Table of contents for Drilling engineering / J.J. Azar, G. Robello Samuel.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
1 Rotary Drilling for Oil and Natural Gas
Introduction
The Process of Rotary Drilling
	Force
	Drill bit rotation
	Drilling-fluid circulation
Rotary Drilling Rigs
Rig Selection 
Rotary Drilling Systems
	Hoisting system
Fluid circulating system
Mud System Evaluation 
Volume requirements 
Mixing systems
Solids control needs
Mud pumps
Air compressors
High-pressure surface connections
Mud pits
Drill bit
Rotary System
	Rotary power requirements
	Top-drive rotation
Well Control System
Blowout preventer stackData Acquisition and Monitoring System
Special Systems for Offshore Drilling
	Riser system and components
Motion compensation system
	Supplementary Problems
	Nomenclature
2 Drilling Fluids
Characteristics of a Drilling Fluid
	Definition
	Functions
	Additional benefits	
Drilling-Fluid Selection
Criteria
	Further considerations
Classification of Drilling Fluids
	Pneumatic drilling fluids
	Liquid drilling fluids
Water-Based Drilling-Mud Contaminants
	Salt and saltwater
	High solids
	Anhydrite (gypsum)
	Cement
Drilling-Mud Properties, Field Tests, and Control
	Viscosity
	Density (mud weight)
	Fluid loss
	Alkalinity (Mf and Pf)
	pH
	Methylene blue test (cation exchange capacity)
	Sand content
	Chlorides
	Total hardness
	Solids content
	Aniline point
	Mud viscosity	
Mud Rheology
	Definitions
	Field measurements of viscosity
	Measurement of solids	
Drilling-Mud Additives
	Bentonite
	Attapulgite
	Polymers
	Phosphates
	Tannates
	Lignites
	Lignosulfonates
	Sodium polyacrylates
	Barite
	Iron oxide
	Calcium carbonate
	Dissolved salts
Supplementary Problems
Nomenclature	
 	
3 Fluid Flow and Associated Pressures in the Rotary Rig Circulating System
Introduction
	Drill bit hydraulic program design
	Pressure changes during tripping and casing operations
	Pressure changes during drilling
Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance	
Pressure Drop across the Bit Nozzles (Jets)	
Friction Pressure Losses in the Rotary Rig Circulating System	
Friction Pressure Losses in Pipes and Annuli; Laminar Flow
	Newtonian fluid
	Bingham fluid
	Power law fluid
	Yield power law fluid
Friction Pressure Losses in Pipes and Annuli; Turbulent Flow	
Equivalent Newtonian Viscosity	
Turbulent Pipe Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids	
Turbulent Annular Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids	
Annular Friction Pressure Losses Due to Pipe Movement	
Swab/Surge Pressure Calculations	
Supplementary Problems
Nomenclature	
References
4 Drill Bit Hydraulics
Introduction	
Pump Pressure Requirement in Rotary Drilling	
Hydraulic Power Requirement
Flow Exponent (_)	
Maximum Bit Hydraulic Horsepower Criterion	
Maximum Jet Impact Force Criterion	
Supplementary Problems
Nomenclature	
References	
5 Transport of Drilled Cuttings
Introduction	
Factors That Affect the Transport of Drilling-Fluid Cuttings
	Cuttings slip velocity
	Annular fluid velocity
	Flow regime and regime of particle slippage
	Velocity distribution profile in laminar flow as a result of mud 
rheological properties
	Velocity distribution profile as a result of eccentricity and 
ratio of outside to inside pipe diameter
	Solid/liquid flow in inclined annuli
	Drilling rate
	Rotary speed
	Rheological properties of flowing fluid	
Cuttings Transport in Vertical Well Drilling
	Chien correlation
	Moore correlation
	Walker and Mayes correlation
	Effect of mud rheology on cuttings transport in vertical wells	
Cuttings Transport in Directional Well Drilling
	Effect of mud rheology
	Effect of eccentricity
	Effect of mud weight
	Effect of size of drilled cuttings
	Effect of drilling rate
	Effect of pipe rotation	
Empirical Correlations for Cuttings Transport in High-Angle Wells (_ > 
50_)	
Supplementary Problems
Nomenclature	
 References	
6 Prevention and Control Mechanics of Well Blowouts
Introduction	
Kick Causes
	Lost circulation
	Improper tripping-out practices
	Inadequate drilling-mud weight
	Gas-cut mud	
Kick Detection
	Sudden increase of mud returning to the surface
	Sudden increase in drilling rate
	Sudden decrease in circulating standpipe pressure
	Less than normal hole refilling during tripping out	
Kick Prevention	
Fundamentals of Well Control
	Well control methods; an introduction	
	Well control safety
	Well control equipment
Well control system
	Ram preventers
	Annular preventers
	Drilling spools
	Casing head
	Diverter system
	Choke/kill lines (flow lines)
	Choke manifold
	Buffer tanks
	Degassers
	Pit-level systems
	Flow-line monitors
	Trip tanks
	Fill lines
	Internal preventer
	Kelly cock preventers
	Gas detectors
	BOP stack arrangement	
Well Control and Blowout Prevention: Important Elements in Kick 
Control
Principles of Well Control
	Recording of shut-in drill pipe pressure, Psidp, and shut-in 
casing pressure, Psic
	Calculation of encountered formation fluid pressure, Pff
	Determination of the bottom-hole pressure, Pbh, that needs to 
be maintained constant during well control operations
	Calculation of mud weight required in order to bring the well 
under control
	Determination of kick fluid type	
	Determination of circulating drill pipe pressure (pump 
pressure schedule) during kick control
	Calculation of annular pressure during well control
Well Control Procedures: Kick Control with Drill Bit on Bottom of Hole
Commonly Used Well Control Methods
	Driller's method
	Wait-and-weight method
	Volumetric method
	Concurrent method
	Other methods of well control
Nonconventional Kick Situations
	Kick occurrence in horizontal wells
	Offshore drilling using mobile rig units	
Supplementary Problems
Nomenclature
7 Directional and Horizontal Well Drilling
Directional Well Drilling
	Applications of directional well drilling	
	Requirements for directional well drilling
	Directional well profiles	
	Wellbore trajectory design	
	Deflection tools in directional well drilling	
	Survey tools in directional well drilling	
	Wellbore trajectory calculations from survey data	
	
Horizontal Drilling
	Introduction to horizontal drilling
	Applications of horizontal well drilling	
	Methods of horizontal drilling
	Considerations in selection of drilling method	
	
	Planning the drilling operation of a horizontal well	
	Build curve types
	Planning for well trajectory changes
Tortuosity
	Introduction to tortuosity
	Hole spiraling and wellbore oscillation
	Tortuosity methods
	Calibration of tortuosity factors	
Supplementary Problems
Nomenclature	
References	
8 Drill Bit Mechanics
Introduction	
Bit Selection
	Bit run cost equation
	Specific energy equation
	Drill-off test
Types of Drill Bits
	Roller cone drill bits
	Drag drill bits
Classification of Roller Cone Drill Bits
Drill Bit Operating Parameters
Grading of dull drill bits
	Roller cone drill bit grading system
Classification of Drag Drill Bits
	Definitions
	PDC drill bits
	Drag drill bit wear modes
	TSP drill bits
	Diamond matrix drill bits
Rock Mechanics
	Rock failure
	Failure envelope
	Pore pressure effects
	Bottom-hole stress evaluation
	Effect of local stress on drilling rate
	Effect of hydraulics and mud on drilling rate
	Effect of effeciency of cuttings removal on drilling rate
	Effects of global cleaning on drilling rate
Performance Mechanics: Torque Estimation for Tri-cone Roller Cone 
Drill Bits
Performance Mechanics of Drag Drill Bits
	PDC drill bit design
	Bit balling
	Bit wear
	Effect of wear on bit performance
Supplementary Problems
Nomenclature	
References	
9 Drill String Design
Definition and Components
	Drill pipe
	Drill collar
Design Criteria
	Static loads
	Required length of drill pipe
	Margin of overpull
	Collapse check
	Torque and dragBuckling of the Drill String
Fatigue
Drilling Vibration
	Vibration mechanisms
	Vibration detection
BHA Design for Directional Drilling
	Design principles: Bit side force and bit tilt
	Rotary assemblies
	Building assemblies: The fulcrum principle
	Holding assemblies: Packed hole
	Dropping assemblies: The pendulum principle
Deviation Tools
	Steerable motor assemblies (or PDMs)
	Rotary steerable systems
	Adjustable-gauge stabilizers
	Whipstocks
	Turbines
	Jetting bits
Supplementary Problems
Nomenclature	
References	
10 Drilling Problems and Solutions
Introduction
Pipe Sticking
	Definition
	Differential pressure pipe sticking
	Mechanical pipe sticking
Loss of Circulation
	Definition
	Lost circulation zones and causes
	Prevention of lost circulation
	Remedial measures
Hole Deviation
	Definition
	Causes
Drill Pipe Failures
	Twist off
	Parting
	Collapse and burst
	Fatigue
	Pipe failure prevention	
Borehole Instability
	Definition and causes
	Problems associated with borehole instabilities
	Principles of borehole instability
	Mechanical rock failure mechanisms
	Wellbore stability analysis
	Borehole instability prevention	
Mud Contamination
	Definition
	Common contaminants; sources and treatments
Producing-Formation Damage
	Definition
	Borehole fluids
	Damage mechanisms
Hole Cleaning
	Introduction to hole cleaning
	Factors affecting hole cleaning
Hydrogen Sulfide/Bearing Zones and Shallow Gas
Equipment- and Personnel-Related Problems
	Equipment
	Personnel
Supplementary Problems	
Nomenclature
References
11 Casing and Cementing Design
Drilling the Pay: Selecting the Interval and the Initial Design
Initial Completion Design
	Selecting the pay zone
	Special considerations
	Completion yypes
Casing Design
	Description of casing strings
	Casing clearance
	Casing connections
	Weights and grades of casing
Safety factors in casing design 
Load description
Design of the casing string; API method
Buoyancy
Collapse design; non-API method
Running casing
Design of the casing string; deviated wells
Liner design
Cementing
	Cement density
	Fluid loss
	Factors affecting cement
	Excess volume
	Cementing design
Primary cementing
Application
Cement mixing
Cementing calculations
Squeeze cementing
Liner cementing
Supplementary Problems
Nomenclature
References	
12 Well Planning in Drilling Engineering
Introduction
Objectives
Information Needed for Effective Well Planning
Responsibilities of the Drilling Engineer	
Considerations in Well Planning 
The Drilling Program
	Planning the drilling program
	Updating the drilling program
Post-well Analysis
Well Cost Estimation
	Bit performance
	Time estimates	
Learning Curve	
Cost Control in Well Drilling
	Time Value of Money
	Price Elasticity
	Supplementary Problems	
References
Bibliography
 Index
Section II: General Abbreviations and Acronyms

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Oil well drilling.
Gas well drilling.