Table of contents for An introduction to literature : fiction, poetry, and drama / Sylvan Barnet, William Burto, William E. Cain.

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Detailed Table of Contents
Preface
Letter to Students
I READING, THINKING, AND WRITING CRITICALLY ABOUT LITERATURE
1 Reading and Responding to Literature
What Is Literature?
Literature as Performance: Robert Frost, The Span of Life
Significance
Two Poems about Immigration:
Robert Frost, Immigrants
	Robert Frost, Immigrants
	Pat Mora, Immigrants
Two Contemporary Short Stories: Lydia Davis's Childcare and City People
Thinking About a Classic Story: Luke, The Parable of the Prodigal Son.
Stories True and False
 Grace Paley, Samuel
What's Past Is Prologue
	Jamaica Kincaid, Girl
	Tobias Wolff, Powder
	James Merrill, Christmas Tree
 
2. The Pleasures of Reading--and of Writing Arguments about Literature
The Open Secret of Good Writing
	Emily Wu, The Lesson of the Master
Getting Ready to Write
	A Student Writes: From Jottings to a Final Draft 
Will Berger, Less Is More: Characterization in "The Lesson of the Master"
	The Student's Analysis Analyzed
A Second Short Story, and a Student's Analysis 
	Tobias Wolff, Say Yes
	A Sample Student Essay: Bob Williams, He's the Problem
	The Analysis Briefly Analyzed
Three Poems
	Diane Ackerman, Pumping Iron 	
	Anonymous, Tweed to Till
	William Blake, The Clod and the Pebble
Two Additional Stories
	Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill
	Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson
3. More about Writing About Literature: From Idea to Essay
Why Write Arguments about Literature?
Getting Ideas: Pre-Writing
Annotating a Text
Brainstorming for Ideas for Writing
Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour 
Focused Free Writing
Listing and Clustering
Developing an Awareness of the Writer's Use of Language
Asking Questions
Keeping a Journal
Arguing at a Thesis
Writing a Draft
Sample Draft of an Essay on Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour"
Lynn Crowe, Ironies in an Hour
Revising a Draft
Peer Review
The Final Version 
A Brief Overview of the Final Version
Explication.
A Sample Explication
William Butler Yeats, The Balloon of the Mind
Explication as Argument
Comparison and Contrast: A Way of Arguing
Review: How to Write an Effective Essay.
Additional Reading.
Kate Chopin, Ripe Figs
William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark
Lorna Dee Cervantes, Refugee Ship
Jos¿ Armas, El Tonto del Barrio
II FICTION 
4 Approaching Fiction: Responding in Writing. 
Ernest Hemingway, Cat in the Rain
Responses: Annotations and Journal Entries.
A Sample Essay by a Student: 
	_ Bill Yanagi, Hemingway's American Wife 
5 Stories and Meanings: Plot, Character, Theme. 
Aesop, The Vixen and the Lioness
 W. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samara
Anonymous, Muddy Road
Anton Chekhov, Misery
Kate Chopin, Desiree's Baby 
Alice Walker, Everyday Use
Margaret Atwood, Happy Endings 
* William Carlos Williams, The Use of Force 
6 Narrative Point of View 
Participant (or First-Person) Points of View
Nonparticipant (or Third-Person) Points of View
The Point of a Point of View
John Updike, A & P
* Grace Paley, A Man Told Me the Story of His Life 
* Jean Rhys, I Used to Live Here Once 
Anonymous, The Judgment of Solomon 
* Ambrose Bierce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge 
Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall)
7 Allegory and Symbol. 
A Note on Setting
Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown
John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums 
Eudora Welty, A Worn Path
Gabriel Garc¿a M¿rquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings: A Tale for Children
* D. H. Lawrence, The Horse Dealer's Daughter 
* Shirley Jackson, The Lottery 
8 Students Writing about Stories. 
Prompts for Writing about Plot, Character, Point of View, Setting, Symbolism, Style, and Theme
* Fiction into Film 
	* Asking Questions, Thinking Critically, Making Comparisons
	* Film as a Medium
	* Film Techniques
		* Shots
		* Sequences
		* Editing
	* Theme
* Comparing Filmed and Printed Stories
* Getting Ready to write
* Drafting an Essay
	*_Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Film
* Your Turn: Thinking about Filming Fiction 
* Seven Students Write about Short Stories 
 Anne Geraghty Thinks about Character in Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" 
 Notes.
_ The Final Version of the Essay: Anne Geraghty, Revenge, Noble and Ignoble
* Gender Criticism: A Response to "The Judgment of Solomon" 
	_ A Sample Essay: Anne McCauley, How Wise Was Solomon 
*A Feminist Reading of James Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" 
	Working Toward a Thesis: Journal entries 
	Developing the Thesis: List Notes 
	_ Sample Draft: Susan Levy, "Walter Mitty Is No Joke" 
*A Note on Reading against the Grain 
	A Skeptical Look at the Parable of he Prodigal Son 
	_ Steve Scipione, "The Parable of the Shrewd Son" 
 * Talking about Setting as Symbolic: Notes and an Essay n Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour" 
	_ Amy Jones, "Spring Comes to Mrs. Mallard"
* Two Students Interpret Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery": Notes and Essays
	_ Nat Komor, "We All Participate in the Lottery"
	_ Anne Hearn "Is 'The Lottery' Fair?"
* Sample Essay with Documentation
	Jean Lee, ""Do the Pink Ribbons in Hawthorne's 'Young Goodman Brown' Have 		a Meaning?"
	
9 A Fiction Writer in Depth: Flannery O'Connor 
Flannery O'Connor: Three Stories and Observations on Literature
Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find 
* Flannery O'Connor, Good Country People 
Flannery O'Connor, Revelation 
On Fiction: Remarks from Essays and Letters.
From "The Fiction Writer and His Country"
From "Some Aspects of the Grotesque in Southern Fiction" 
From "The Nature and Aim of Fiction"
From "Writing Short Stories" 
"A Reasonable Use of the Unreasonable"
On Interpreting "A Good Man Is Hard to Find"
	
10 A Collection of Short Fiction 
* Chris Adrian, Every Night for a Thousand Years 
* Margaret Atwood, Gertrude Talks Back 
Jorge Luis Borges, The Gospel According to Mark 
Raymond Carver , Cathedral 
Oscar Casares, Yolanda
Diana Chang, The Oriental Contingent 
* Kate Chopin, The Storm 
Alice Elliot Dark, In the Gloaming 
Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal 
Louise Erdrich, The Red Convertible 
 William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily 
William Faulkner, Barn Burning 
Jack Forbes, Only Appproved Indians Can Play: Made in USA
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper 
* Patricia Grace, Flies 
Gish Jen, Who's Irish? 
James Joyce, Araby 
Franz Kafka, A Hunger Artist 
Jack London, To Build a Fire 
Bobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh 
* Guy de Maupassant, Mademoiselle 
Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace
Katherine Min, Courting a Monk 
Lorrie Moore, How to Become a Writer 
Alice Munro Boys and Girls 
Gloria Naylor, The Two 
Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? 
Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried 
* Cynthia Ozick, The Shawl 
* Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-Tale Hear 
Edgar Allan Poe, The Cask of Amontillado 
Michele Serros, Senior Picture Day 
Leslie Marmon Silko, The Man to Send Rain Clouds
Amy Tan, Two Kinds 
Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Illych 
John Updike, The Rumor 
III. POETRY 
11 Approaching Poetry: Responding in Writing 
Langston Hughes, Harlem.
Thinking About "Harlem"
Some Journal Entries.
_ A Sample Essay by a Student: Michael Locke, Langston Hughes's 'Harlem'
Aphra Behn, Song: Love Armed.
Journal Entries.
_ A Sample Essay by a Student: Geoffrey Sullivan "The Double Nature of Love."
12 Narrative Poetry 
The Limerick, the Popular Ballad, and Other Narrative Poems
Anonymous, There was a young fellow from Riga
Anonymous British Ballad, Sir Patrick Spence
Anonymous British Ballad, The Demon Lover
John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci
Siegfried Sassoon, The General Countee Cullen, Incident 
Edward Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory
Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death 
John Lennon and Paul McCartney, Eleanor Rigby
E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town 
13 Lyric Poetry 
Anonymous, Michael Row the Boat Ashore
Anonymous, Careless Love
Anonymous, The Colorado Trail
Anonymous, Western Wind
Julia Ward Howe, Battle Hymn of the Republic 
William Shakespeare, Spring 
William Shakespeare, Winter
W. H. Auden, Stop All the Clocks, Cut Off the Telephone
Emily Bront¿, Spellbound
Spirituals, or Sorrow Songs 
Anonymous African-American, Go Down, Moses 
Anonymous African-American, Swing Low , Sweet Chariot 
Langston Hughes, Evenin' Air Blues 
Li-Young Lee, I Ask My Mother to Sing 
Edna St. Vincent Millay, The Spring and the Fall
Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth
Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider
* Joseph Addison, Ode 
John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn 
Paul Laurence Dunbar, Sympathy 
* Jack Forbes, Something Nice 
Linda Pastan, Jump Cabling 
* Billy Collins, The Names 
14 The Speaking Tone of Voice
Emily Dickinson, I'm Nobody! Who are you?
Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool.
Gwendolyn Brooks, The Mother 
Linda Pastan, Marks
The Reader as the Speaker.
Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning
Wislawa Szymborska, The Terrorist, He Watches
John Updike, Icarus
	Aurora Levins Morales, Child of the Americas 
	Joseph Bruchac III, Ellis Island
 The Dramatic Monologue
Robert Browning, My Last Duchess
	Paula Gunn Allen, Pocahontas to Her English Husband, John Rolfe
Diction and Tone 
Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time
* Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter
* Wilfred Owens, Dulce et Decorum Est 
Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed 
* Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid 
Walter de la Mare, An Epitaph 
Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall: To a Young Child.
Countee Cullen, For a Lady I Know
Lyn Lifshin, My Mother and the Bed
The Voice of the Satirist.
	 E.E. Cummings, next to of course god America 
	Marge Piercy, Barbie Doll
Louise Erdrich, Dear John Wayne
	Alexander Pope, Engraved on the Collar of a Dog 
15 Figurative Language: Simile, Metaphor, Personification, and Apostrophe. Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose.
Sylvia Plath, Metaphor
Simile.
Richard Wilbur, A Simile for Her Smile
Metaphor.
John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer
Personification
	Michael Drayton, Since There's No Help 
Apostrophe
Edmund Waller, Song
William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow
Alfred Lord Tennyson, The Eagle
Seamus Heaney, Digging 
	Dana Gioia, Money
	* Linda Pastan, Baseball 
	Craig Raine, A Martian Sends a Postcard Home 
	William Shakespeare, Sonnet 130 
 
16 Imagery and Symbolism. 
William Blake, The Sick Rose
Walt Whitman, I Saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak Growing 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan
* Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus 
* Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Kraken 
* Dan Chiasson, The Elephant 
Claude McKay, The Tropics in New York 
Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck
Christina Rossetti, Uphill
Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice Cream 
Edgar Allan Poe, To Helen
Herman Melville, DuPont's Round Fight
* Naomi Shihab Nye, The Traveling Onion 
A Note on Haiku 
Moritake, Fallen petals rise
Sokan, If only we could
Shiki, River in summer
Richard Wright, Four Haiku
Writing a Haiku.
Taigi, Look, O look, there go
Cyber-Haiku
17 Irony 
Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias
Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress
John Donne, Holy Sonnet XIV ("Batter my heart, three-personed God")
Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie
Mart¿n Espada, Tony Went to the Bodega but He Didn't Buy Anything
Edna St. Vincent Millay, Love Is Not All: It Is Not Meat nor Drink
Sherman Alexie, Evolution
Henry Reed, Naming of Parts
* Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Links 
18 Rhythm and Versification
Ezra Pound, An Immorality
A. E. Housman, Eight O'Clock
William Carlos Williams, The Dance
Robert Francis, The Pitcher
Versification: A Glossary for Reference.
	Meter
Patterns of Sound
Galway Kinnell, Blackberry Eating
* William Carlos Williams, The Artist 
* Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Constantly Risking Absurdity 
A Note about Poetic Forms 
	Stanzaic Patterns
	Three Complex Forms: The Sonnet, The Villanelle, and the Sestina
The Sonnet
Six Sonnets.
William Shakespeare, Sonnet 73 ("That time of year thou mayst in me behold")
William Shakespeare, Sonnet 146 ("Poor soul, the center of my sinful earth")
John Milton, When I Consider How My Light Is Spent
John Crowe Ransom, Piazza Piece
X. J. Kennedy, Nothing in Heaven Functions as It Ought
Billy Collins, Sonnet
The Villanelle
Edward Arlington Robinson, The House on the Hill
Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night
Elizabeth Bishop, One Art
The Sestina 
	Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina
Shaped Poetry or Pattern Poetry
George Herbert, Easter Wings
Lillian Morrison, The Sidewalk Racer
Blank Verse and Free Verse.
	Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer
The Prose Poem
	Carolyn Forch¿, The Colonel
19 Students Writing about Poems 
First Response.
Speaker and Tone.
Audience.
Structure and Form.
Center of Interest and Theme.
Diction.
Sound Effects.
A Note on Explication.
Eight Essays by Students
Louise Gl¿ck, Gretel in Darkness
Jennifer Anderson's Annotation's, Journal, and Final Draft 
	_ Jennifer Anderson, A Memory Poem: Louise Gluck's "Gretel in Darkness"
Adrienne Rich, Aunt Jennifer's Tigers 
* A Student's Annotations and Essay 
	 _ Maria Fuentes, Aunt Jennifer's Screen and Adrienne Rich's Poem 
* A Student's Essay on a Theme in Several Poems by One Poet 
	_ Peter Gottsegen Religion and Religious Imagery in Emily Dickinson 
* An Essay on the Structure of a Poem 
	Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes 
	Annotations
	_ David Thurston, Herrick's Julia, Julia's Herrick 
* An Essay on Metrics 
	_ Julia Jeffords, Sound and Sense in Housman's "Eight O'Clock" 
	A Brief Overview of the Essay 
* Three Essays, for Evaluation, on Robert Frost's "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" 
	Darrel MacDonald's Annotations and Essay 
		_ Stopping by Woods and Going On 
	Sara Fong's Journal Entry and Essay 
		_ "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" as a Short Story 
	Peter Franken's Journal Entry and Essay 
		_ The Meaning of "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" 
	
20 Poets at Work 
Walt Whitman, Enfans d'Adam, number 9 
Cathy Song, Out of Our Hands 
William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan (three versions)
William Butler Yeats, Annunciation 
William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan (1924)
William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan (1933)
21 Variations on Themes: Poems and Paintings
Writing about Poems and Paintings
A Sample Student Essay
	_ Tina Washington, Two Ways of Looking at a Starry Night
Jane Flanders, Van Gogh's Bed
Adrienne Rich, Mourning Picture
Cathy Song, Beauty and Sadness
Carl Phillips, Luncheon on the Grass
Anne Sexton, The Starry Night
W. H. Auden, Mus¿e des Beaux Arts
X. J. Kennedy, Nude Descending a Staircase
Sherman Alexie, At Navajo Monument Valley Tribal School.
John Updike, Before the Mirror
Greg Pape, American Flamingo
22 Three Poets in Depth: Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, and Langston Hughes 
On Reading Authors Represented in Depth.
Emily Dickinson.
These are the days when Birds come back
Papa above!
Wild Nights-Wild Nights!
There's a certain Slant of light
I got so I could hear his name-
The Soul selects her own Society
This was a Poet-It is That
I heard a Fly Buzz-when I died
The World is not Conclusion
I like to see it lap the Miles
A narrow Fellow in the Grass
Further in Summer than the Birds
Tell all the Truth but tell it slant
A Route of Evanesence
Those-dying, then
Apparently with no surprise
I felt a funeral, in my Brain
I felt a Cleaving in my Mind
The Dust behind I strove to join
Letters about Poetry.
Letter to Susan Gilbert (Dickinson).
Letters to T.W. Higginson
Letter to T.W. Higginson
Robert Frost.
The Pasture
Mending Wall
The Wood-Pile
The Road Not Taken.
The Telephone.
The Oven Bird
The Vanishing Red 
The Aim Was Song 
The Need of Being Versed in Country Things
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
Acquainted with the Night
Desert Places
Design
The Silken Tent
Come In
The Most of It
Robert Frost on Poetry
The Figure a Poem Makes
From "The Constant Symbol"
Langston Hughes
The Negro Speaks of Rivers
Mother to Son
The Weary Blues
The South
Ruby Brown.
Poet to Patron.
Ballad of the Landlord
Too Blue
Harlem [1].
Theme for English B
Poet to Bigot
Langston Hughes on Poetry
The Negro and the Racial Mountain
On the Cultural Achievement of African-Americans
23 Poetry and Translation
A Poem Translated from Spanish, in an Essay by a Student
	_ George Guzman, Garc¿a Lorca's "Despedida"
A Note on Using the First-Person Singular Pronoun in Essays
Translating a Poem of your Choice, and Commenting on the Translation 
Last-Minute Help: Three Spanish Poems
Anonymous, Ya se van los pastores
Anonymous, Una gallina con pollos 
Gabriela Mistral, El Pensador de Rodin
Translating Haiku
Basho, Old pond
Further Thoughts about Translating Poetry
Catullus, Odi et amo
Can Poetry Be Translated?
Looking at Translations of a Poem by Charles Baudelaire
Charles Baudelaire, L'Albatros
24 A Collection of Poems. 
A Note on Folk Ballads 
Anonymous British Ballad, The Three Ravens 
Anonymous British Ballad, The Twa Corbies
Anonymous British Ballad, Edward 
Anonymous, John Henry
Sherman Alexie, On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City 
Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach 
W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen 
Jimmy Santiago Baca, So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans 
Amiri Baraka, A Poem for Black Hearts 
 Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish 
William Blake, Infant Joy 
William Blake, Infant Sorrow 
William Blake, The Lamb 
William Blake, The Tyger 
William Blake, London
Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter 
Gwendolyn Brooks, Martin Luther King Jr. 
Gwendolyn Brooks, The Bean Eaters 
Robert Browning, Porphyria's Lover 
* George Gordon, Lord Byron, She Walks in Beauty 
Lucille Clifton, in the inner city 
Judith Ortiz Cofer, My Father in the Navy: A Childhood Memory 
John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning 
John Donne, The Flea 
* John Donne, Death Be Not Proud 
Rita Dove, Daystar 
Bob Dylan, The Times They Are A-Changin' 
T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
* Ralph Waldo Emerson, Hymn
Mart¿n Espada, Bully 
Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California 
Nikki Giovanni, Master Charge Blues 
Louise Gl¿ck, The School Children 
H.D., Helen 
Thomas Hardy, Ah, Are You Digging on My Grave
Joy Harjo, Vision 
Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays 
Anthony Hecht, The Dover Bitch 
Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder 
Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur 
Gerard Manly Hopkins, Pied Beauty 
A. E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young 
* A. E. Housman, When I Was One-and-Twenty 
* A.E. Housman, Loveliest of Trees 
James Weldon Johnson, To America 
Ben Jonson, On My First Son
Ben Jonson, Still to be Neat
John Keats, To Autumn 
X. J. Kennedy, For Allen Ginsberg 
Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It 
Archibald MacLeish, Ars Poetica 
¿laude McKay, America
* Herman Melville, Misgivings 
* Herman Melville, The Tuft of Kelp 
Pat Mora, Illegal Alien 
Pat Mora, Legal Alien
Carol Muske, Chivalry 
Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage
Linda Pastan, Love Poem 
Marge Piercy, To be of use 
Sylvia Plath, Daddy 
Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro 
Wyatt Prunty, Learning the Bicycle 
Dudley Randall, The Melting Pot 
Adrienne Rich, For the Felling of an Elm in the Harvard Yard 
Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin
Anne Sexton, Her Kind 
William Shakespeare, Sonnet 29 (When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes) 
William Shakespeare, Sonnet 116 (Let me not to the marriage of true minds) 
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses 
 Kitty Tsui, A Chinese Banquet 
John Updike, Ex-Basketball Player 
Derek Walcott, A Far Cry from Africa 
Phillis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America
* Walt Whitman, Reconciliation 
* Walt Whitman, A Sight in Camp in the Daybreak Gray and Grim 
* Walt Whitman, The Dalliance of Eagles 
William Carlos Williams, Spring and All 
William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us
William Wordsworth, I Wondered Lonely as a Cloud
William Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper
James Wright, Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy's Farm in Pine Island, Minnesota 
William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium 
IV DRAMA 
25 How to Read a Play 
Thinking About the Language of Drama.
Plot and Character.
Susan Glaspell, Trifles
Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie
A Context for The Glass Menagerie
Tennessee Williams, Production Notes
26 Tragedy 
A Note on Greek Theater
Two Plays by Sophocles
Sophocles, Oedipus the King
Sophocles, Antigone
A Play by Shakespeare
A Note on the Elizabethan Theater 
Hamlet
A Note on the Text of Hamlet
Portfolio: Hamlet on the Stage
William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark
27 Comedy 
William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream
28 Two Plays about Marriage 
Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House
Contexts for A Doll's House
Henrik Ibsen, Notes for the Tragedy of Modern Times
Henrik Ibsen, Adaptations of A Doll's House for a German Production
Henrik Ibsen, Speech at the Banquet of the Norwegian League for Women's Rights
Clare Booth Luce, Slam the Door Softly
29 Students Writing About Plays 
Plot and Conflict.
Character.
Tragedy.
Comedy.
Nonverbal Language.
The Play in Performance
NEW Writing about a Filmed Version of a Play
NEW _ Checklist: Writing about a Filmed Play
Five Essays by Students 
NEW _ An Essay on Plot: Joel Shapiro, The Solid Structure of The Glass Menagerie
NEW _An Essay on Setting: Margaret Hammer, What the Kitchen in Trifles Tells Us 
NEW _ An Essay on Character and Theme: Carlos Alonso, Fairy Mischief and Morality in A Midsummer's 	Night's Dream
NEW An Essay on a Film: Will Saretta, Branagh's Film of Hamlet 
A Sample Student Essay Using Sources: Ruth Katz, The Women in Death of a Salesman 
 
30 A Collection of Plays 
Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman
A Context for Death of a Salesman
Arthur Miller, Tragedy and the Common Man
Luis Valdez, Los Vendidos
	A Context for Los Vendidos
Luis Valdez, The Actos
Jane Martin, Rodeo 
August Wilson, Fences
	A Context for Fences
	August Wilson, Talking About Fences
David Ives, Sure Thing
Terrence McNally, Andr¿s Mother
31 Critical Approaches: The Nature of Criticism 
Formalist (or New) Criticism
Deconstruction
Reader Response Criticism
Archetypal (or Myth) Criticism
Historical Scholarship
Marxist Criticism
The New Historicism
Biographical Criticism
Psychological (or Psychoanalytic) Criticism
Gender (Feminist, and Lesbian and Gay) Criticism
Suggestions for Further Reading
Appendix A
Basic Manuscript Form
Corrections in Final Copy
Quotations and Quotation Marks
Documentation: Footnotes, Internal Parenthetical Citations, and a List of Works Cited (MLA format)
Citing Sources on the World Wide Web 
Appendix B: Writing Essay Examinations
Why Do Instructors give Essay Examinations
Getting Ready
Writing Essay Answers
Appendix C Glossary of Literary Terms

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Literature -- Collections.