Table of contents for Accounting information systems / Marshall Romney, Paul Steinbart.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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CONTENTS
PREFACE 
1 THE SOILS AROUND US 
1.1	Functions of Soils in Our Ecosystem	
1.2	Medium for Plant Growth	
1.3	Regulator of Water Supplies	
1.4	Recycler of Raw Materials
1.5	Habitat for Soil Organisms	
1.6	Engineering Medium	
1.7	Pedosphere as Environmental Interface	
1.8	Soil as a Natural Body	
1.9	The Soil Profile and Its Layers (Horizons)	
1.10	Topsoil and Subsoil	
1.11	Soil: The Interface of Air, Minerals, Water, and Life	
1.12	Mineral (Inorganic) Constituents of Soils	
1.13	Soil Organic Matter	
1.14	Soil Water: A Dynamic Solution	
1.15	Soil Air: A Changing Mixture of Gases	
1.16	Interaction of Four Components to Supply Plant Nutrients	
1.17	Nutrient Uptake by Plant Roots	
1.18	Soil Quality, Degradation, and Resilience	
1.19	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
2 FORMATION OF SOILS FROM PARENT MATERIALS 
2.1	Weathering of Rocks and Minerals	
2.2	Factors Influencing Soil Formation	
2.3	Parent Materials	
2.4	Climate	
2.5	Biota: Living Organisms	
2.6	Topography	
2.7	Time	
2.8	Four Basic Processes of Soil Formation
2.9	The Soil Profile	
2.1o	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
3 SOIL CLASSIFICATION 
3.1	Concept of Individual Soils	
3.2	Comprehensive Classification System: Soil Taxonomy	
3.3	Categories and Nomenclature of Soil Taxonomy	
3.4	Soil Orders	
3.5	Entisols (Recent: Little If Any Profile Development)	
3.6	Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features: Inception of B Horizon)	
3.7	Andisols (Volcanic Ash Soils)	
3.8	Gelisols (Permafrost and Frost Churning)	
3.9	Histisols (Organic Soils without Permafrost)	
3.10	Aridisols (Dry Soils)	
3.11	Vertisols (Dark, Swelling and Cracking Clays)	
3.12	Mollisols (Dark, Soft Soils of Grasslands)	
3.13	Alfisols (Argillic or Natric Horizon, Medium to High Bases)	
3.14	Ultisols (Argillic Horizon, Low Bases)	
3.15	Spodosols (Acid, Sandy, Forest Soils, Low Bases)
3.16	Oxisols (Oxic Horizon, Highly Weathered)	
3.17	Lower-Level Categories in Soil Taxonomy	
3.18	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
4 SOIL ARCHITECTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 
4.1	Soil Color	
4.2	Soil Texture (Size Distribution of Soil Particles)	
4.3	Soil Textural Classes	
4.4	Structure of Mineral Soils	
4.5	Formation and Stabilization of Soil Aggregates 
4.6	Tillage and Structural Management of Soils
4.7	Soil Density	
4.8	Pore Space of Mineral Soils
4.9	Soil Properties Relevant to Engineering Uses	
4.10	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
5 SOIL WATER: CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOR 
5.1	Structure and Related Properties of Water	
5.2	Capillary Fundamentals and Soil Water	
5.3	Soil Water Energy Concepts	
5.4	Soil Water Content and Soil Water Potential	
5.5	The Flow of Liquid Water in Soil	
5.6	Infiltration and Percolation	
5.7	Water Vapor Movement in Soils	
5.8	Qualitative Description of Soil Wetness	
5.9	Factors Affecting Amount of Plant-Available Soil Water	
5.10	Mechanisms by Which Plants Are Supplied with Water	
5.11	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
6 SOIL AND THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE 
6.1	The Global Hydrologic Cycle	
6.2	Fate of Precipitation and Irrigation Water	
6.3	The Soil?Plant?Atmosphere Continuum	
6.4	Control of Evapotranspiration (ET)	
6.5	Liquid Losses of Water from the Soil	
6.6	Percolation and Groundwaters	
6.7	Enhancing Soil Drainage	
6.8	Septic Tank Drain Fields	
6.9	Irrigation Principles and Practices	
6.10	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
7 SOIL AERATION AND TEMPERATURE 
7.1	Soil Aeration?The Process	
7.2	Means of Characterizing Soil Aeration	
7.3	Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Potential	
7.4	Factors Affecting Soil Aeration and Eh	
7.5	Ecological Effects of Soil Aeration	
7.6	Aeration in Relation to Soil and Plant Management	
7.7	Wetlands and Their Poorly Aerated Soils	
7.8	Processes Affected by Soil Temperature	
7.9	Absorption and Loss of Solar Energy	
7.10	Thermal Properties of Soils	
7.11	Soil Temperature Control	
7.12	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
8 SOIL COLLOIDS: SEAT OF SOIL CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 
8.1	General Properties and Types of Soil Colloids	
8.2	Fundamentals of Layer Silicate Clay Structure	
8.3	Mineralogical Organization of Silicate Clays	
8.4	Structural Characteristics of Nonsilicate Colloids	
8.5	Genesis and Geographic Distribution of Soil Colloids	
8.6	Sources of Charges on Soil Colloids	
8.7	Adsorption of Cations and Anions	
8.8	Cation Exchange Reactions	
8.9	Cation Exchange Capacity	
8.10	Exchangeable Cations in Field Soil	
8.11	Anion Exchange	
8.12	Sorption of Pesticides and Groundwater Contamination	
8.13	Binding of Biomolecules to Clay and Humus	
8.14	Physical Implications of Swelling-Type Clays	
8.15	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
9 SOIL ACIDITY 
9.1	The Process of Soil Acidification	
9.2	Role of Aluminum in Soil Acidity	
9.3	Pools of Soil Acidity	
9.4	Buffering of pH in Soils	
9.5	Determination of Soil pH	
9.6	Human-Influenced Soil Acidification	
9.7	Biological Effects of Soil pH	
9.8	Raising Soil pH by Liming	
9.9	Alternative Ways to Ameliorate the Ill Effects of Soil Acidity	
9.10	Lowering Soil pH	
9.12	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
10 SOILS OF DRY REGIONS: ALKALINITY, SALINITY, AND SODICITY 
10.1	Characteristics and Problems of Alkaline Soils	
10.2	Causes of Alkalinity: High Soil pH	
10.3	Development of Salt-Affected Soils	
10.4	Measuring Salinity and Sodicity	
10.5	Classes of Salt-Affected Soils	
10.6	Physical Degradation of Soils by Sodic Chemical Conditionss
10.7	Growth of Plants on Salt-Affected Soils	
10.8	Water-Quality Considerations for Irrigation	
10.9	Reclamation of Saline Soils	
10.10	Reclamation of Saline-Sodic and Sodic Soils	
10.12	Management of Reclaimed Soils	
10.11	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
11 ORGANISMS AND ECOLOGY OF THE SOIL 
11.1	The Diversity of Organisms in the Soil	
11.2	Organisms in Action	
11.3	Organism Abundance, Biomass, and Metabolic Activity	
11.4	Earthworms	
11.5	Ants and Termites	
11.6	Soil Microanimals	
11.7	Plant Roots	
11.8	Soil Algae
11.9	Soil Fungi	
11.10	Soil Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea	
11.11	Conditions Affecting the Growth of Soil Microorganisms	
11.12	Beneficial Effects of Soil Organisms on Plant Communities	
11.13	Soil Organisms and Damage to Higher Plants	
11.14	Ecological Relationships Among Soil Organisms	
11.15	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
12 SOIL ORGANIC MATTER 
12.1	The Global Carbon Cycle	
12.2	The Process of Decomposition in Soils	
12.3	Factors Controlling Rates of Decomposition and Mineralization	
12.4	Genesis and Nature of Soil Organic Matter and Humus	
12.5	Influences of Organic Matter on Plant Growth and Soils	
12.7	Influence of Organic Matter on Soil Properties and the Environment	
12.6	Amounts and Quality of Soil Organic Matter	
12.7	Carbon Balance in the Soil?Plant?Atmosphere System	
12.8	Factors and Practices Influencing Soil Organic Matter Levels	
12.9	The Greenhouse Effect: Soils and Climate Change	
12.10	Composts and Composting	
12.11	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
13 NITROGEN AND SULFUR ECONOMY OF SOILS 
13.1	Influence of Nitrogen on Plant Growth and Development	
13.2	Distribution of Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle	
13.3	Immobilization and Mineralization	
13.4	Soluble Organic Nitrogen	
13.5	Ammonium Fixation by Clay Minerals	
13.6	Ammonia Volatilization	
13.7	Nitrification	
13.8	The Nitrate Leaching Problem	
13.9	Gaseous Losses by Denitrification	
13.10	Biological Nitrogen Fixation	
13.11	Symbiotic Fixation with Legumes	
13.12	Symbiotic Fixation with Nonlegumes	
13.13	Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation	
13.14	Nitrogen Deposition from the Atmosphere	
13.15	Practical Management of Soil Nitrogen	
13.16	Importance of Sulfur
13.17	Natural Sources of Sulfur	
13.18	The Sulfur Cycle	
13.19	Behavior of Sulfur Compounds in Soils	
13.20	Sulfur Oxidation and Reduction	
13.21	Sulfur Retention and Exchange	
13.22	Sulfur and Soil Fertility Maintenance	
13.23	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
14 SOIL PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM 
14.1	Role of Phosphorus in Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility	
14.2	Effects of Phosphorus on Environmental Quality	
14.3	The Phosphorus Cycle	
14.4	Organic Phosphorus in Soils	
14.5	Inorganic Phosphorus in Soils	
14.6	Solubility of Inorganic Phosphorus in Acid Soils	
14.7	Inorganic Phosphorus Availability at High pH Values	
14.8	Phosphorus-Fixation Capacity of Soils	
14.9	Practical Control of Phosphorus in Soils
14.10	Potassium: Nature and Ecological Roles	
14.11	Potassium in Plant and Animal Nutrition	
14.12	The Potassium Cycle	
14.13	The Potassium Problem in Soil Fertility	
14.14	Forms and Availability of Potassium in Soils	
14.15	Factors Affecting Potassium Fixation in Soils	
14.16	Practical Aspects of Potassium Management	
14.17	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
15 MICRONUTRIENTS AND OTHER TRACE ELEMENTS 
15.1	Calcium as Essential Nutrient
15.2	Magnesium as a Plant Nutrient
15.3	Deficiency Versus Toxicity	
15.4	Micronutrient Roles in Plants	
15.5	Source of Micronutrients	
15.6	General Conditions Conducive to Trace Element Deficiency/Toxicity	
15.7	Factors Influencing the Availability of the Trace Element Cations	
15.8	Organic Compounds as Chelates	
15.9	Factors Influencing the Availability of the Trace Element Anions	
15.10	Need for Nutrient Balance	
15.11	Soil Management and Trace Element Needs	
15.12	Conclusion	
Study Questions	
References	
16 PRACTICAL NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT 
16.1	Goals of Nutrient Management	
16.2	Environmental Quality	
16.3	Nutrient Resources and Cycles	
16.4	Recycling Nutrients through Animal Manures	
16.5	Industrial and Municipal By-Products	
16.6	Practical Utilization of Organic Nutrient Sources	
16.7	Inorganic Commercial Fertilizers	
16.8	Fertilizer Application Methods	
16.9	Timing of Fertilizer Application	
16.10	Diagnostic Tools and Methods	
16.11	Soil Analysis	
16.12	Site-Index Approach to Phosphorus Management	
16.13	Broader Aspects of Fertilizer Practice	
16.14	Conclusion

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Accounting -- Data processing.
Information storage and retrieval systems -- Accounting.