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Brief Contents 1 Introduction Part One PATTERNS AND MECHANISMS OF CLASSICAL INHERITANCE 2 Mendelian Genetics 3 Mitosis and Meiosis 4 Sex Determination and Linkage (updated since last toc) 5 Modifications to Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance 6 Linkage and Mapping in Eukaryotes Part Two MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE AND GENE EXPRESSION 7 DNA Structure and Chromosome Organization 8 Changes in Chromosome Structure and Number 9 DNA Replication 10 Gene Expression: Transcription 11 Gene Expression: Translation Part Three DNA TECHNOLOGIES 12 Recombinant DNA Technology 13 Molecular Genetic Manipulation 14 Genomics and Bioinformatics Part Four CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION 15 Prokaryotic Genetics 16 Gene Regulation 17 Mutations and Repair Mechanisms 18 Transposable Elements 19 Extranuclear Inheritance Part Five GENETICS AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES 21 Developmental Genetics 22 Cancer Genetics Part Six POPULATION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION 23 Population Genetics 24 Quantitative Genetics 25 Evolutionary Genetics Detailed Table of Contents Preface About the Author 1 Genetics and the Scientific Method 1.1 A Brief Overview of the Modern History of Genetics 1.2 The General Areas of Genetics 1.3 Why Fruit Flies and Colon Bacteria? 1.4 Applications of Genetics to the Human Population Genetic Linkages BOX 1.1 Lysenko, Government, and Failed Genetics Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems part one Patterns and Mechanisms of Classical Inheritance 2 Mendel's Principles 2.1 Mendel's Experiments 2.2 Segregation 2.3 Independent Assortment 2.4 Genetic Symbol Conventions 2.5 Probability 2.6 Statistics Genetic Linkages BOX 2.1 Calculating Probabilities from Complex Genotypes Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 3 Mitosis and Meiosis 3.1 Perspective 3.2 Cell Structure and Function 3.3 Chromosomes 3.4 The Cell Cycle and Its Control Mechanisms 3.5 Mitosis 3.6 Meiosis 3.7 Meiosis in Mammals 3.8 Life Cycles 3.9 Comparison Between Mitosis and Meiosis 3.10 The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Genetic Linkages BOX 3.1 The Relationship Between Meiosis and Mendel's Laws Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 4 Sex Determination and Linkage 4.1 Sex Determination 4.2 Proof of the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance 4.3 Gene Balance 4.4 Sex Linkage 4.5 Pedigree Analysis Genetic Linkages BOX 4.1 Calculating Genotypic Probabilities from Pedigrees Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 5 Modifications to Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance 5.1 Variance on Dominance 5.2 Multiple Alleles 5.3 Testing Allelism 5.4 Lethal Alleles 5.5 Penetrance and Expressivity 5.6 Genotypic Interactions 5.7 Epigenetics Genetic Linkages BOX 5.1 Using Reduced Penetrance Data in a Pedigree BOX 5.2 Deducing Single-Gene Versus Two-Gene Inheritance Mechanisms Based on Phenotypic Ratios Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 6 Linkage and Mapping in Eukaryotes 6.1 Linkage, Crossing Over, and Recombination: An Overview 6.2 Diploid Mapping 6.3 Mapping DNA Sequences 6.4 Haploid Mapping (Tetrad) Analysis 6.5 The Mechanism of Recombination 6.6 Unusual Recombination Events 6.7 Human Chromosomal Maps Genetic Linkages BOX 6.1 Generating a Recombination Map from Three-Point Testcross Data BOX 6.2 Calculating a Recombination Frequencies from a Linkage Map BOX 6.3 Using Linked DNA Markers to Calculate Genotypic Probabilities Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems part two Molecular Basis of Inheritance and Gene Expression 7 DNA Structure and Chromosome Organization 7.1 Required Properties of a Genetic Material 7.2 Evidence of DNA as the Genetic Material 7.3 Chemistry of Nucleic Acids 7.4 The Eukaryotic Cell 7.5 The Eukaryotic Chromosome Genetic Linkages BOX 7.1 Analysis of the Genetic Material in Prions Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 8 Changes in Chromosome Structure and Number 8.1 Variation in Chromosome Structure: An Overview 8.2 Deletions 8.3 Inversions 8.4 Translocations 8.5 Centromeric Breaks 8.6 Duplications 8.7 Variation in Chromosome Number: An Overview 8.8 Aneuploidy 8.9 Changes in Euploidy Genetic Linkages BOX 8.1 Deletion Mapping of Recessive Alleles Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 9 DNA Replication 9.1 The Mechanism of DNA Synthesis 9.2 The Process of Strand Synthesis 9.3 The Point of Origin of DNA Replication 9.4 Termination of Replication 9.5 Other Replication Structures 9.6 Eukaryotic DNA replication Genetic Linkages BOX 9.1 The Application of Reasoning to Solve the Structure of DNA Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 10 Gene Expression: Transcription 10.1 Types of RNA 10.2 Prokaryotic Transcription: Preliminaries 10.3 Prokaryotic Transcription: The Process 10.4 Ribosomes and Ribosomal RNA 10.5 Transfer RNA 10.6 Eukaryotic Transcription 10.7 Posttranscriptional Modifications in Eukaryotes 10.8 MicroRNA 10.9 Update: The Flow of Genetic Information Genetic Linkages BOX 10.1 Determining Which Eukaryotic RNA Polymerase Transcribes a Gene Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 11 Gene Expression: Translation 11.1 The One-Gene/One-Enzyme Hypothesis 11.2 Protein Structure 11.3 The Colinearity of mRNA and Protein Sequences 11.4 Translation: Preliminaries 11.5 Translation: The Process 11.6 Posttranslational Changes to Peptide Chains 11.7 The Genetic Code Genetic Linkages BOX 11.1 Reverse Translation from Amino Acid Sequence to Deduced Nucleotide Sequence Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems part three DNA Technologies 12 Recombinant DNA Technology 12.1 Cloning DNA 12.2 DNA Libraries 12.3 Identifying and Isolating Specific Sequences 12.4 Restriction Mapping 12.5 DNA Sequencing Genetic Linkages BOX 12.1 Determining a Restriction Map Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 13 Application of Recombinant DNA Technology 13.1 Mapping Mutations in Eukaryotes 13.2 Cloning Eukaryotic Genes 13.3 Eukaryotic Vectors 13.4 Sire-Specific Mutagenesis 13.5 Introducing Foreign DNA into Cells 13.6 Mouse Genetics 13.7 Human Gene Therapy 13.8 Cloned Organisms 13.9 Practical Benefits from Gene Cloning 13.10 Ethical Considerations Genetic Linkages BOX 13.1 Performing a Genomic Walk Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 14 Genomics and Bioinformatics 14.1 Approaches to Sequencing a Genome 14.2 Correlating Various Maps 14.3 Annotating the Genomic Sequence 14.4 Transcriptomics 14.5 Proteomics 14.6 Ethical Considerations Genetic Linkages Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems part four Control of Gene Expression 15 Genetics of Bacteria and Bacteriophages 15.1 Bacteria and Bacteriophages in Genetic Research 15.2 Morphological Characteristics 15.3 Techniques of Cultivation 15.4 Bacterial Phenotypes 15.5 Bacteriophage Life Cycles and Phenotypes 15.6 Overview of Sexual Processes in Bacteria 15.7 Transformation 15.8 Conjugation 15.9 Transduction 15.10 Phage Genetics Genetic Linkages BOX 15.1 Distinguishing Between Mapping Through Conjugation and Transduction Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 16 Gene Expression: Control in Bacteria and Phages 16.1 The Operon Model 16.2 The Lactose Operon (Inducible System) 16.3 Catabolite Repression 16.4 The Arabinose Operon 16.5 The Tryptophan Operon (Repressible System) 16.6 The Tryptophan Operon (Attenuator-Controlled System) 16.7 Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles in Phage ? 16.8 Other Transcriptional Control Systems 16.9 Translational Control 16.10 Posttranslational Control Genetic Linkages BOX 16.1 Deducing Expression of lac Structural Genes in Complex Merozygotes Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 17 Gene Expression: Control in Eukaryotes 17.1 The cis Regulatory Elements: Control of RNA Polymerase II Action 17.2 The trans Regulatory Elements: Proteins 17.3 The trans Regulatory Elements: RNA 17.4 Example of a Complex Regulatory Network: The Dorsal Protein 17.5 The Role of Chromatin in Gene Regulation 17.6 Methylation of DNA 17.7 Imprinting 17.8 Posttranscriptional Regulation 17.9 Translational Control 17.10 Posttranslational Control 17.11 Interaction of Multiple Regulatory Mechanisms 17.12 Eukaryotic Versus Prokaryotic Gene Regulation Genetic Linkages BOX 17.1 Determining the Pattern of DNA Methylation Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 18 DNA Mutation, Repair, and Transposition 18.1 Mutation 18.2 Types of Mutations and Their Effects 18.3 Mutagenesis: Origin of Mutation 18.4 DNA Repair 18.5 Transposable Genetic Elements Genetic Linkages BOX 18.1 Calculating Mutation Rate and Mutation Frequency BOX 18.2 Applying Mutagenic Mechanisms to Generate Nonsense Mutations Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 19 Extranuclear Inheritance 19.1 Physiological Roles of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 19.2 Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 19.3 Structure and Organization of Organellar Genomes 19.4 Mechanisms of Organellar Inheritance 19.5 Inherited Human Mitochondrial Diseases Genetic Linkages BOX 19.1 Inheritance of Mitochondrial-Associated Metabolic Disease in Humans Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 20 Mutational Analysis 20.1 Types of Mutations 20.2 Forward Genetics 20.3 Reverse Genetics 20.4 Advanced Genetic Analysis 20.5 Phenocopying Genetic Linkages BOX 20.1 Mapping Chromosomal Breakpoints Associated with a Mutant Phenotype Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems part five Genetics and Biological Processes 21 Developmental Genetics 21.1 Basic Concepts in Animal Development 21.2 Pattern Formation During Drosophila Embryonic Development 21.3 Generation of Cell Identity During Development 21.4 Sex Determination 21.5 Drosophila Eye Development 21.6 Programmed Cell Death in Development Genetic Linkages BOX 21.1 Identification of Genes Involved in Signaling Pathways Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 22 Cancer Genetics 22.1 What Is Cancer? 22.2 Carcinogens 22.3 The Cell Cycle 22.4 Apoptosis 22.5 Spontaneous Cancers 22.6 Cancer Predisposition and Familial Cancers 22.7 Tumor Progression Genetic Linkages BOX 22.1 Detection of K-ras Mutations in Pancreatic Cancer Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems part six Population Genetics and Evolution 23 Population Genetics 23.1 What Is Population Genetics? 23.2 Frequencies of Genotypes and Alleles 23.3 Hardy?Weinberg Equilibrium 23.4 Selection: Shifting Allele Frequencies 23.5 Random Genetic Drift 23.6 Migration and Population Structure 23.7 Nonrandom Mating Genetic Linkages BOX 23.1 Application of the Hardy?Weinberg Equilibrium to a Human Population Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 24 Quantitative Genetics: Complex Genetic Traits 24.1 What Is Quantitative Genetics? 24.2 Polygenic Traits 24.3 Statistical Tools in Quantitative Genetics 24.4 The Nature of Continuous Variation 24.5 Heritability 24.6 Quantitative Genetics in Ecology 24.7 Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Genetic Linkages BOX 24.1 Analyzing Covariance and Predicting Values from Data Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems 25 Evolutionary Genetics 25.1 Charles Darwin and the Principles of Natural Selection 25.2 What Is Evolutionary Genetics? 25.3 Speciation 25.4 Evolution at the Molecular Level 25.5 Comparison of Genomes and Proteomes 25.6 Applications of Evolutionary Genetics Genetic Linkages Chapter Summary Questions Solved Problems Exercises and Problems Appendix A: Brief Answers to Selected Exercises, Problems, and Critical Thinking Questions Appendix B: Suggestions for Further Reading Glossary Index
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