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Contents: Foreword List of Figures List of Tables Acronyms Glossary 1 Introduction to urban aquatic habitats management 1.1 Impact of global processes on water resources in cities 1.2 Aquatic habitats in integrated urban water management: How are they managed and mismanaged? 1.3 Comments on urban aquatic habitat management: Restoration, preservation, rehabilitation or remediation? 1.4 Structure of this book 2 Urban aquatic habitats: Characteristics and functioning 2.1 Characteristics of aquatic habitats 2.2 Human modifications of aquatic habitats 2.2.1 Flow regime 2.2.2 Physical habitat structure 2.2.3 Biotic interactions 2.2.4 Food (energy) sources 2.2.5 Chemical variables (water quality) 2.2.6 Factor interdependencies 2.3 Background on aquatic ecosystem functioning 2.3.1 Conceptual model of aquatic ecosystem functioning 2.3.2 Definition of objectives for preservation or rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems 2.3.3 Selecting preservation or rehabilitation measures 3 Strategies, policies and regulations integrating protection and rehabilitation of aquatic habitats in urban water management 3.1 Strategies for protection and rehabilitation of urban aquatic habitats 3.1.1 Sustainable development 3.1.2 Ecosystem approach 3.1.3 Measuring progress towards sustainability: Criteria and indicators 18.104.22.168 UN Division for Sustainable Development indicators (2006) 22.214.171.124 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI): Yale University and Columbia University, 2005 126.96.36.199 Pillar-based sustainability criteria 3.1.4 Urban environmental management approaches 188.8.131.52 Low impact development (LID) 184.108.40.206 Total management of the urban water cycle (TMUWC) 220.127.116.11 Soft path for water 3.2 Regulations and policies driving the implementation of strategies for urban aquatic habitats protection and rehabilitation 3.2.1 Approaches focusing on aquatic habitat protection 3.2.2 Approaches focusing on water quality protection 3.2.3 Integrated regulations and policies addressing aquatic habitats 3.2.4 Additional observations concerning developing countries 3.2.5 Emerging challenges 4 Ecosensitive approaches to managing urban aquatic habitats and their integration with urban infrastructure 4.1 Urban water cycle and aquatic habitats 4.2 Habitat interactions with water supply 4.2.1 Managing water import into urban areas 4.2.2 Impacts on aquatic habitats imposed by water reservoirs 4.3 Habitat interactions with urban drainage and flood protection 4.3.1 Urban drainage: Problem definition and needs for management 18.104.22.168 Urban drainage impacts on aquatic habitats 22.214.171.124 Overview of aquatic life support conditions in urban waters impacted by stormwater discharges 126.96.36.199 Need for stormwater management 4.3.2 Urban drainage: Stormwater management goals 4.3.3 Tools for effective stormwater management 188.8.131.52 Guidelines and targets 184.108.40.206 Technological measures (BMPs) 4.3.4 Promotion of modern stormwater management 4.3.5 Flood protection 4.4 Habitat interactions with wastewater management and sanitation systems 4.4.1 Basic demands on wastewater management systems 4.4.2 Wastewater systems without separation of waste streams at the source 4.4.3 Water and wastewater reuse for environmental benefits 4.4.4 Technology and site selection 4.5 Concludingobservations 5 Aquatic habitat rehabilitation: Goals, constraints and techniques 5.1 Assessing the ecological potential of the river 5.1.1 Buffering mechanisms 5.1.2 Methods for river state assessment 220.127.116.11 Bioassessment 18.104.22.168 Physical and geomorphological assessment 5.2 Techniques in urban river rehabilitation 5.2.1 Rehabilitation of hydrological dynamics of river habitats 22.214.171.124 Attenuation of peaks flows using in-catchment or on-watercourse storage reservoirs 126.96.36.199 Managing the high flow regime in floodplains and riverbeds 188.8.131.52 Assurance of minimum flows during dry weather 184.108.40.206 Flattening of the river longitudinal grade 5.2.2 Rehabilitation of the physical structure of river habitats 220.127.116.11 Re-meandering straight watercourse sections 18.104.22.168 Bank management and maintenance 5.2.3 Reconstruction of biotic structure 22.214.171.124 In-stream vegetation: The use of aquatic plants 126.96.36.199 Bank and riparian vegetation: The role of land/water ecotones 5.2.4 Phytoremediation 86 5.2.5 Increasing capacity of urban habitats for water and nutrients retentiveness 5.3 Improving the likelihood of success in the implementation of rehabilitation projects 6 Ecohydrology of urban aquatic ecosystems for healthy cities 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Ecohydrology concept and principles 6.2.1 Genesis of the concept 6.2.2 Creating opportunities for the degraded environment 6.3 Ecohydrology for the urban environment 6.4 Multidimensional benefits of the ecohydrological approach for the urban environment and the society 6.5 Implementation of the ecohydrological approach 7 Integrating aquatic habitat management into urban planning 7.1 Biodiversity and the emergence of sustainable development practices in urban landscape planning 7.2 The need for inventories of aquatic habitats 7.3 Incorporating wetlands and rivers into urban planning and layout 7.4 The role of aquatic habitats in facilitating urban biodiversity conservation 7.5 Trading ecosystem integrity with provision of goods and services in an urban context 7.6 Use and application of ecological buffer areas in the management of urban aquatic ecosystems 7.6.1 Defining ecological buffers 7.6.2 The function of ecological buffers 7.6.3 Defining buffer width 7.6.4 The moderating effect of urban layout and land-use on requirements for buffers 7.6.5 Realities of implementing requirements for buffer areas 7.7 Tols to assist in the integration of and tradeoffs between social, ecological and economic requirements in urban areas 7.8 Conclusions 8 Human health and safety related to urban aquatic habitats 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Water bodies as sources of raw water and wastewater sinks 8.3 Microbiological risks and their control 8.3.1 Drinking water 8.3.2 Bathing waters 8.3.3 Disease vectors 8.4 Chemical risks and their control 8.4.1 Anthropogenic compounds 8.4.2 Algal toxins 8.4.3 Sewage sludge use as an option for the control of chemical risks 8.5 Drowning and other water-related risks of aquatic habitats 8.6 Integrated water risk management 8.6.1 General 8.6.2 Water Safety Plans (WSP) 8.6.3 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) 8.7 Conclusions 9 Integrated management of urban aquatic habitats to enhance quality of life and environment in cities: Selected case studies 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Moddergat river rehabilitation and flood management project Cape Town, South Africa 9.2.1 Background 9.2.2 Key issues in the aquatic habitat 9.2.3 Project objectives and method of implementation 9.2.4 Project results 9.2.5 Stakeholders and their roles in the project 9.2.6 Conclusion and recommendations 9.3 Rehabilitation of the Wasit Nature Reserve, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates 9.3.1 Background 9.3.2 Key aquatic habitat issues in urban water management 9.3.3 Objectives of the case study 9.3.4 Implementation of the project and involved stakeholders 9.3.5 Project results 9.3.6 Conclusion and recommendations 9.4 The ecohydrological dimension of small urban river management for stormwater and pollution loads mitigation: Lodz, Poland 9.4.1 Background 9.4.2 Key aquatic habitat issues in urban water management 9.4.3 Objectives of the project 9.4.4 Project implementation and results 9.4.5 Stakeholders and their roles in the project 9.5 Integrating ecological and hydrological issues into urban planning in the Adige River fluvial corridor, Italy 9.5.1 Background 9.5.2 Key aquatic habitat issues in urban water management 9.5.3 Objectives of the case Study 9.5.4 Project results 9.5.5 Project implementation 9.5.6 Stakeholders and their roles in the project 9.5.7 Conclusion and recommendations 9.6 Assessing Stream bio-assimilation capacity to cope with combined sewer overflows, Lyon, France 9.6.1 Background 9.6.2 Key aquatic habitat issues in urban water management 9.6.3 Objectives of the case study 9.6.4 First steps of implementation: assessment of bio-assimilation capacity 9.6.5 Project results 9.6.6 Stakeholders and their roles in the project 9.6.7 Conclusions and recommendations 9.7 Optimization of the river hydrological regime to maintain floodplain wetland biodiversity, Lobau Biosphere reserve, Vienna, Austria 9.7.1 Background 9.7.2 Key aquatic habitat issues in urban water management 9.7.3 Objectives of the case study 9.7.4 Expected results 9.7.5 Project implementation and stakeholders 9.7.6 Conclusion and recommendations 9.8 Integrated management of aquatic habitats: Urban Biosphere Reserve (UBR) approach for the Omerli Watershed, Istanbul, Turkey 9.8.1 Background 9.8.2 Key aquatic habitat issues in urban water management 9.8.3 Objectives of the case study 9.8.4 Expected results 9.8.5 Project implementation and stakeholders 9.8.6 Conclusion and recommendations 9.9 Description of the ecology and water management in the Phoenix metropolitan area, Arizona, USA 9.9.1 Background 9.9.2 Key aquatic habitat issues in urban water management 9.9.3 Objectives of the case study 9.9.4 Potential stakeholders 9.9.5 Expected results 9.9.6 Conclusions Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Aquatic habitats -- Management.
Municipal water supply -- Management.