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Table of Contents 1. Understanding Poverty-Environment Linkages at the Household Level 5 Poverty and environmental change at the macro scale 6 Environmental management and pathways to household welfare 8 Scope of the report 11 2. Local Natural Resources, Poverty, and Degradation¿Examining Empirical Regularities 13 Environmental income matters to the poor 13 Commons as a source of insurance 16 Growth unlikely to stem local resource use 19 Low welfare impacts of degradation 23 Poverty¿s role in environmental change 25 Environmental contributions to poverty reduction¿Some conclusions 26 3. Health Outcomes and Environmental Pathogens 29 Theoretical linkages between health outcomes and environmental conditions 30 Key evidence on linkages between health outcomes and environmental conditions 36 How robust are these empirical findings? 44 Conclusions and some tentative policy implications 46 4. Household Welfare and Policy Reforms 48 Selected policy reforms 50 The Right Data 62 Conclusion 63 5. Poverty and Environment¿Directions for Change 65 References 70 Boxes Box 21 The role of natural resources in providing insurance before and after Hurricane Mitch 18 Box 22 Poverty and Environment in Cambodia 21 Box 31 The importance of health information 39 Box 32 Piped water and diarrhea incidence in rural India 40 Box 33 External benefits are subject to diminishing returns 42 Box 41 Impact evaluation methodology 50 Box 42 Participation 53 Box 43 Welfare distribution: poor versus non-poor 55 Figures Figure 2-1 Households engaged in natural-resource-dependent activities by consumption quintiles in rural areas (2004) 21 Figure 2-2 Biomass availability in Malawi 23 Figure 2-3 Change in welfare for rural poor in Malawi 24 Figure 3-1 Determination of child health from a lifecycle perspective 32 Tables Table 1-1 Selected macro indicators linking poverty, natural resources, and 6 Table 2-1 Percent of environmental income relative to total income 16 Table 2-2 Mean comparisons of the same households in 1998 (before Hurricane Mitch) and 2001 18 Table 2-3 Commune opinion poll responses from Cambodia on natural resource decline 21
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Poverty -- Environmental aspects -- Developing countries.
Households -- Economic aspects -- Developing countries.
Infrastructure (Economics) -- Developing countries.
Natural resources -- Developing countries.
Environmental health -- Developing countries.