Table of contents for Jewish subjects and their tribal chieftains in Kurdistan : a study in survival / by Mordechai Zaken.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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CONTENTS
Preface ......................................................................................... xi
Transliteration Notes .................................................................. xiii
Table of Transliteration ............................................................. xvii
Foreword ..................................................................................... xix
Historical Setting ........................................................................ 1
The Land and the Peoples ..................................................... 1
The Position of the Jews in the Previous Centuries .............. 9
PART I
URBAN JEWS AND THEIR TRIBAL AGHAS
Preliminary Remarks on the Tribal Kurdish Society ................ 21
A. The Division between Urban and Rural, Town and
Tribe .................................................................................. 21
B. The Dual System of Government ................................... 23
C. Patronage of the Jews by Kurdish Aghas ........................ 24
D. Social, Economic and Religious Institutions .................... 26
Chapter One Zakho ................................................................ 33
A. The Family of Shamdin Agha ......................................... 33
1. Abd al-Karim Agha, Patron of the Jews ..................... 36
B. Tribal Aghas and their Jewish and Christian Subjects .... 43
C. The Murders of Assyrians in Bersibi and Kestaye .......... 46
D. Hajji Sadiq Byro of the Gulli Tribe and his Jewish
Protege Na um Sabto ...................................................... 52
Chapter Two Aqra ................................................................... 59
A. Khawaja Khinno's Household ......................................... 59
1. Association with Aghas and Bureaucrats ..................... 63
2. Relationships with Tribal Aghas .................................. 66
B. The Barzani Tribal Chiefs and the Jews .......................... 67
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Chapter Three Dohuk ............................................................. 79
A. Sa id Agha Doski, his Sons and the Jews of Dohuk ....... 80
1. Aghatusa or Srixusa-the Agha's rightful Dues or
Corruption? .................................................................. 82
a) Shopping at the Expense of a Jewish Merchant .... 84
b) A Petty Dispute ........................................................ 85
c) Exploitation .............................................................. 86
d) Paying Dewali's Fine ................................................ 89
e) Claiming the Cost of a Futile Amulet .................... 90
B. Shaikh Abdallah Barifkani ................................................ 93
C. The Feud between Hajji Malo and Shaikh Nuri ............ 95
Chapter Four Amadiya ............................................................ 97
A. Amadiya in the Previous Centuries .................................. 97
B. Relations with Local Offi cials and Aghas ........................ 99
1. Hajji Abd al-La if Agha and His Sons ....................... 100
2. Hajji Sha ban and His Sons ........................................ 103
Chapter Five Sulaimaniya ....................................................... 107
A. The Establishment of Sulaimaniya from the Jews'
Perspective ......................................................................... 108
B. Incident against the Jews .................................................. 108
C. The Aghas and the Jews: Shaikh Ma mud Berzenji ...... 110
Chapter Six Shino, Mulla Mu afa and the Jews ................... 113
A. Barzani's Jewish Liaison .................................................... 114
1. Confi scation of Wheat ................................................. 115
2. Violating the Synagogue .............................................. 115
3. Redeeming Jewish POWs of the Persian Army .......... 116
4. Tea and Sugar during the Siege .................................. 117
5. Michaeli Jailed for Associations with Barzani ............. 119
B. Urban Jews and their Aghas: Concluding Remarks ........ 120
PART II
RURAL JEWS AND THEIR TRIBAL AGHAS
Chapter One The Experience of Rural Jews ......................... 125
A. Sandur, a Jewish Village ................................................... 130
B. Tribal and Non-Tribal Societies ....................................... 134
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C. Tribal Patronage ............................................................... 136
D. The Image of the Jews ..................................................... 137
E. The Status of the Jews ..................................................... 140
1. Jewish Slaves ................................................................. 143
2. The Authority of the Agha ......................................... 150
F. The Jewish Subjects as Assets ........................................... 157
G. Loyalty of the Jews ........................................................... 160
H. Helping the Agha ............................................................. 164
1. Providing Ammunition to Barzani .............................. 164
2. Helping Qadir Agha Zibari's Wife .............................. 166
Chapter Two Guardianship and Justice by the Aghas ........... 167
A. Physical Escort .................................................................. 168
B. The Justice of Tribal Aghas ............................................. 171
1. Hajji Abdallah and Shaikh Abd al-Aziz ..................... 171
2. Qadir Agha Zibari of Suriye ....................................... 172
3. Shaikh Muhammad Rabatke ....................................... 174
4. Shaikh Tawfiq of Sisnawa ........................................... 181
C. Rural Jews and their Agha: Concluding Remarks ........... 183
PART III
SOME ASPECTS OF DAILY AND PERSONAL LIFE
Chapter One The safety of Jews in Kurdistan ....................... 187
A. Motives for Migration ....................................................... 187
B. Murder of Jews in the Tribal Setting -the Tribal
Response ............................................................................ 195
1. Kafi r Ku t -the Killing of Infi dels ................................ 195
2. Leniency towards the Murderers of Jews ................... 197
3. Murder of Jews in Rural areas .................................... 201
4. Massacre in Sandur ..................................................... 207
Chapter Two The Economic Position of the Jews ................. 213
A. Before the 20th Century ................................................... 213
B. The Main Occupations of Jews ....................................... 218
1. Urban Economy ........................................................... 220
a) Methods of Precaution ........................................... 225
b) Adventures of a Jewish Peddler .............................. 229
c) The Slaughterer of Animals ................................... 232
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2. Rural Economy ............................................................ 233
a) The Social Role of the Weaver .............................. 234
b) The Question of Dues and the Regulation of
Taxes ........................................................................ 236
c) Communal Labor on behalf of the Agha-forced
or voluntarily? .......................................................... 240
3. Exploitation of the Non-Tribal Jews ........................... 242
a) Deception ................................................................. 242
b) A Vineyard changing hands .................................... 244
c) The First Gas Station in Zakho .............................. 245
Chapter Three Conversion of Jews to Islam in the Kurdish
Society ......................................................................................... 247
A. Conversion of Jews to Islam ............................................. 247
B. Main Causes for Conversion ............................................ 250
1. Abduction of Jewish Women ....................................... 251
2. Economic Status ........................................................... 254
3. Romance ....................................................................... 255
4. Conversion to Escape Punishment .............................. 256
5. "Anchored" Women and Domestic Problems ............. 256
C. Mechanisms Applied by the Jews to Overturn
Conversion .......................................................................... 258
1. Appealing to the Local Authority ................................ 259
2. Communal Panel of Deliberation ............................... 261
3. A Period of Seclusion .................................................. 263
D. The Role of Aghas and Shaikhs ...................................... 264
E. Conversion of Jewish Men ................................................ 266
PART IV
THE LAST GENERATION IN KURDISTAN: BETWEEN
WWI AND THE IMMIGRATION TO ISRAEL
Chapter One Jewish Experience during World War I:
Conscription and Evasion .......................................................... 271
A. Evading Military Service .................................................. 276
1. Rural Kurdistan as a Safe Haven ................................ 276
2. Tax Substitute, Exemption and Desertion .................. 280
B. Migration because of Scarcity of Food ........................... 284
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C. Forced Labor ..................................................................... 286
D. Casualties of Jewish Soldiers ............................................ 288
Chapter Two The End of the War and the Years Following 290
A. New Political Developments ............................................. 295
Chapter Three Jews, Kurds and Arabs, 1941-1952 ............... 300
A. Effects of the Farhud Pogroms ........................................... 301
1. Kirkuk ........................................................................... 304
2. Sulaimaniya .................................................................. 305
3. Dohuk ........................................................................... 307
4. Zakho ............................................................................ 308
5. Koi-Sanjaq .................................................................... 309
B. Effects of the Establishment of the State of Israel ......... 310
1. The Position of the Jews Worsened ............................ 311
2. Tribal Intimidation and Raids against the Jews .......... 318
a) Aqra ......................................................................... 318
b) Zakho and Dohuk ................................................... 320
c) Sandur ..................................................................... 323
d) Garzangel ................................................................. 324
C. Accusations and Imprisonment of Jews ........................... 325
1. Imprisonment for Hailing Israel .................................. 327
D. Economic Pressure before the Emigration to Israel ........ 333
Concluding Remarks: ................................................................. 338
Glossary ....................................................................................... 344
Bibliography ................................................................................ 347
Archives Searched and Cited: ................................................ 347
Existing Bibliographies on the Kurds: ................................... 347
Encyclopedias and Voluminous reports: ................................ 347
Iraq Administration Reports 1914-1932. 10 Vols. Oxford:
Archive Editions. 1992 ...................................................... 000
Hebrew Responsa Literature (??"?): ......................................... 348
Bois, Thomas. ......................................................................... 349
Chyet, Michael ........................................................................ 350
Darkot, Besim ......................................................................... 350
Dodge, Bayard ........................................................................ 350
Gavish, Haya .......................................................................... 351
Notes on the informants ............................................................. 361

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Jews -- Kurdistan -- History.
Jews -- Identity -- Kurdistan -- History.
Jews -- Kurdistan -- Social conditions.
Chiefdoms -- Kurdistan -- History.
Kurdistan -- History.
Kurdistan -- Ethnic relations.