Table of contents for Inquiry into life / Sylvia Mader.

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Brief contents
Part I
Cell Biology 18
2	The Molecules of Cells 19
3	Cell Structure and Function 45
4	Membrane Structure and Function 67
5	Cell Division 81
6	Metabolism: Energy and Enzymes 101
7	Cellular Respiration 115
Part II
Plant Biology 130
8	Photosynthesis 131
 9	Plant Organization and Function 147
10	Plant Reproduction and Responses 175
Part III
Maintenance of the Human Body 196
11	Human Organization 197
12	Cardiovascular System 217
13	Lymphatic and Immune Systems 239
14	Digestive System and Nutrition 259
15	Respiratory System 285
16	Urinary System and Excretion 303
Part IV
Integration and Control of the Human Body 318
17	Nervous System 319
18	Senses 345
19	Musculoskeletal System 367
20	Endocrine System 393
Part V
Continuance of the Species 414
21	Reproductive System 415
22	Development and Aging 441
23	Patterns of Inheritance 467
24	DNA Biology and Technology 485
25	Control of Gene Expression and Cancer 507
26	Genetic Counseling 521
Part VI
Evolution and Diversity 544
27	Evolution of Life 545
28	Microbiology 571
29	Plants 599
30	Animals: Part I 617
31	Animals: Part II 643
Part VII
Behavior and Ecology 668
32	Animal Behavior 669
33	Population Growth and Regulation 685
34	Nature of Ecosystems 703
35	The Biosphere 717
36	Environmental Concerns 739 
Contents
Readings viii
Preface ix
Guided Tour xiv
CHAPTER 1
The Study of Life 1
1.1 The Characteristics of Life 3
1.2 The Classification of Living Things 6
1.3 The Organization of the Biosphere 8
1.4 The Process of Science 10
1.5 Science and Social Responsibility 14
PART I
Cell Biology 18
CHAPTER 2
The Molecules of Cells 19
2.1 Basic Chemistry 20
2.2 Water and Living Things 26
2.3 Organic Molecules 31
2.4 Carbohydrates 32
2.5 Lipids 34
2.6 Proteins 37
2.7 Nucleic Acids 40
CHAPTER 3
Cell Structure and Function 45
3.1 The Cellular Level of Organization 46
3.2 Eukaryotic Cells 49
3.3 Prokaryotic Cells 62
3.4 Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell 63
CHAPTER 4
Membrane Structure and Function 67
4.1 Plasma Membrane Structure and Function 68
4.2 The Permeability of the Plasma Membrane 70
4.3 Diffusion and Osmosis 71
4.4 Transport by Carrier Proteins 74
4.5 Exocytosis and Endocytosis 76
CHAPTER 5
Cell Division 81
5.1 Cell Increase and Decrease 82
5.2 Maintaining the Chromosome Number 85
5.3 Reducing the Chromosome Number 90
5.4 Comparison of Meiosis with Mitosis 95
5.5 The Human Life Cycle 96
CHAPTER 6
Metabolism: Energy and Enzymes 101
6.1 Cells and the Flow of Energy 102
6.2 Metabolic Reactions and Energy Transformations 104
6.3 Metabolic Pathways and Enzymes 106
6.4 Oxidation-Reduction and the Flow of Energy 110
CHAPTER 7
Cellular Respiration 115
7.1 Overview of Cellular Respiration 116
7.2 Outside the Mitochondria: Glycolysis 118
7.3 Inside the Mitochondria 120
7.4 Fermentation 125
7.5 Metabolism 126
PART II
Plant Biology 130
CHAPTER 8
Photosynthesis 131
8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis 132
8.2 Solar Energy Capture 135
8.3 Carbohydrate Synthesis 139
8.4 Other Types of Photosynthesis 142
8.5 Photosynthesis Versus Cellular Respiration 143
CHAPTER 9
Plant Organization and Function 147
9.1 Plant Organs 148
9.2 Plant Tissues 151
9.3 Organization of Leaves 154
9.4 Organization of Stems 156
9.5 Organization of Roots 162
9.6 Uptake and Transport of Nutrients 166
CHAPTER 10
Plant Reproduction and Responses 175
10.1 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 176
10.2 Growth and Development 180
10.3 Asexual Reproduction 185
10.4 Control of Growth and Responses 188
PART III
Maintenance of the 
Human Body 196
CHAPTER 11
Human Organization 197
11.1 Types of Tissues 198
11.2 Body Cavities and Body Membranes 205
11.3 Organ Systems 206
11.4 Homeostasis 210
CHAPTER 12
Cardiovascular System 217
12.1 The Blood Vessels 218
12.2 The Heart 220
12.3 The Vascular Pathways 224
12.4 Blood 227
12.5 Cardiovascular Disorders 233
CHAPTER 13
Lymphatic and Immune Systems 239
13.1 The Lymphatic System 240
13.2 Nonspecific and Specific Defenses 242
13.3 Induced Immunity 250
13.4 Immunity Side Effects 252
CHAPTER 14
Digestive System and Nutrition 259
14.1 The Digestive Tract 260
14.2 Three Accessory Organs 268
14.3 Digestive Enzymes 270
14.4 Nutrition 272
CHAPTER 15
Respiratory System 285
15.1 The Respiratory System 286
15.2 Mechanism of Breathing 291
15.3 Gas Exchanges in the Body 294
15.4 Respiration and Health 296
CHAPTER 16
Urinary System and Excretion 303
16.1 Urinary System 304
16.2 Anatomy of the Kidney and Excretion 306
16.3 Regulatory Functions of the Kidneys 310
16.4 Problems with Kidney Function 313
PART IV
Integration and Control 
of the Human Body 318
CHAPTER 17
Nervous System 319
17.1 Nervous Tissue 320
17.2 The Central Nervous System 326
17.3 The Limbic System and Higher Mental Functions 331
17.4 The Peripheral Nervous System 336
17.5 Drug Abuse 340
CHAPTER 18
Senses 345
18.1 Sensory Receptors and Sensations 346
18.2 Proprioceptors and Cutaneous Receptors 348
18.3 Senses of Taste and Smell 350
18.4 Sense of Vision 352
18.5 Sense of Hearing 360
18.6 Sense of Equilibrium 363
CHAPTER 19
Musculoskeletal System 367
19.1 Anatomy and Physiology of Bone 368
19.2 Bones of the Skeleton 371
19.3 Skeletal Muscles 379
19.4 Mechanism of Muscle Fiber Contraction 382
19.5 Whole Muscle Contraction 387
CHAPTER 20
Endocrine System 393
20.1 Endocrine Glands 394
20.2 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 396
20.3 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 399
20.4 Adrenal Glands 401
20.5 Pancreas 404
20.6 Other Endocrine Glands 406
20.7 Chemical Signals 409
PART V
Continuance of the 
Species 414
CHAPTER 21
Reproductive System 415
21.1 Male Reproductive System 416
21.2 Female Reproductive System 420
21.3 Female Hormone Levels 423
21.4 Control of Reproduction 427
21.5 Sexually Transmitted Diseases 431
CHAPTER 22
Development and Aging 441
22.1 Principles of Animal Development 442
22.2 Human Embryonic and Fetal Development 450
22.3 Human Development After Birth 461
CHAPTER 23
Patterns of Inheritance 467
23.1 Mendel?s Laws 468
23.2 Beyond Simple Inheritance Patterns 476
23.3 Sex-Linked Inheritance 479
23.4 Inheritance of Linked Genes 480
CHAPTER 24
DNA Biology and Technology 485
24.1 DNA Structure and Replication 486
24.2 Gene Expression 490
24.3 DNA Technology 498
CHAPTER 25
Control of Gene Expression 
and Cancer 507
25.1 Control of Gene Expression 508
25.2 Cancer: A Failure of Genetic Control 513
CHAPTER 26
Genetic Counseling 521
26.1 Counseling for Chromosomal Disorders 522
26.2 Counseling for Genetic Disorders: The Present 530
26.3 Counseling for Genetic Disorders: The Future 538
PART VI
Evolution and 
Diversity 544
CHAPTER 27
Evolution of Life 545
27.1 Evidence of Evolution 546
27.2 Origin of Life 552
27.3 Process of Evolution 555
27.4 Speciation 563
27.5 Classification 566
CHAPTER 28
Microbiology 571
28.1 Viruses, Viroids, and Prions 572
28.2 Bacteria and Archaea 577
28.3 Protists 582
28.4 Fungi 589
CHAPTER 29
Plants 599
29.1 Evolutionary History of Plants 600
29.2 Nonvascular Plants 602
29.3 Seedless Vascular Plants 604
29.4 Seed Plants 609
CHAPTER 30
Animals: Part I 617
30.1 Evolutionary Trends Among Animals 618
30.2 Introducing the Invertebrates 621
30.3 Molluscs: Coelomates 629
30.4 Annelids: Segmented Worms 632
30.5 Arthropods: Jointed Appendages 635
CHAPTER 31
Animals: Part II 643
31.1 Echinoderms 644
31.2 Chordates 646
31.3 Vertebrates 649
31.4 Human Evolution 658
PART VII
Behavior and Ecology 668
CHAPTER 32
Animal Behavior 669
32.1 Nature Versus Nurture: Genetic Influences 670
32.2 Nature Versus Nurture: Environmental Influences 672
32.3 Adaptive Mating Behavior 675
32.4 Sociobiology and Animal Behavior 678
32.5 Animal Communication 679
CHAPTER 33
Population Growth and 
Regulation 685
33.1 Scope of Ecology 686
33.2 Patterns of Population Growth 688
33.3 Regulation of Population Growth 694
CHAPTER 34
Nature of Ecosystems 703
34.1 The Biotic Components of Ecosystems 704
34.2 Energy Flow 707
34.3 Global Biogeochemical Cycles 708
CHAPTER 35
The Biosphere 717
35.1 Climate and the Biosphere 718
35.2 Terrestrial Ecosystems 721
35.3 Aquatic Ecosystems 729
CHAPTER 36
Environmental Concerns 739
36.1 Human Use of Resources and Pollution 740
36.2 Impact on Biodiversity 748
36.3 Value of Biodiversity 751
36.4 Working Toward a Sustainable Society 754
APPENDIX A Answer Key A-1
APPENDIX B Classification of Organisms B-1
APPENDIX C Metric System C-1
APPENDIX D Periodic Table of Elements D-1
Glossary G-1 
Credits C-1 
Index I-1
Readings bioethical Focus
Revisiting DDT and Malaria 15
Organic Pollutants 42
Use of Stem Cells 64
Paying for Cancer Treatment 98
Fossil Fuel Energy to Grow Food 112
Alternative Medicines 127
Food for the Human Population 144
Transgenic Crops 193
Organ Transplants 214
Blood Doping 236
Clinical Trials 256
Legislation and Health 282
Bans on Smoking 300
Declaration of Death 342
Personal Responsibility for Health 364
Performance-Enhancing Drugs 390
Fertility Drugs 411
Assisted Reproductive Technologies 438
Maternal Health Habits 464
Designing Children 481
DNA Fingerprinting and the Criminal Justice System 504
Genetic Testing for Cancer Genes 518
Genetic Profiling 541
The Theory of Evolution 568
Bioterrorism 594
Conservation of Coral Reefs 640
Animals in the Laboratory 665
Population Growth in Less-Developed Countries 699
Curtailing Greenhouse Gases 714
Pollution Legislation 736
Conservation Versus Environment 7560 Ecology FocusLegumes 14
The Harm Done by Acid Deposition 30
Why Do Leaves Change Color in the Fall? 110
Tropical Rain Forests 141
Paper: Can We Cut Back? 161
Plants Can Clean Up Toxic Messes 165
Pollinators and You 184
Photochemical Smog Can Kill 290
Endocrine-Disrupting Contaminants 429
Plants: Could We Do Without Them? 614
Ozone Shield Depletion 713
Wildlife Conservation and DNA 724
El Niño?Southern Oscillation 733Y: Health FocusA Balanced Diet 36
Skin Cancer on the Rise 213
Prevention of Cardiovascular 
Disease 235
Opportunistic Infections and HIV 249
Immediate Allergic Responses 253
The Most Often Asked Questions About Tobacco and Health 299
Prostate Enlargement and Cancer 314
Degenerative Brain Disorders 335
Protecting Vision and Hearing 358
Exercise, Exercise, Exercise 389
Melatonin 408
Preventing Transmission of STDs 437
Preventing Birth Defects 458
Are Genetically Engineered Foods 
Safe? 503
Prevention of Cancer 516
Living with Klinefelter Syndrome 527
New Cures on the Horizon 537
Emerging Viral Pathogens 576
Medicinal Bloodsuckers 634t science FocusMicroscopy Today 46
What?s in a Chromosome? 84
How Memories Are Made 333
The Investigations of Gregor 
Mendel 469
Finding the Structure of DNA 487
Charles Darwin?s Theory of Natural Selection 558
Protostomes Versus Deuterostomes 628
Animals and Human Medicine 652
Do Animals Have Emotions? 681
The United States Population 692

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Biology.