Table of contents for An introduction to sociolinguistics / Janet Holmes.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Brief Contents
Preface	xv
Author's acknowledgements	xvi
Publisher's acknowledgements	xvii
1	What do sociolinguists study?	1
Section A Multilingual speech communities	17
2	Language choice in multilingual communities	19
3	Language maintenance and shift	52
4	Linguistic varieties and multilingual nations	74
5	National languages and language planning	98
Section B Language variation: focus on users	125
6	Regional and social dialects	127
7	Gender and age	157
8	Ethnicity and social networks	184
9	Language change	204
Section C Language variation: focus on uses	233
10	Style, context and register	235
11	Speech functions, politeness and cross-cultural communication	270
12	Gender, politeness and stereotypes	296
13	Language, cognition and culture	330
14	Analysing discourse	356
15	Attitudes and applications	406
16	Conclusion	432
References		448
Appendix I	Phonetic symbols	469
Appendix II	Preface to Þrst edition	471
Appendix III	Preface to second edition	472
Glossary		473
Index		475
Contents
Preface	xv
Author's acknowledgements	xvi
Publisher's acknowledgements	xvii
1	What do sociolinguists study?	1
	What is a sociolinguist?	1
	Why do we say the same thing in different ways?	3
	What are the different ways we say things?	4
	Social factors, dimensions and explanations	9
	Answers to exercises in chapter 1	13
	Concepts introduced	15
	References	16
	Useful additional reading	16
Section A Multilingual speech communities	17
2	Language choice in multilingual communities	19
	Choosing your variety or code	19
	Diglossia	27
	Code-switching or code-mixing	35
	Answers to exercises in chapter 2	47
	Concepts introduced	50
	References	50
	Quotations	51
	Useful additional reading	51
3	Language maintenance and shift	52
	Language shift in different communities	52
	Language death and language loss	58
	Factors contributing to language shift	60
	How can a minority language be maintained?	64
	Language revival	66
	Answers to exercises in chapter 3	70
	Concepts introduced	72
	References	73
	Quotations	73
	Useful additional reading	73
4	Linguistic varieties and multilingual nations	74
	Vernacular languages	75
	Standard languages	76
	Lingua francas	80
	Pidgins and creoles	83
	Answers to exercises in chapter 4	94
	Concepts introduced	96
	References	96
	Quotations	97
	Useful additional reading	97
5	National languages and language planning	98
	National and ofÞcial languages	99
	Planning for a national ofÞcial language	105
	Developing a standard variety in Norway	109
	The linguist's role in language planning	112
	Answers to exercises in chapter 5	119
	Concepts introduced	122
	References	123
	Quotations	123
	Useful additional reading	123
Section B Language variation: focus on users	125
6	Regional and social dialects	127
	Regional variation	128
	Social variation	136
	Social dialects	137
	Answers to exercises in chapter 6	154
	Concepts introduced	155
	References	155
	Quotations	155
	Useful additional reading	156
7	Gender and age	157
	Gender-exclusive speech differences: highly structured communities	157
	Gender-preferential speech features: social dialect research	160
	Gender and social class	161
	Explanations of women's linguistic behaviour	164
	Age-graded features of speech	173
	Age and social dialect data	175
	Age grading and language change	178
	Answers to exercises in chapter 7	180
	Concepts introduced	181
	References	181
	Quotations	182
	Useful additional reading	182
	Appendix	182
8	Ethnicity and social networks	184
	Ethnicity	184
	Social networks	193
	Answers to exercises in chapter 8	201
	Concepts introduced	202
	References	202
	Quotations	203
	Useful additional reading	203
9	Language change	204
	Variation and change	205
	How do changes spread?	211
	How do we study language change?	216
	Reasons for language change	219
	Answers to exercises in chapter 9	227
	Concepts introduced	230
	References	231
	Quotations	231
	Useful additional reading	231
Section C Language variation: focus on uses	233
10	Style, context and register	235
	Addressee as an inßuence on style	236
	Accommodation theory	242
	Context, style and class	246
	Style in non-Western societies	255
	Register	259
	Answers to exercises in chapter 10	265
	Concepts introduced	268
	References	268
	Quotations	269
	Useful additional reading	269
11	 Speech functions, politeness and cross-cultural communication	270
	The functions of speech	270
	Politeness and address forms	280
	Linguistic politeness in different cultures	287
	Answers to exercises in chapter 11	292
	Concepts introduced	294
	References	295
	Quotations	295
	Useful additional reading	295
12	Gender, politeness and stereotypes	296
	Women's language and conÞdence	296
	Interaction	305
	Gossip	311
	The construction of gender	316
	Sexist language	318
	Answers to exercises in chapter 12	323
	Concepts introduced	327
	References	327
	Quotations	328
	Useful additional reading	329
13	Language, cognition and culture	330
	Language and perception	331
	Whorf	336
	Linguistic categories and culture	341
	Discourse patterns and culture	345
	Language, social class and cognition	347
	Answers to exercises in chapter 13	352
	Concepts introduced	353
	References	354
	Quotations	354
	Useful additional reading	355
14	Analysing discourse	356
	Pragmatics and politeness theory	357
	Ethnography of speaking	366
	Interactional sociolinguistics	373
	Conversation Analysis (CA)	379
	Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)	390
	Conclusion	399
	Answers to exercises in chapter 14	400
	Concepts introduced	404
	References	404
	Quotations and deÞnitions	405
	Useful additional reading	405
15	Attitudes and applications	406
	Attitudes to language	406
	Sociolinguistics and education	421
	Answers to exercises in chapter 15	428
	Concepts introduced	430
	References	430
	Quotations	430
	Useful additional reading	431
16	Conclusion	432
	Sociolinguistic competence	432
	Dimensions of sociolinguistic analysis	440
	Sociolinguistic universals	443
	Concepts introduced	447
	References	447
	Useful additional reading	447
References	448
Appendix I	Phonetic symbols	469
Appendix II	Preface to Þrst edition	471
Appendix III	Preface to second edition	472
Glossary	473
Index	475

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Sociolinguistics.