Table of contents for Atmosphere, ocean, and climate dynamics : an introductory text / editors John Marshall and R. Alan Plumb.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
0.1 Outline, scope, and rationale of the book xi 
0.2 Preface xii 
0.2.1 Natural fluid dynamics xiii 
0.2.2 Rotating fluid dynamics: GFD Lab0 xv 
0.2.3 Holicism xvii 
1. Characteristics of the atmosphere 1 
1.1 Geometry 1 
1.2 Chemical composition of the atmosphere 2 
1.3 Physical properties of air 4 
1.3.1 Dry air 4 
1.3.2 Moist air 5 
1.3.3 GFD Lab I: Cloud formation on adiabatic expansion 7 
1.4 Problems 8 
2. The global energy balance 9 
2.1 Planetary emission temperature 9 
2.2 The atmospheric absorption spectrum 13 
2.3 The greenhouse effect 13 
2.3.1 Asimple greenhouse model 14 
2.3.2 Aleaky greenhouse 15 
2.3.3 Amore opaque greenhouse 16 
2.3.4 Climate feedbacks 18 
2.4 Further reading 19 
2.5 Problems 19 
3. The vertical structure of the atmosphere 23 
3.1 Vertical distribution of temperature and ¿¿greenhouse gases¿¿ 23 
3.1.1 Typical temperature profile 23 
3.1.2 Atmospheric layers 24 
3.2 The relationship between pressure and density: hydrostatic balance 26 
3.3 Vertical structure of pressure and density 28 
3.3.1 Isothermal atmosphere 28 
3.3.2 Non isothermal atmosphere 28 
3.3.3 Density 29 
3.4 Further reading 29 
3.5 Problems 29 
4. Convection 32 
4.1 The nature of convection 32 
4.1.1 Convection in a shallow fluid 32 
4.1.2 Instability 33 
4.2 Convection in water (an almost-incompressible fluid) 34 
4.2.1 Buoyancy 34 
4.2.2 Stability 35 
4.2.3 Energetics 36 
4.2.4 GFD Lab II: Convection 36 
4.3 Dry convection in a compressible atmosphere 39 
4.3.1 The adiabatic lapse rate (in unsaturated air) 39 
4.3.2 Potential temperature 41 
4.4 The atmosphere under stable conditions 42 
4.4.1 Gravity waves 42 
4.4.2 Temperature inversions 44 
4.5 Moist convection 46 
4.5.1 Humidity 47 
4.5.2 Saturated adiabatic lapse rate 48 
4.5.3 Equivalent potential temperature 50 
4.6 Convection in the atmosphere 50 
4.6.1 Types of convection 51 
4.6.2 Where does convection occur? 55 
4.7 Radiative-convective equilibrium 55 
4.8 Further reading 57 
4.9 Problems 57 
5. The meridional structure of the atmosphere 61 
5.1 Radiative forcing and temperature 62 
5.1.1 Incoming radiation 62 
5.1.2 Outgoing radiation 63 
5.1.3 The energy balance of the atmosphere 63 
5.1.4 Meridional structure of temperature 64 
5.2 Pressure and geopotential height 67 
5.3 Moisture 69 
5.4 Winds 72 
5.4.1 Distribution of winds 72 
5.5 Further reading 77 
5.6 Problems 77 
6. The equations of .uid motion 79 
6.1 Differentiation following the motion 80 
6.2 Equation of motion for a nonrotating fluid 82 
6.2.1	Forces on a fluid parcel 82 
6.2.2	The equation of motion 84 
6.2.3	Hydrostatic balance 85 
6.3 Conservation of mass 85 
6.3.1	Incompressible flow 86 
6.3.2	Compressible flow 86 
6.4 Thermodynamic equation 87 
6.5 Integration, boundary conditions, and restrictions in application 87 
6.6 Equation of motion for a rotating fluid 87 
6.6.1	GFD Lab III: Radial inflow 88 
6.6.2	Transformation into rotating coordinates 91 
6.6.3	The rotating equation of motion 92 
6.6.4	GFD Lab IV and V: Experiments with Coriolis forces on a parabolic rotating table 94 
6.6.5	Putting things on the sphere 98 
6.6.6	GFD Lab VI: An experiment on the Earth¿s rotation 101 
6.7 Further reading 102 
6.8 Problems 102 
7. Balanced .ow 105 
7.1 Geostrophic motion 106 
7.1.1	The geostrophic wind in pressure coordinates 108 
7.1.2	Highs and lows; synoptic charts 110 
7.1.3	Balanced flow in the radial-inflow experiment 112 
7.2 The Taylor-Proudman theorem 112 
7.2.1	GFD Lab VII: Taylor columns 114 
7.3 The thermal wind equation 114 
7.3.1	GFD Lab VIII: The thermal wind relation 116 
7.3.2	The thermal wind equation and the Taylor-Proudman theorem 118 
7.3.3	GFD Lab IX: cylinder ¿¿collapse¿¿ under gravity and rotation 119 
7.3.4	Mutual adjustment of velocity and pressure 121 
7.3.5	Thermal wind in pressure coordinates 122 
7.4 Subgeostrophic flow: the Ekman layer 124 
7.4.1	GFD Lab X: Ekman layers: frictionally-induced cross-isobaric flow 125 
7.4.2	Ageostrophic flow in atmospheric highs and lows 127 
7.4.3	Planetary-scale ageostrophic flow 129 
7.5 Problems 130 
8. The general circulation of the atmosphere 135 
8.1 Understanding the observed circulation 136 
8.2 Amechanistic view of the circulation 137 
8.2.1	The tropical Hadley circulation 138 
8.2.2	The extratropical circulation and GFD Lab XI: baroclinic instability 141 
8.3 Energetics of the thermal wind equation 145 
8.3.1	Potential energy for a fluid system 145 
8.3.2	Available potential energy 146 
8.3.3	Release of available potential energy in baroclinic instability 148 
8.3.4	Energetics in a compressible atmosphere 149 
8.4 Large-scale atmospheric heat and momentum budget 150 
8.4.1	Heat transport 150 
8.4.2	Momentum transport 152 
8.5 Latitudinal variations of climate 153 
8.6 Further reading 154 
8.7 Problems 155 
9. The ocean and its circulation 159 
9.1 Physical characteristics of the ocean 160 
9.1.1	The ocean basins 160 
9.1.2	The cryosphere 161 
9.1.3	Properties of seawater; equation of state 161 
9.1.4	Temperature, salinity, and temperature structure 164 
9.1.5	The mixed layer and thermocline 167 
9.2 The observed mean circulation 172 
9.3 Inferences from geostrophic and hydrostatic balance 178 
9.3.1	Ocean surface structure and geostrophic flow 179 
9.3.2	Geostrophic flow at depth 180 
9.3.3	Steric effects 182 
9.3.4	The dynamic method 183 
9.4 Ocean eddies 184 
9.4.1	Observations of ocean eddies 184 
9.5 Further reading 185 
9.6 Problems 186 
10. The wind-driven circulation 193 
10.1 The wind stress and Ekman layers 194 
10.1.1	Balance of forces and transport in the Ekman layer 195 
10.1.2	Ekman pumping and suction and GFD Lab XII 197 
10.1.3	Ekman pumping and suction induced by large-scale wind patterns 199 
10.2 Response of the interior ocean to Ekman pumping 202 
10.2.1	Interior balances 202 
10.2.2	Wind-driven gyres and western boundary currents 202 
10.2.3	Taylor-Proudman on the sphere 203 
10.2.4	GFD Lab XIII: Wind-driven ocean gyres 207 
10.3 The depth-integrated circulation: Sverdrup theory 209 
10.3.1	Rationalization of position, sense of circulation, and volume transport of ocean gyres 210 
10.4 Effects of stratification and topography 212 
10.4.1	Taylor-Proudman in a layered ocean 213 
10.5 Baroclinic instability in the ocean 214 
10.6 Further reading 216 
10.7 Problems 216 
11. The thermohaline circulation of the ocean 219 
11.1 Air-sea fluxes and surface property distributions 220 
11.1.1	Heat, freshwater, and buoyancy fluxes 220 
11.1.2	Interpretation of surface temperature distributions 227 
11.1.3	Sites of deep convection 229 
11.2 The observed thermohaline circulation 230 
11.2.1	Inferences from interior tracer distributions 231 
11.2.2	Time scales and intensity of thermohaline circulation 234 
11.3 Dynamical models of the thermohaline circulation 235 
11.3.1	Abyssal circulation schematic deduced from Taylor-Proudman on the sphere 235 
11.3.2	GFD Lab XIV: The abyssal circulation 236 
11.3.3	Why western boundary currents? 238 
11.3.4	GFD Lab XV: Source sink flow in a rotating basin 240 
11.4 Observations of abyssal ocean circulation 241 
11.5 The ocean heat budget and transport 244 
11.5.1	Meridional heat transport 245 
11.5.2	Mechanisms of ocean heat transport and the partition of heat transport between the atmosphere and ocean 248 
11.6 Freshwater transportby the ocean 251 
11.7 Further reading 251 
11.8 Problems 252 
12. Climate and climate variability 255 
12.1 The ocean as a buffer of temperature change 257 
12.1.1	Nonseasonal changes in SST 259 
12.2 El Ni ¿	261
no and the Southern Oscillation 
12.2.1	Interannual variability 261 
12.2.2	¿¿Normal¿¿ conditions¿equatorial upwelling and the Walker circulation 262 
12.2.3	ENSO 265 
12.2.4	Other modes of variability 269 
12.3 Paleoclimate 269 
12.3.1	Climate over Earth¿s history 271 
12.3.2	Paleotemperatures over the past 70 million years: the d18Orecord 273 
12.3.3	Greenhouse climates 275 
12.3.4	Cold climates 276 
12.3.5	Glacial-interglacial cycles 278 
12.3.6	Global warming 287 
12.4 Further reading 287 
12.5 Problems 288 
Appendices 291 
A.1 Derivation 291 
A.1.1	The Planck function 291 
A.1.2	Computation of available potential energy 292 
A.1.3	Internal energy for a compressible atmosphere 292 
A.2 Mathematical definitions and notation 292 
A.2.1 Taylor expansion 292 
A.2.2 Vector identities 293 
A.2.3 Polar and speherical coordinates 294 
A.3 Use offoraminifera shells in paleoclimate 294 
A.4 Laboratory experiments 295 
A.4.1 Rotating tables 295 
A.4.2 List of laboratory experiments 296 
A.5 Figures and access to data over the web 298 
References 299 
Text broks and reviews 299
Other references 299
References to paleodata surfaces 300
Index 303 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Atmospheric circulation.
Ocean-atmosphere interaction.
Ocean circulation.
Fluid dynamics.
Atmospheric thermodynamics.