Table of contents for Natural hazards : earth's processes as hazards, disasters, and catastrophes / Edward A. Keller, Robert H. Blodgett.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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1 Introduction to Natural Hazards	2
1.1 Why Studying Natural Hazards Is Important	5
1.2 Role of History in Understanding Hazards	8
1.3 Geologic Cycle	9
1.4 Fundamental Concepts for Understanding Natural Processes as Hazards	15
Concept 1
Hazards are predictable from scientific evaluation	16
Concept 2	19
Risk assessment is an important component of our understanding of the effects of hazardous processes	19
Concept 3
Linkages exist between natural hazards and between hazards and the physical environment	20
Concept 4
Hazardous events that previously produced disasters are now producing catastrophes	20
1.1 Case Study
Human Population through History	22
1.2 Case Study
The Magnitude-Frequency Concept	23
Concept 5	24
Consequences of hazards can be minimized	24
1.5 Many Hazards Provide a Natural Service Function	26
1.6 Global Climate Change and Hazards	26
Critical Thinking Questions 	28
Review Questions 	28
Key Terms 	28
Selected Web Resources 	29
2 Earthquakes	30
2.1 Introduction to Earthquakes	33
2.2 Earthquake Processes	38
2.3 Earthquake Shaking	43
2.4 The Earthquake Cycle	49
2.5 Geographic Regions at Risk from Earthquakes	50
2.1 Survivor Story
The 1989 "World Series By the Bay"	52
2.6 Effects of Earthquake and Linkages with Other Natural Hazards	53
2.7 Natural Service Functions of Earthquakes	57
2.8 Human Interaction with Earthquakes	58
2.9 Minimizing the Earthquake Hazard	58
2.2 Case Study
The Denali Fault Earthquake: Estimating Potential Ground Rupture Pays Off	60
2.3 Professional Profile
Andrea Donnellan, Earthquake Forecaster	64
2.10 Perception of and Adjustment to the Earthquake Hazard	65
Review Questions 	69
Key Terms 	69
Selected Web Resources	70
Critical Thinking Questions	70
3 Tsunamis	72
3.1 Introduction	77
3.1 Survivor Story
Tsunami in the Lowest Country on Earth	80
3.2 Regions at Risk	82
3.3 Effects of Tsunamis and Linkages with Other Natural Hazards	83
3.4 Natural Service Functions of Tsunamis	85
3.5 Human Interaction with Tsunamis	85
3.6 Minimizing the Tsunami Hazard	85
3.7 Perception and Personal Adjustment to Tsunami Hazard	91
3.2 Professional Profile
Jose Borrero-Tsunami Scientist	92
Critical Thinking Questions 	94
Review Questions 	94
Key Terms 	94
Selected Web Resources 	95
4 Volcanoes 	96
4.1 Introduction to Volcanoes	96
4.2 Geographic Regions at Risk for Volcanoes	109
4.3 Effects of Volcanoes	109
4.1 Case Study
Volcanic Landslides and Tsunamis	117
4.4 Linkages between Volcanoes and Other Natural Hazards	122
4.5 Natural Service Functions of Volcanoes	123
4.6 Human Interaction with Volcanoes	124
4.7 Minimizing the Volcanic Hazard	124
4.2 Professional Profile
Chris Eisinger, Studying Active Volcanoes	127
4.8 Perception of and Adjustment to the Volcanic Hazard	128
4.3 Survivor Story
A Close Call with Mount St. Helens	129
Key Terms	132
Critical Thinking Questions	132
Review Questions	132
Selected Web Resources	133
5 Flooding	134
5.1 An Introduction to Rivers	138
5.1 Case Study
Flooding on the Delta of the Ventura River	142
5.2 Flooding	146
5.2 Case Study
Magnitude and Frequency of Floods	148
5.3 Survivor Story
Flash Flood	152
5.3 Geographic Regions at Risk for Flooding	153
5.4 Effects of Flooding and Linkages between Floods and Other Hazards	154
5.5 Natural Service Functions	155
5.6 Human Interaction with Flooding	155
5.4 Case Study
The Grand Canyon Flood of 1996	156
5.4 Case Study Continued
5.7 Minimizing the Flood Hazard	161
5.5 Case Study
Flash Floods in Eastern Ohio	161
5.8 Perception of and Adjustment to the Flood Hazard	165
5.6 Professional Profile
Eve Gruntfest-Geographer	169
Review Questions	173
Key Terms	173
Selected Web Resources	174
Critical Thinking Questions	174
6 Mass Wasting 	176
6.1 An Introduction to Landslides	180
6.2 Geographic Regions at Risk from Landslides	191
6.3 Effects of Landslides and Linkages with Other Natural Hazards	192
6.4 Natural Service Functions of Landslides	192
6.1 Survivor Story
Landslide	193
6.5 Human Interaction with Landslides	194
6.2 Professional Profile
Bob Rasely, Mass Wasting Specialist	194
6.3 Case Study
Portuguese Bend, California	196
6.6 Minimizing the Landslide Hazard	199
6.7 Perception of and Adjustment to the Landslide Hazard	203
Review Questions	205
Key Terms	205
Selected Web Resources	206
Critical Thinking Questions	206
7 Subsidence and Soils	208
7.1 Introduction to Subsidence and Soil Volume Change	208
7.1 Survivor Story
Sinkhole Drains Lake	214
7.2 Case Study
Subsidence of the Mississippi Delta	216
7.2 Case Study Continued
7.2 Regions at Risk for Subsidence and Soil Volume Change	221
7.3 Effects of Subsidence and Soil Volume Change	222
7.4 Linkages between Subsidence, Soil Volume Change, and Other Natural Hazards	225
7.5 Natural Service Functions of Subsidence and Soil Volume Change	225
7.6 Human Interaction with Subsidence and Soil Volume Change	227
7.7 Minimizing Subsidence and Soil Volume Change	230
7.3 Professional Profile Helen Delano, Environmental Geologist
7.8 Perception of and Adjustment to Subsidence and Soil Volume Change	232
Review Questions	234
Key Terms	234
Selected Web Resources	235
Critical Thinking Questions	235
8 Atmosphere and Severe Weather	236
8.1 Energy	238
8.2 Earth's Energy Balance	240
8.3 The Atmosphere	242
8.4 Weather Processes	244
8.5 Hazardous Weather	248
8.1 Case Study
Lightning	251
8.1 Case Study Continued
8.2 Survivor Story
Struck by Lightning	253
8.3 Professional Profile
Sarah Tessendorf-Severe Storm Meteorologist	258
8.4 Case Study
The Great Northeastern Ice Storm of 1998	261
8.4 Case Study Continued
8.5 Case Study
Europe's Hottest Summer in over 500 Years	267
8.5 Case Study Continued
8.5 Case Study Continued
8.6 Human Interaction with Weather	271
8.7 Linkages with Other Hazards	272
8.8 Natural Service Functions of Severe Weather	272
8.9 Minimizing Severe Weather Hazards	272
Review Questions	275
Key Terms	275
Selected Web Resources	276
Critical Thinking Questions	276
9 Hurricanes and Extratropical Cyclones	278
9.1 Introduction to Cyclones	285
9.1 Survivor Story
Katrina	286
9.2 Cyclone Development	289
9.3 Geographic Regions at Risk for Cyclones	296
9.4 Effects of Cyclones	299
9.5 Linkages between Cyclones and Other Natural Hazards	303
9.6 Natural Service Functions of Cyclones	304
9.7 Human Interaction with Cyclones	304
9.8 Minimizing the Effects of Cyclones	304
9.2 Case Study
Hurricane Intensity and Warm Seas-Opal and Katrina Meet "Eddy"	306
9.2 Case Study Continued
9.3 Professional Profile
The Hurricane Hunters	310
9.9 Perception of and Adjustment to Cyclones	312
Critical Thinking Questions 	314
Review Questions 	314
Key Terms 	314
Selected Web Resources 	315
10 Waves, Currents, and Coastlines	316
10.1 Introduction to Coastal Hazards	319
10.2 Coastal Processes	320
10.1 Case Study
Rogue Waves	321
10.3 Sea Level Change	325
10.4 Geographic Regions at Risk for Coastal Hazards	327
10.5 Effects of Coastal Processes	328
10.2 Survivor Story
Rip Current	330
10.3 Professional Profile
Rob Thieler, Coastal Geologist	332
10.6 Linkages between Coastal Processes and Other Natural Hazards	334
10.7 Natural Service Functions of Coastal Processes	335
10.8 Human Interaction with Coastal Processes	335
10.9 Minimizing the Effects of Coastal Hazards	339
10.10 Perception of and Adjustment to Coastal Hazards	343
10.4 Case Study
E-Lines and E-Zones	344
10.5 Case Study
Moving the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse	345
10.5 Case Study Continued
Key Terms	347
Selected Web Resources 	348
Critical Thinking Questions 	348
Review Questions	348
11 Climate and Climate Change	350
11.1 Climate and Weather	352
11.2 The Atmosphere	353
11.3 Climate Change	356
11.1 Case Study
Global Climate Models	358
11.4 Effects of Climate Change	366
11.2 Case Study
El Ni¿o	368
11.3 Survivor Story
Residents of the Maldive Islands	371
11.5 Minimizing the Effects of Climate Change	373
11.4 Professional Profile
Sally Benson-Climate and Energy Scientist	374
Critical Thinking Questions	379
Review Questions	379
Key Terms	379
Selected Web Resources	380
12 Wildfires	382
12.1 Introduction to Wildfire	384
12.2 Wildfire as a Process	384
12.1 Case Study
Indonesian Fires of 1997-1998	385
12.3 Geographic Regions at Risk from Wildfires	391
12.4 Effects of Wildfires and Linkages with Other Natural Hazards	391
12.2 Case Study
Wildfire in Southern California	393
12.2 Case Study Continued
12.3 Professional Profile
Wildfires	397
12.5 Natural Service Functions of Wildfires	398
12.6 Minimizing the Wildfire Hazard	399
12.7 Perception of and Adjustment to the Wildfire Hazard	401
12.4 Survivor Story
Texas Grassfire-"We can't stop this one-Those are words you don't want to hear"	403
Selected Web Resources 	405
Critical Thinking Questions 	405
Review Questions 	405
Key Terms 	405
13 Impacts and Extinctions	406
13.1 Earth's Place in Space	408
13.2 Airbursts and Impacts	411
13.1 Survivor Story
Meteorites in Chicagoland	412
13.3 Mass Extinctions	418
13.2 Case Study
Uniformitarianism, Gradualism, and Catastrophe	419
13.3 Case Study
Impact, Extinction, and the Ice Age	421
13.3 Case Study Continued
13.4 Linkages with Other Natural Hazards	427
13.5 Minimizing the Impact Hazard	428
13.4 Case Study
Near-Earth Objects	430
13.5 Professional Profile
Dr. Michael J.S. Belton	431
Selected Web Resources 	433
Critical Thinking Questions 	433
Review Questions 	433
Key Terms 	433
Appendix A: Minerals	000
Appendix B: Rocks	000
Appendix C: Maps and Related Topics	000
Appendix D: How Geologists Determine Geologic Time	000
Glossary	000
References 000
Index 000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Natural disasters.