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CONTENTS PREFACE 1 THE SOILS AROUND US 1.1 Functions of Soils in Our Ecosystem 1.2 Medium for Plant Growth 1.3 Regulator of Water Supplies 1.4 Recycler of Raw Materials 1.5 Habitat for Soil Organisms 1.6 Engineering Medium 1.7 Pedosphere as Environmental Interface 1.8 Soil as a Natural Body 1.9 The Soil Profile and Its Layers (Horizons) 1.10 Topsoil and Subsoil 1.11 Soil: The Interface of Air, Minerals, Water, and Life 1.12 Mineral (Inorganic) Constituents of Soils 1.13 Soil Organic Matter 1.14 Soil Water: A Dynamic Solution 1.15 Soil Air: A Changing Mixture of Gases 1.16 Interaction of Four Components to Supply Plant Nutrients 1.17 Nutrient Uptake by Plant Roots 1.18 Soil Quality, Degradation, and Resilience 1.19 Conclusion Study Questions References 2 FORMATION OF SOILS FROM PARENT MATERIALS 2.1 Weathering of Rocks and Minerals 2.2 Factors Influencing Soil Formation 2.3 Parent Materials 2.4 Climate 2.5 Biota: Living Organisms 2.6 Topography 2.7 Time 2.8 Four Basic Processes of Soil Formation 2.9 The Soil Profile 2.1o Conclusion Study Questions References 3 SOIL CLASSIFICATION 3.1 Concept of Individual Soils 3.2 Comprehensive Classification System: Soil Taxonomy 3.3 Categories and Nomenclature of Soil Taxonomy 3.4 Soil Orders 3.5 Entisols (Recent: Little If Any Profile Development) 3.6 Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features: Inception of B Horizon) 3.7 Andisols (Volcanic Ash Soils) 3.8 Gelisols (Permafrost and Frost Churning) 3.9 Histisols (Organic Soils without Permafrost) 3.10 Aridisols (Dry Soils) 3.11 Vertisols (Dark, Swelling and Cracking Clays) 3.12 Mollisols (Dark, Soft Soils of Grasslands) 3.13 Alfisols (Argillic or Natric Horizon, Medium to High Bases) 3.14 Ultisols (Argillic Horizon, Low Bases) 3.15 Spodosols (Acid, Sandy, Forest Soils, Low Bases) 3.16 Oxisols (Oxic Horizon, Highly Weathered) 3.17 Lower-Level Categories in Soil Taxonomy 3.18 Conclusion Study Questions References 4 SOIL ARCHITECTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 4.1 Soil Color 4.2 Soil Texture (Size Distribution of Soil Particles) 4.3 Soil Textural Classes 4.4 Structure of Mineral Soils 4.5 Formation and Stabilization of Soil Aggregates 4.6 Tillage and Structural Management of Soils 4.7 Soil Density 4.8 Pore Space of Mineral Soils 4.9 Soil Properties Relevant to Engineering Uses 4.10 Conclusion Study Questions References 5 SOIL WATER: CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOR 5.1 Structure and Related Properties of Water 5.2 Capillary Fundamentals and Soil Water 5.3 Soil Water Energy Concepts 5.4 Soil Water Content and Soil Water Potential 5.5 The Flow of Liquid Water in Soil 5.6 Infiltration and Percolation 5.7 Water Vapor Movement in Soils 5.8 Qualitative Description of Soil Wetness 5.9 Factors Affecting Amount of Plant-Available Soil Water 5.10 Mechanisms by Which Plants Are Supplied with Water 5.11 Conclusion Study Questions References 6 SOIL AND THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE 6.1 The Global Hydrologic Cycle 6.2 Fate of Precipitation and Irrigation Water 6.3 The Soil?Plant?Atmosphere Continuum 6.4 Control of Evapotranspiration (ET) 6.5 Liquid Losses of Water from the Soil 6.6 Percolation and Groundwaters 6.7 Enhancing Soil Drainage 6.8 Septic Tank Drain Fields 6.9 Irrigation Principles and Practices 6.10 Conclusion Study Questions References 7 SOIL AERATION AND TEMPERATURE 7.1 Soil Aeration?The Process 7.2 Means of Characterizing Soil Aeration 7.3 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Potential 7.4 Factors Affecting Soil Aeration and Eh 7.5 Ecological Effects of Soil Aeration 7.6 Aeration in Relation to Soil and Plant Management 7.7 Wetlands and Their Poorly Aerated Soils 7.8 Processes Affected by Soil Temperature 7.9 Absorption and Loss of Solar Energy 7.10 Thermal Properties of Soils 7.11 Soil Temperature Control 7.12 Conclusion Study Questions References 8 SOIL COLLOIDS: SEAT OF SOIL CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 8.1 General Properties and Types of Soil Colloids 8.2 Fundamentals of Layer Silicate Clay Structure 8.3 Mineralogical Organization of Silicate Clays 8.4 Structural Characteristics of Nonsilicate Colloids 8.5 Genesis and Geographic Distribution of Soil Colloids 8.6 Sources of Charges on Soil Colloids 8.7 Adsorption of Cations and Anions 8.8 Cation Exchange Reactions 8.9 Cation Exchange Capacity 8.10 Exchangeable Cations in Field Soil 8.11 Anion Exchange 8.12 Sorption of Pesticides and Groundwater Contamination 8.13 Binding of Biomolecules to Clay and Humus 8.14 Physical Implications of Swelling-Type Clays 8.15 Conclusion Study Questions References 9 SOIL ACIDITY 9.1 The Process of Soil Acidification 9.2 Role of Aluminum in Soil Acidity 9.3 Pools of Soil Acidity 9.4 Buffering of pH in Soils 9.5 Determination of Soil pH 9.6 Human-Influenced Soil Acidification 9.7 Biological Effects of Soil pH 9.8 Raising Soil pH by Liming 9.9 Alternative Ways to Ameliorate the Ill Effects of Soil Acidity 9.10 Lowering Soil pH 9.12 Conclusion Study Questions References 10 SOILS OF DRY REGIONS: ALKALINITY, SALINITY, AND SODICITY 10.1 Characteristics and Problems of Alkaline Soils 10.2 Causes of Alkalinity: High Soil pH 10.3 Development of Salt-Affected Soils 10.4 Measuring Salinity and Sodicity 10.5 Classes of Salt-Affected Soils 10.6 Physical Degradation of Soils by Sodic Chemical Conditionss 10.7 Growth of Plants on Salt-Affected Soils 10.8 Water-Quality Considerations for Irrigation 10.9 Reclamation of Saline Soils 10.10 Reclamation of Saline-Sodic and Sodic Soils 10.12 Management of Reclaimed Soils 10.11 Conclusion Study Questions References 11 ORGANISMS AND ECOLOGY OF THE SOIL 11.1 The Diversity of Organisms in the Soil 11.2 Organisms in Action 11.3 Organism Abundance, Biomass, and Metabolic Activity 11.4 Earthworms 11.5 Ants and Termites 11.6 Soil Microanimals 11.7 Plant Roots 11.8 Soil Algae 11.9 Soil Fungi 11.10 Soil Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea 11.11 Conditions Affecting the Growth of Soil Microorganisms 11.12 Beneficial Effects of Soil Organisms on Plant Communities 11.13 Soil Organisms and Damage to Higher Plants 11.14 Ecological Relationships Among Soil Organisms 11.15 Conclusion Study Questions References 12 SOIL ORGANIC MATTER 12.1 The Global Carbon Cycle 12.2 The Process of Decomposition in Soils 12.3 Factors Controlling Rates of Decomposition and Mineralization 12.4 Genesis and Nature of Soil Organic Matter and Humus 12.5 Influences of Organic Matter on Plant Growth and Soils 12.7 Influence of Organic Matter on Soil Properties and the Environment 12.6 Amounts and Quality of Soil Organic Matter 12.7 Carbon Balance in the Soil?Plant?Atmosphere System 12.8 Factors and Practices Influencing Soil Organic Matter Levels 12.9 The Greenhouse Effect: Soils and Climate Change 12.10 Composts and Composting 12.11 Conclusion Study Questions References 13 NITROGEN AND SULFUR ECONOMY OF SOILS 13.1 Influence of Nitrogen on Plant Growth and Development 13.2 Distribution of Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle 13.3 Immobilization and Mineralization 13.4 Soluble Organic Nitrogen 13.5 Ammonium Fixation by Clay Minerals 13.6 Ammonia Volatilization 13.7 Nitrification 13.8 The Nitrate Leaching Problem 13.9 Gaseous Losses by Denitrification 13.10 Biological Nitrogen Fixation 13.11 Symbiotic Fixation with Legumes 13.12 Symbiotic Fixation with Nonlegumes 13.13 Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation 13.14 Nitrogen Deposition from the Atmosphere 13.15 Practical Management of Soil Nitrogen 13.16 Importance of Sulfur 13.17 Natural Sources of Sulfur 13.18 The Sulfur Cycle 13.19 Behavior of Sulfur Compounds in Soils 13.20 Sulfur Oxidation and Reduction 13.21 Sulfur Retention and Exchange 13.22 Sulfur and Soil Fertility Maintenance 13.23 Conclusion Study Questions References 14 SOIL PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM 14.1 Role of Phosphorus in Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility 14.2 Effects of Phosphorus on Environmental Quality 14.3 The Phosphorus Cycle 14.4 Organic Phosphorus in Soils 14.5 Inorganic Phosphorus in Soils 14.6 Solubility of Inorganic Phosphorus in Acid Soils 14.7 Inorganic Phosphorus Availability at High pH Values 14.8 Phosphorus-Fixation Capacity of Soils 14.9 Practical Control of Phosphorus in Soils 14.10 Potassium: Nature and Ecological Roles 14.11 Potassium in Plant and Animal Nutrition 14.12 The Potassium Cycle 14.13 The Potassium Problem in Soil Fertility 14.14 Forms and Availability of Potassium in Soils 14.15 Factors Affecting Potassium Fixation in Soils 14.16 Practical Aspects of Potassium Management 14.17 Conclusion Study Questions References 15 MICRONUTRIENTS AND OTHER TRACE ELEMENTS 15.1 Calcium as Essential Nutrient 15.2 Magnesium as a Plant Nutrient 15.3 Deficiency Versus Toxicity 15.4 Micronutrient Roles in Plants 15.5 Source of Micronutrients 15.6 General Conditions Conducive to Trace Element Deficiency/Toxicity 15.7 Factors Influencing the Availability of the Trace Element Cations 15.8 Organic Compounds as Chelates 15.9 Factors Influencing the Availability of the Trace Element Anions 15.10 Need for Nutrient Balance 15.11 Soil Management and Trace Element Needs 15.12 Conclusion Study Questions References 16 PRACTICAL NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT 16.1 Goals of Nutrient Management 16.2 Environmental Quality 16.3 Nutrient Resources and Cycles 16.4 Recycling Nutrients through Animal Manures 16.5 Industrial and Municipal By-Products 16.6 Practical Utilization of Organic Nutrient Sources 16.7 Inorganic Commercial Fertilizers 16.8 Fertilizer Application Methods 16.9 Timing of Fertilizer Application 16.10 Diagnostic Tools and Methods 16.11 Soil Analysis 16.12 Site-Index Approach to Phosphorus Management 16.13 Broader Aspects of Fertilizer Practice 16.14 Conclusion
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