George Bush: Caution in the Face of Victory @H1:Order, Prudence, and a Red, White, and Blue Campaign @H1:A Policy of Caution @H1:?Awkward and Uncomfortable:? The Fall of the Berlin Wall @H1:German Reunification and Brief Soviet-American Condominium of Powers @H1:Baltic Independence and the End of the Soviet Union @H1:Conclusion Documents Document 10.1: Soviet Leaders Discuss their National Economic Crisis, and Speculate on the Policies of the Incoming President, George Bush, December 27-28, 1988 Document 10.2: National Security Directive 23, United States Relations with the Soviet Union, September 22, 1989 Document 10.3: President George Bush and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl Discuss Events in Eastern Europe, October 23, 1989 Document 10.4: Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev Advises East German President Egon Krenz on How to Manage the Crisis in Communist Germany, November 1, 1989 Document 10.5: Senior Communist Party Member A.S. Chernyaev Reflects on the Fall of the Wall, November 10, 1989 Document 10.6: President George Bush and Soviet Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev Meet the Press after an Informal Summit off the Coast of Malta, December 3, 1989 Document 10.7: The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), July 31, 1991 Document 10.8: President George Bush?s Address to the Nation on the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, December 25, 1991 Document 10.9: ?By the Grace of God, America Won the Cold War,? President George Bush?s State of the Union Address, January 28, 1992 @CT:11: Aftermath: Legacies of a Fifty-Years War @H1:A Post-Cold War President @H1:The End of Another Era? Documents Document 11.1: The National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February 1995 Document 11.2: Joint Statement by President George W. Bush and President Vladimir V. Putin on a New Relationship Between the United States and Russia, November 13, 2001 Selected Bibliography Appendix A: Notable Figures of the Cold War Appendix B: Key Events in the Cold War
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Presidents -- United States -- History -- 20th century -- Sources.
United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1989 -- Sources.
United States -- Politics and government -- 1945-1989 -- Sources.
Cold War -- Sources.