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Contents Preface Acknowledgments 1 Rotary Drilling for Oil and Natural Gas Introduction The Process of Rotary Drilling Force Drill bit rotation Drilling-fluid circulation Rotary Drilling Rigs Rig Selection Rotary Drilling Systems Hoisting system Fluid circulating system Mud System Evaluation Volume requirements Mixing systems Solids control needs Mud pumps Air compressors High-pressure surface connections Mud pits Drill bit Rotary System Rotary power requirements Top-drive rotation Well Control System Blowout preventer stackData Acquisition and Monitoring System Special Systems for Offshore Drilling Riser system and components Motion compensation system Supplementary Problems Nomenclature 2 Drilling Fluids Characteristics of a Drilling Fluid Definition Functions Additional benefits Drilling-Fluid Selection Criteria Further considerations Classification of Drilling Fluids Pneumatic drilling fluids Liquid drilling fluids Water-Based Drilling-Mud Contaminants Salt and saltwater High solids Anhydrite (gypsum) Cement Drilling-Mud Properties, Field Tests, and Control Viscosity Density (mud weight) Fluid loss Alkalinity (Mf and Pf) pH Methylene blue test (cation exchange capacity) Sand content Chlorides Total hardness Solids content Aniline point Mud viscosity Mud Rheology Definitions Field measurements of viscosity Measurement of solids Drilling-Mud Additives Bentonite Attapulgite Polymers Phosphates Tannates Lignites Lignosulfonates Sodium polyacrylates Barite Iron oxide Calcium carbonate Dissolved salts Supplementary Problems Nomenclature 3 Fluid Flow and Associated Pressures in the Rotary Rig Circulating System Introduction Drill bit hydraulic program design Pressure changes during tripping and casing operations Pressure changes during drilling Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance Pressure Drop across the Bit Nozzles (Jets) Friction Pressure Losses in the Rotary Rig Circulating System Friction Pressure Losses in Pipes and Annuli; Laminar Flow Newtonian fluid Bingham fluid Power law fluid Yield power law fluid Friction Pressure Losses in Pipes and Annuli; Turbulent Flow Equivalent Newtonian Viscosity Turbulent Pipe Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids Turbulent Annular Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids Annular Friction Pressure Losses Due to Pipe Movement Swab/Surge Pressure Calculations Supplementary Problems Nomenclature References 4 Drill Bit Hydraulics Introduction Pump Pressure Requirement in Rotary Drilling Hydraulic Power Requirement Flow Exponent (_) Maximum Bit Hydraulic Horsepower Criterion Maximum Jet Impact Force Criterion Supplementary Problems Nomenclature References 5 Transport of Drilled Cuttings Introduction Factors That Affect the Transport of Drilling-Fluid Cuttings Cuttings slip velocity Annular fluid velocity Flow regime and regime of particle slippage Velocity distribution profile in laminar flow as a result of mud rheological properties Velocity distribution profile as a result of eccentricity and ratio of outside to inside pipe diameter Solid/liquid flow in inclined annuli Drilling rate Rotary speed Rheological properties of flowing fluid Cuttings Transport in Vertical Well Drilling Chien correlation Moore correlation Walker and Mayes correlation Effect of mud rheology on cuttings transport in vertical wells Cuttings Transport in Directional Well Drilling Effect of mud rheology Effect of eccentricity Effect of mud weight Effect of size of drilled cuttings Effect of drilling rate Effect of pipe rotation Empirical Correlations for Cuttings Transport in High-Angle Wells (_ > 50_) Supplementary Problems Nomenclature References 6 Prevention and Control Mechanics of Well Blowouts Introduction Kick Causes Lost circulation Improper tripping-out practices Inadequate drilling-mud weight Gas-cut mud Kick Detection Sudden increase of mud returning to the surface Sudden increase in drilling rate Sudden decrease in circulating standpipe pressure Less than normal hole refilling during tripping out Kick Prevention Fundamentals of Well Control Well control methods; an introduction Well control safety Well control equipment Well control system Ram preventers Annular preventers Drilling spools Casing head Diverter system Choke/kill lines (flow lines) Choke manifold Buffer tanks Degassers Pit-level systems Flow-line monitors Trip tanks Fill lines Internal preventer Kelly cock preventers Gas detectors BOP stack arrangement Well Control and Blowout Prevention: Important Elements in Kick Control Principles of Well Control Recording of shut-in drill pipe pressure, Psidp, and shut-in casing pressure, Psic Calculation of encountered formation fluid pressure, Pff Determination of the bottom-hole pressure, Pbh, that needs to be maintained constant during well control operations Calculation of mud weight required in order to bring the well under control Determination of kick fluid type Determination of circulating drill pipe pressure (pump pressure schedule) during kick control Calculation of annular pressure during well control Well Control Procedures: Kick Control with Drill Bit on Bottom of Hole Commonly Used Well Control Methods Driller's method Wait-and-weight method Volumetric method Concurrent method Other methods of well control Nonconventional Kick Situations Kick occurrence in horizontal wells Offshore drilling using mobile rig units Supplementary Problems Nomenclature 7 Directional and Horizontal Well Drilling Directional Well Drilling Applications of directional well drilling Requirements for directional well drilling Directional well profiles Wellbore trajectory design Deflection tools in directional well drilling Survey tools in directional well drilling Wellbore trajectory calculations from survey data Horizontal Drilling Introduction to horizontal drilling Applications of horizontal well drilling Methods of horizontal drilling Considerations in selection of drilling method Planning the drilling operation of a horizontal well Build curve types Planning for well trajectory changes Tortuosity Introduction to tortuosity Hole spiraling and wellbore oscillation Tortuosity methods Calibration of tortuosity factors Supplementary Problems Nomenclature References 8 Drill Bit Mechanics Introduction Bit Selection Bit run cost equation Specific energy equation Drill-off test Types of Drill Bits Roller cone drill bits Drag drill bits Classification of Roller Cone Drill Bits Drill Bit Operating Parameters Grading of dull drill bits Roller cone drill bit grading system Classification of Drag Drill Bits Definitions PDC drill bits Drag drill bit wear modes TSP drill bits Diamond matrix drill bits Rock Mechanics Rock failure Failure envelope Pore pressure effects Bottom-hole stress evaluation Effect of local stress on drilling rate Effect of hydraulics and mud on drilling rate Effect of effeciency of cuttings removal on drilling rate Effects of global cleaning on drilling rate Performance Mechanics: Torque Estimation for Tri-cone Roller Cone Drill Bits Performance Mechanics of Drag Drill Bits PDC drill bit design Bit balling Bit wear Effect of wear on bit performance Supplementary Problems Nomenclature References 9 Drill String Design Definition and Components Drill pipe Drill collar Design Criteria Static loads Required length of drill pipe Margin of overpull Collapse check Torque and dragBuckling of the Drill String Fatigue Drilling Vibration Vibration mechanisms Vibration detection BHA Design for Directional Drilling Design principles: Bit side force and bit tilt Rotary assemblies Building assemblies: The fulcrum principle Holding assemblies: Packed hole Dropping assemblies: The pendulum principle Deviation Tools Steerable motor assemblies (or PDMs) Rotary steerable systems Adjustable-gauge stabilizers Whipstocks Turbines Jetting bits Supplementary Problems Nomenclature References 10 Drilling Problems and Solutions Introduction Pipe Sticking Definition Differential pressure pipe sticking Mechanical pipe sticking Loss of Circulation Definition Lost circulation zones and causes Prevention of lost circulation Remedial measures Hole Deviation Definition Causes Drill Pipe Failures Twist off Parting Collapse and burst Fatigue Pipe failure prevention Borehole Instability Definition and causes Problems associated with borehole instabilities Principles of borehole instability Mechanical rock failure mechanisms Wellbore stability analysis Borehole instability prevention Mud Contamination Definition Common contaminants; sources and treatments Producing-Formation Damage Definition Borehole fluids Damage mechanisms Hole Cleaning Introduction to hole cleaning Factors affecting hole cleaning Hydrogen Sulfide/Bearing Zones and Shallow Gas Equipment- and Personnel-Related Problems Equipment Personnel Supplementary Problems Nomenclature References 11 Casing and Cementing Design Drilling the Pay: Selecting the Interval and the Initial Design Initial Completion Design Selecting the pay zone Special considerations Completion yypes Casing Design Description of casing strings Casing clearance Casing connections Weights and grades of casing Safety factors in casing design Load description Design of the casing string; API method Buoyancy Collapse design; non-API method Running casing Design of the casing string; deviated wells Liner design Cementing Cement density Fluid loss Factors affecting cement Excess volume Cementing design Primary cementing Application Cement mixing Cementing calculations Squeeze cementing Liner cementing Supplementary Problems Nomenclature References 12 Well Planning in Drilling Engineering Introduction Objectives Information Needed for Effective Well Planning Responsibilities of the Drilling Engineer Considerations in Well Planning The Drilling Program Planning the drilling program Updating the drilling program Post-well Analysis Well Cost Estimation Bit performance Time estimates Learning Curve Cost Control in Well Drilling Time Value of Money Price Elasticity Supplementary Problems References Bibliography Index Section II: General Abbreviations and Acronyms
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Oil well drilling.
Gas well drilling.