Table of contents for Digital electronics : principles & applications / Roger Tokheim.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
 
Contents 
Contents iii
Editor?s Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi 
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
.vii 
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii 
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
.ix 
Chapter 1 Digital Electronics 1 
1-1	What Is a Digital Circuit? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
1-2	Where Are Digital Circuits Used? . . . . . . . . . .4
1-3	Why Use Digital Circuits? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
1-4	How Do You Generate a Digital Signal? . . . .12 
1-5	How Do You Test for a Digital Signal? . . . . .18 
Chapter 2 Numbers We Use in Digital Electronics 25 
2-1 Counting in Decimal and Binary . . . . . . . . . .25 
2-2 Place Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 
2-3 Binary to Decimal Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . .28 
2-4 Decimal to Binary Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . .28 
2-5 Electronic Translators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 
2-6 Hexadecimal Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 
2-7 Octal Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 
2-8 Bits, Bytes, Nibbles, and Word Size . . . . . . .34 
Chapter 3 Logic Gates
3-1 The AND Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 
3-2 The OR Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 
3-3 The Inverter and Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 
3-4 The NAND Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 
3-5 The NOR Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 
3-6 The Exclusive OR Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 
3-7 The Exclusive NOR Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 
3-8 The NAND Gate as a Universal Gate . . . . . . .51 
3-9 Gates with More Than Two Inputs . . . . . . . . .52 
3-10 Using Inverters to Convert Gates . . . . . . . . . .54 
3-11 Practical TTL Logic Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 
3-12 Practical CMOS Logic Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 
3-13 Troubleshooting Simple Gate Circuits . . . . . .62 
3-14 IEEE Logic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 
3-15 Simple Logic Gate Applications . . . . . . . . . .66 
Chapter 4 Combining Logic Gates 77 
4-1 Constructing Circuits from Boolean 
 	Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 
4-2 Drawing a Circuit from a Maxterm 
 Boolean Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 
4-3 Truth Tables and Boolean Expressions . . . . . .80 
4-4 Sample Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 
4-5 Simplifying Boolean Expressions . . . . . . . . .84 
4-6 Karnaugh Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 
4-7 Karnaugh Maps with Three Variables . . . . . .86 
4-8 Karnaugh Maps with Four Variables . . . . . . .88 
4-9 More Karnaugh Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 
4-10 A Five-Variable Karnaugh Map . . . . . . . . . . .90 
4-11 Using NAND Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 
4-12 Computer Simulations-Logic Converter . . . . .93 
4-13 Solving Logic Problems?Data
 Selectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 
4-14 More Data Selector Problems . . . . . . . . . . .100 
4-15 Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) . . . . .102 
4-16 Using DeMorgan?s Theorems . . . . . . . . . . .111 
Chapter 5 IC Specifications and 
Simple Interfacing 125
5-1 Logic Levels and Noise Margin . . . . . . . . . .126 
5-2 Other Digital IC Specifications . . . . . . . . . .129 
5-3 MOS and CMOS ICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 
5-4 Interfacing TTL and CMOS with 
 Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 
5-5 Interfacing TTL and CMOS with 
 LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 
5-6 Interfacing TTL and CMOS ICs . . . . . . . . .144 
5-7 Interfacing with Buzzers, Relays,
 Motors, and Solenoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 
5-8 Optoisolators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 
5-9 Interfacing with Servo- and
 Stepper-Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 
5-10 Using Hall-Effect Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 
5-11 Troubleshooting Simple Logic 
Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 
 
Chapter 6 Encoding, Decoding, and Seven-Segment Displays 177 
6-1 The 8421 BCD Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 
6-2 The Excess-3 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 
6-3 The Gray Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 
6-4 The ASCII Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 
6-5 Encoders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 
6-6 Seven-Segment LED Displays . . . . . . . . . . .184 
6-7 Decoders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 
6-8 BCD-to-Seven-Segment Decoder/Drivers . .188 6-9 Liquid-Crystal Displays . . 
. . . . . . . . . . . 
. . .192 
6-10 Using CMOS to Drive an LCD . . . . . . . . . .197 
6-11 Vacuum Fluorescent Displays . . . . . . . . . . .200 
6-12 Driving a VF Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203 
6-13 Troubleshooting a Decoding Circuit . . . . . .206 
Chapter 7 Flip-Flops 215 
7-1 The R-S Flip Flop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 
7-2 The Clocked R-S Flip-Flop . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 
7-3 The D Flip-Flop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220 
7-4 The J-K Flip-Flop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221 
7-5 IC Latches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 
7-6 Triggering Flip-Flops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 
7-7 Schmitt Triggered Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 
7-8 IEEE Logic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231 
Chapter 8 Counters 237 
8-1 Ripple Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237 
8-2 Mod-10 Ripple Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239 
8-3 Synchronous Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240 
8-4 Down Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242 
8-5 Self-Stopping Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244 
8-6 Counters as Frequency Dividers . . . . . . . . .244 
8-7 TTL IC Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246 
8-8 CMOS IC Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251 
8-9 A 3-Digit BCD Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255 
8-10 Counting Real-World Events . . . . . . . . . . . .258 
8-11 Using a CMOS Counter in an
 Electric Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262 
8-12 Using Counters-An Experimental 
 Tachometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 
8-13 Troubleshooting a Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 
Chapter 9 Shift Registers 279
9-1 Serial Load Shift Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 
9-2 Parallel Load Shift Registers . . . . . . . . . . . .283 
9-3 A Universal Shift Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285 
9-4 Using the 74194 IC Shift Register . . . . . . . .287 
9-5 An 8-Bit CMOS Shift Register . . . . . . . . . .290 
9-6 Using Shift Registers?Digital
 Roulette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292 
9-7 Troubleshooting a Simple Shift
Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 
Chapter 10 Arithmetic Circuits 303 
10-1 Binary Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303 
10-2 Half Adders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305 
10-3 Full Adders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306 
10-4 Three-Bit Adders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308 
10-5 Binary Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309 
10-6 Parallel Subtractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311 
10-7 IC Adders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313 
10-8 Binary Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 
10-9 Binary Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318 
10-10 2s Complement Notation, Addition, and 
 Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321 
10-11 2s Complement Adders/Subtractor . . . . . . . .326 
10-12 Troubleshooting a Full Adder . . . . . . . . . . .328 
Chapter 11 Memories 333 
11-1 Overview of Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334 
11-2 Random-Access Memory (RAM) . . . . . . . .337 
11-3 Static RAM ICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339 
11-4 Using a SRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342 
11-5 Read-Only Memory (ROM) . . . . . . . . . . . . .344 
11-6 Using a ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347 
11-7 Programmable Read-Only Memory 
 (PROM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349 
11-8 Nonvolatile Read/Write Memory . . . . . . . . .352 
11-9 Memory Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355 
11-10 Computer Bulk Storage Devices . . . . . . . . .357 
11-11 Digital Potentiometer?Using
NV Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364 
Chapter 12 Digital Systems 373 
12-1 Elements of a System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .374 
12-2 A Digital System of an IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . .374 
12-3 The Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375 
12-4 The Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378 
12-5 The Microcomputer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380 
12-6 Microcomputer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383 
12-7 Microcomputer Address Decoding . . . . . . . .386 
12-8 Digital Signal Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389 
12-9 Data Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392 
12-10 Detecting Errors in Data Transmissions . . . .396 
12-11 Adder/Subtractor System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398 
12-12 The Digital Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401 
12-13 The LSI Digital Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404 
12-14 A Practical LSI Digital Clock System . . . . .407 
12-15 The Frequency Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412 
12-16 An Experimental Frequency Counter . . . . . .416 
12-17 LCD Timer with Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 
12-18 Electronic Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425 
12-19 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) . . .430 
12-20 Microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434 
12-21 The BASIC Stamp? Microcontroller
 Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .439 
12-22 JTAG/Boundary-Scan Technology . . . . . . . .446 
Chapter 13 Connecting with Analog Devices 459 
13-1 D/A Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460 
13-2 Operational Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461 
13-3 A Basic D/A Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462 
13-4 Ladder-Type D/A Converters . . . . . . . . . . . .464 
13-5 An A/D Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .466 
13-6 Voltage Comparators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468 
13-7 An Elementary Digital Voltmeter . . . . . . . . .470 
13-8 Other A/D Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473 
13-9 A/D Converter Specifications . . . . . . . . . . .476 
13-10 An A/D Converter IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477 
13-11 Digital Light Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .480 
13-12 Digitizing Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483 
13-13 Digital Voltmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484 
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493 
Appendix A Solder and the Soldering Process . . . .505 
Appendix B Formulas and Conversions . . . . . . . . .510 
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
.511 
 
 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Digital electronics -- Textbooks.