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Chapter 1 Beginnings: An Introduction to Development Across the Lifespan Prologue: New Conceptions Looking Ahead AN ORIENTATION TO LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT Characterizing Lifespan Development: The Scope of the Field Developmental Diversity ? How Culture, Ethnicity, and Race Influence Development Cohort and Normative Influences on Development: Developing with Others in a Social World KEY ISSUES AND QUESTIONS: DETERMINING THE NATURE?AND NURTURE?OF LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT Continuous Change Versus Discontinuous Change Critical and Sensitive Periods: Gauging the Impact of Environmental Events. Lifespan Approaches Versus a Focus on Particular Periods The Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture on Development Review & Apply THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES The Psychodymanic Perspective: Focusing on the Inner Person Freud?s Psychoanalytic Theory Erikson?s Psychosocial Theory Assessing the Psychodynamic Perspective The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable Behavior Classical Conditioning: Stimulus Substation Operant Conditioning Social-Cognitive Learning Theory: Learning Through Imitation Assessing the Behavioral Perspective The Cognitive Perspective: Examining the Roots of Understanding Piaget?s Theory of Cognitive Development Assessing Piaget?s Theory Information Processing Approaches Assessing Information Processing Approaches Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches The Humanistic Perspective: Concentrating on the Unique Qualities of Human Beings Assessing the Humanistic Perspective The Contextual Perspective: Taking a Broad Approach to Development The Bioecological Approach to Development Assessing the Bioecological Approach Vygotsky?s Sociocultural Theory Assessing Vygotsky?s Theory Evolutionary Perspectives: Our Ancestor?s Contributions to Behavior Assessing the Evolutionary Perspective Why ?Which Approach is Right?? Is the Wrong Question Review & Apply RESEARCH METHODS Theories and Hypotheses: Posing Developmental Questions Choosing a Research Strategy: Answering Questions Correlational Studies The Correlation Coefficient Types of Correlational Studies Experiments: Determining Cause and Effect Independent and dependent variables Choosing a Research Setting Theoretical and Applied Research: Complementary Approaches From Research to Practice ? Using Developmental Research to Improve Public Policy Measuring Developmental Change Longitudinal Studies: Measuring Individual Change Cross-Sectional studies Sequential Studies Ethics and Research Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development ? Thinking Critically About ?Expert? Advice Review & Apply Epilogue Looking Back Chapter 2 The Start of Life: Genetics and Prenatal Development Prologue: The Future is Now Looking Ahead EARLIEST DEVELOPMENT Genes and Chromosomes: The Code of Life Multiple Births: Two?or More?for the Genetic Price of One The Basics of Genetics: The Mixing and Matching of Traits Transmission of Genetic Information The Human Genome and Behavioral Genetics: Cracking the Genetic Code Inherited and Genetic Disorders: When Development Deviates from the Norm Genetic Counseling: Predicting the Future from the Genes of the Present From Research to Practice Review and Apply THE INTERACTION OF HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT The Role of Environment in Determining the Expression of Genes: From Genotypes to Phenotypes Studying Development: How Much Is Nature? How Much Is Nurture? Physical Traits: Family Resemblances Intelligence: More Research, More Controversy Genetic and Environmental Influences on Personality: Born to Be Outgoing? Developmental Diversity Cultural Differences in Physical Arousal: Might a Culture?s Philosophical Outlook Be Determined by Genetics? Psychological Disorders: The Role of Genetics and Environment Can Genes Influence the Environment? Review and Apply PRENATAL GROWTH AND CHANGE Fertilization: The Moment of Conception The Stages of the Prenatal Period: The Onset of Development Pregnancy Problems The Prenatal Environment: Threats to Development Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Optimizing the Prenatal Environment Review and Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 3 Birth and the Newborn Infant CHAPTER OVERVIEW Prologue: A 22-Ounce Miracle Looking Ahead BIRTH Labor: The process of birth begins Birth: From fetus to neonate The Apgar scale Physical appearance and initial encounters Approaches to childbirth: Where medicine and attitudes meet Alternative birthing procedures Who Delivers?: Childbirth Attendants Pain and childbirth Use of anesthesia and pain-reducing drugs Post-delivery hospital stay: Deliver, then depart? Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Dealing with Labor Review & Apply BIRTH COMPLICATIONS Preterm infants: Too soon, too small Very-low-birthweight Infants: The Smallest of the Small Causes of Preterm and Low-Birthweight Deliveries Careers in Development Diana Hegger, Neonatal Nurse and Educator Postmature Babies: Too Late, Too Large Cesarean Delivery: Intervening in the Process of Birth Infant Mortality and Stillbirth: The Tragedy of Premature Death Developmental Diversity Overcoming Racial and Cultural Differences in Infant Mortality Postpartum Depression: Moving From the Heights of Joy to the Depths of Despair Review & Apply THE COMPETENT NEWBORN Physical Competence: Meeting the Demands of a New Environment Sensory Capabilities: Experiencing the World From Research to Practice Circumcision of Newborn Male Infants: The Unkindest Cut? Early Learning Capabilities Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Habituation Are There Limits on Learning? Social Competence: Responding to Others Review & Apply Looking Back Epilogue Key Terms and Concepts Epilogue Chapter 4 Physical Development in Infancy Prologue: First Steps Looking Ahead GROWTH AND STABILITY Physical Growth: The Rapid Advances of Infancy The Nervous System and Brain: The Foundations of Development Integrating the Bodily Systems: The Life Cycles of Infancy Rhythms and States Sleep: Perchance to Dream? SIDS: The Unanticipated Killer Review & Apply MOTOR DEVELOPMENT Reflexes: Our Inborn Physical Skills The Basic Reflexes Ethnic and Cultural Differences and Similarities in Reflexes Motor Development in Infancy: Landmarks of Physical Achievement Gross Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills Dynamic systems theory: Motor Development in a Broader Context Developmental Norms: Comparing the Individual to the Group Developmental Diversity The Cultural Dimensions of Motor Development Nutrition in Infancy: Fueling Motor Development Malnutrition Obesity From Research to Practice Fast-Food Babies Breast or Bottle? Social Patterns in Breast-feeding Introducing Solid Foods: When and What? Review & Apply THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENSES Visual Perception: Seeing the World Auditory Perception: The World of Sound Smell and Taste Sensitivity to Pain and Touch Contemporary views on infant pain Responding to touch Multimodal Perception: Combining Individual Sensory Inputs Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Exercising Your Infant?s Body and Senses Review & Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy Prologue: The Electric Nanny Looking Ahead PIAGET?S APPROACH TO COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Key Elements of Piaget?s Theory The Sensorimotor Period: The Earliest Stage of Cognitive Growth Careers in Development Linda G. Miller, Toy Consultant Appraising Piaget: Support and Challenges Review and Apply INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACHES TO COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval: The Foundations of Information Processing Memory During Infancy: They Must Remember This... Individual Differences in Intelligence: Is One Infant Smarter than Another? From Research to Practice Do Educational Media for Infants Enhance their Cognitive Development?: Taking the Einstein Out of Baby Einstein Review and Apply THE ROOTS OF LANGUAGE The Fundamentals of Language: From Sounds to Symbols The Origins of Language Development Speaking to Children: The Language of Infant-directed Speech Developmental Diversity Is Infant-directed Speech Similar in All Cultures? Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development What Can You Do to Promote Infants? Cognitive Development? Review and Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 6 Social and Personality Development in Infancy Prologue: The Velcro Chronicles Looking Ahead DEVELOPING THE ROOTS OF SOCIABILITY Emotions in Infancy: Do Infants Experience Emotional Highs and Lows? Experiencing Emotions Stranger Anxiety and Separation Anxiety Smiling Decoding Others? Facial and Vocal Expressions Social Referencing: Feeling What Others Feel Facial Expressions Two Explanations of Social Referencing The Development of Self: Do Infants Know Who They Are? Theory of Mind: Infants? Perspectives on the Mental Lives of Others?and Themselves Review & Apply FORMING RELATIONSHIPS Attachment: Forming Social Bonds Producing Attachment: The Roles of the Mother and Father Mothers and Attachment Fathers and Attachment Are There Differences in Attachment to Mothers and Fathers? Developmental Diversity Does Attachment Differ Across Cultures? Infant Interactions: Developing a Working Relationship Infants? Sociability with Their Peers: Infant?Infant Interaction Review & Apply DIFFERENCES AMONG INFANTS Personality Development: The Characteristics That Make Infants Unique Temperament: Stabilities in Infant Behavior Categorizing Temperament: Easy, Difficult, and Slow-to-warm Babies The Consequences of Temperament: Does Temperament Matter? The Biological Basis of Temperament Gender: Boys in Blue, Girls in Pink Gender Differences Gender Roles Family Life in the 21st Century From Research to Practice How Does Infant Child Care Affect Later Development? Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Choosing the Right Infant Care Provider Review & Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in the Preschool Years Prologue: Aaron Looking Ahead PHYSICAL GROWTH The Growing Body Individual Differences in Height and Weight Changes in Body Shape and Structure Nutrition: Eating the Right Foods Health and Illness Injuries During the Preschool Year: Playing It Safe Silent Danger: Lead Poisoning in Young Children The Growing Brain Brain Lateralization The Links Between Brain Growth and Cognitive Development Motor Development Gross Motor Skills Potty Wars: When?and How?Should Children Be Toilet Trained? Fine Motor Skills Handedness Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Keeping Preschoolers Healthy Review & Apply INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT Piaget?s Stage of Preoperational Thinking The Relation Between Language and Thought Centration: What You See Is What You Think Conservation: Learning That Appearances Are Deceiving Incomplete Understanding of Transformation Egocentrism: The Inability to Take Others? Perspectives The Emergence of Intuitive Thought Evaluating Piaget?s Approach to Cognitive Development Information-processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Preschoolers? Understanding of Numbers Memory: Recalling the Past Children?s Eyewitness Testimony: Memory on Trial Information Processing in Perspective Vygotsky?s View of Cognitive Development: Taking Culture into Account The Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding: Foundations of Cognitive Development. Evaluating Vygotsky?s Contributions Review & Apply THE GROWTH OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING Language Development Private Speech and Social Speech Poverty and Language Development Learning From the Media: Television and the Internet Television: Controlling Exposure Sesame Street: A Teacher in Every Home? Early Childhood Education: Taking the ?Pre? Out of the Preschool Period The Varieties of Early Education The Effectiveness of Child Care Developmental Diversity Preschools Around the World: Why Does the United States Lag Behind? Preparing Preschoolers for Academic Pursuits: Does Head Start Truly Provide a Head Start? From Research to Practice The Montessori Approach: Is It Effective? Are We Pushing Children Too Hard and Too Fast? Should We Seek to Improve Cognitive Skills During the Preschool Years? Review and Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 8 Social and Personality Development in the Preschool Years Prologue: Feeling His Mother?s Pain Looking Ahead FORMING A SENSE OF SELF Psychosocial Development: Resolving the Conflicts Self-Concept in the Preschool Years: Thinking About the Self Developmental Diversity: Developing Racial and Ethnic Awareness Gender Identity: Developing Femaleness and Maleness Review and Apply FRIENDS AND FAMILY: PRESCHOOLERS? SOCIAL LIVES The Development of Friendships Playing by the Rules: The Work of Play Preschoolers? Theory of Mind: Understanding What Others Are Thinking Preschoolers? Family Lives Effective Parenting: Teaching Desired Behavior Cultural Differences in Child Rearing Practices From Research to Practice: Parenting Coaches: Teaching Parents to Teach Their Children Child Abuse and Psychological Maltreatment: The Grim Side of Family Life Physical Abuse Psychological Maltreatment Resilience: Overcoming the Odds Careers in Lifespan Development: Debra Littler Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Disciplining Children Review and Apply MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGGRESSION Developing Morality: Following Society?s Rights and Wrongs Aggression and Violence in Preschoolers: Sources and Consequences Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development: Increasing Moral Behavior and Reducing Aggression in Preschool-Age Children Review and Apply Looking Back Epilogue Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Prologue: La-Toya Pankey and The Witches Looking Ahead PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT The Growing Body Height and Weight Changes Cultural Patterns of Growth Promoting Growth with Hormones: Should Short Children Be Made to Grow? Nutrition Childhood Obesity Motor Development Gross Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills Health During Middle Childhood Asthma Accidents Safety in Cyberspace Psychological Disorders Children With Special Needs Sensory Difficulties: Visual, Auditory, and Speech Problems Learning Disabilities: Discrepancies Between Achievement and Capacity to Learn Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder The Informed Consumer of Development Keeping Children Fit Review & Apply INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Development The Rise of Concrete Operational Thought Piaget in Perspective: Piaget Was Right, Piaget Was Wrong Information Processing in Middle Childhood Memory Improving Memory Vygotsky?s Approach to Cognitive Development and Classroom Instruction Language Development: What Words Mean Mastering the Mechanics of Language Metalinguistic Awareness How Language Promotes Self-Control Bilingualism: Speaking in Many Tongues Review & Apply SCHOOLING: THE THREE Rs (AND MORE) OF MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Schooling Around the World and Across Genders: Who Gets Educated? What Makes Children Ready for School? Reading: Learning to Decode the Meaning Behind Words Educational Trends: Beyond the Three Rs From Research to Practice Making the Grade: Are We Pushing Too Hard? Developmental Diversity Multicultural Education Cultural Assimilation or Pluralistic Society? Fostering a Bicultural Identity Intelligence: Determining Individual Strengths Intelligence Benchmarks: Differentiating the Intelligent from the Unintelligent Measuring IQ: Present-Day Approaches to Intelligence What IQ Tests Don?t Tell: Alternative Conceptions of Intelligence Group Differences in IQ Explaining Racial Differences in IQ The Bell Curve Controversy Below and Above Intelligence Norms: Mental Retardation and the Intellectually Gifted Ending Segregation by Intelligence Levels: The Benefits of Mainstreaming Below the Norm: Mental Retardation Careers in Lifespan Development Vikas M. Darji, Special Education Teacher Above the Norm: The Gifted and Talented. Review & Apply Looking Back Epilogue Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 10 Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood Prologue: Play Time Looking Ahead THE DEVELOPING SELF Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood: Industry Versus Inferiority Understanding One?s Self: A New Response to ?Who Am I?? The Shift in Self-Understanding from the Physical to the Psychological Social Comparison Self-Esteem: Developing a Positive?or Negative?View of Oneself Change and Stability in Self-Esteem Race and Self-Esteem Developmental Diversity Are Children of Immigrant Families Well Adjusted? Moral Development Moral Development in Girls Review & Apply RELATIONSHIPS: BUILDING FRIENDSHIP IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Stages of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends Individual Differences in Friendship: What Makes a Child Popular? Status Among School-Age Children: Establishing One?s Position What Personal Characteristics Lead to Popularity? Social Problem-Solving Abilities Teaching Social Competence Bullying: Schoolyard and Online Victimization Gender and Friendships: The Sex Segregation of Middle Childhood Cross-Race Friendships: Integration In and Out of the Classroom Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Increasing Children?s Social Competence Review & Apply FAMILY AND SCHOOL: SHAPING CHILDREN?S BEHAVIOR IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Family: The Changing Home Environment Family Life From Research to Practice Learning to Get Along: How Children are Influenced by their Siblings When Both Parents Work Outside the Home: How Do Children Fare? Home and Alone: What Do Children Do? Divorce Single Parent Families Living in Blended Families Families with Gay and Lesbian Parents Race and Family Life Poverty and Family Life Group Care: Orphanages in the 21st Century School: The Academic Environment How Children Explain Academic Success and Failure Cultural Comparisons: Individual Differences in Attribution Developmental Diversity Explaining Asian Academic Success Expectation Effects: How Others? Expectancies Influence Children?s Behavior Beyond the 3Rs: Should Schools Teach Emotional Intelligence? Review & Apply Looking Back Epilogue Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 11 Cognitive Development in Adolescence Prologue: A Teenager?s Day Looking Ahead PHYSICAL MATURATION Growth During Adolescence: The Rapid Pace of Physical and Sexual Maturation Puberty: The Start of Sexual Maturation Puberty in Girls Puberty in Boys Body Image: Reactions to Physical Changes in Adolescence The Timing of Puberty: The Consequences of Early and Late Maturation Nutrition, Food, and Eating Disorders: Fueling the Growth of Adolescence Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Brain Development and Thought: Paving the Way for Cognitive Growth From Research to Practice the Immature Brain Argument: Too Young for the Death Penalty? Sleep Deprivation Review & Apply COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND SCHOOLING Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Development: Using Formal Operations Using Formal Operations to Solve Problems The Consequences of Adolescents? Use of Formal Operations Evaluating Piaget?s Approach Information Processing Perspectives: Gradual Transformations in Abilities Egocentrism in Thinking: Adolescents? Self-Absorption School Performance Socioeconomic Status and School Performance: Individual Differences in Achievement Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement Cyberspace: Adolescents Online Dropping Out of School Review & Apply THREATS TO ADOLESCENTS? WELL-BEING Illegal Drugs Speaking of Development Daniel W. Prior, Counselor Alcohol: Use and Abuse The Informed Consumer of Development Hooked on Drugs or Alcohol? Tobacco: The Dangers of Smoking Developmental Diversity Selling Death: Pushing Smoking to the Less Advantaged Sexually Transmitted Infections AIDS Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Avoiding STIs Review & Apply Looking Back Epilogue Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 12 Social and Personality Development in Adolescence Prologue: Adolescent Trio Looking Ahead IDENTITY: ASKING ?WHO AM I?? Self-Concept: What Am I Like? Self-Esteem: How Do I Like Myself? Gender Differences in Self-Esteem Socioeconomic Status and Race Differences in Self-Esteem Identity Formation: Change or Crisis? Marcia?s Approach to Identity Development: Updating Erikson Identity, Race, and Ethnicity Depression and Suicide: Psychological Difficulties in Adolescence Adolescent Depression Adolescent Suicide The Informed Consumer of Development Preventing Adolescent Suicide Review & Apply RELATIONSHIPS: FAMILY AND FRIENDS Family Ties: Changing Relations with Relations The Quest for Autonomy The Myth of the Generation Gap Conflicts with Parents Cultural Differences in Parent-Child Conflicts During Adolescence Relationships with Peers: The Importance of Belonging Cliques and Crowds: Belonging to a Group Gender Relations Developmental Diversity Race Segregation: The Great Divide of Adolescence Popularity and Rejection Conformity: Peer Pressure in Adolescence From Research to Practice Know When to Fold ?em: The Growing Problem of Online Gambling Juvenile Delinquency: The Crimes of Adolescence Review & Apply DATING, SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, AND TEENAGE PREGNANCY Dating: Close Relationships in the 21st Century The Functions of Dating Dating, Race, and Ethnicity Sexual Relationships Masturbation Sexual Intercourse Sexual Orientation: Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, and Bisexuality What Determines Sexual Orientation? Teenage Pregnancies Review & Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Prologue: A Tale of Two Students Looking Ahead PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Physical Development and the Senses Motor Functioning, Fitness, and Health: Staying Well Physical Fitness Health Developmental Diversity How Cultural Health Benefits Influence Use of Health Care Eating, Nutrition, and Obesity: A Weighty Concern Good Nutrition Obesity Careers in Lifespan Development Martin Binks, Behaviroal Health Clinician Physical Disabilities: Coping with Physical Challenge Stress and Coping: Dealing with Life?s Challenges The Origins of Stress The Consequences of Stress Coping with Stress Hardiness, resilience, and coping The Informed Consumer of Development Coping with Stress Review & Apply COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Intellectual Growth in Early Adulthood Postformal Thought Perry?s approach to postformal thinking Schaie?s Stages of Development Intelligence: What Matters in Early Adulthood? Practical and Emotional Intelligence Creativity: Novel Thought Life Events and Cognitive Development Review & Apply COLLEGE: PURSUING HIGHER EDUCATION The Demographics of Higher Education From Research to Practice Does a Racially Diverse College Campus make for a Richer Learning Experience? The Gender Gap in College Attendance The Changing College Student: Never Too Late to Go to College? College Adjustment: Reacting to the Demands of College Life The Informed Consumer of Development When Do College Students Need Professional Help with Their Problems? What Do College Students Learn? Gender and College Performance Benevolent Sexism: When Being Nice Is Not So Nice Stereotype Threat and Disidentification with School Dropping Out of College Review & Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms & Concepts Chapter 14 Social and Personality Development in Early Adulthood Prologue: Love Without Borders Looking Ahead FORGING RELATIONSHIPS: INTIMACY, LIKING, AND LOVING DURING EARLY ADULTHOOD The Components of Happiness: Fulfillment of Psychological Needs The Social Clocks of Adulthood Women?s Social Clocks Seeking Intimacy: Erikson?s View of Young Adulthood Friendship Falling in Love: When Liking Turns to Loving Passionate and Companionate Love: The Two Faces of Love Sternberg?s Triangular Theory: The Three Faces of Love Choosing a Partner: Recognizing Mr. or Ms. Right Seeking a Spouse: Is Love the Only Thing That Matters? Filtering Models: Sifting Out a Spouse Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationships: Do Adult Loving Styles Reflect Attachment in Infancy? Developmental Diversity Gay and Lesbian Relationships: Men with Men and Women with Women Review & Apply THE COURSE OF RELATIONSHIPS Marriage, POSSLQ, and Other Relationship Choices: Sorting Out the Options of Early Adulthood What Makes Marriage Work? Early Marital Conflict Parenthood: Choosing to Have Children Family Size The Transition to Parenthood: Two?s a Couple, Three?s a Crowd? Gay and Lesbian Parents Staying Single: I Want To Be Alone From Research to Practice A Majority of American Women Are Lviing Without a Spouse Review & Apply WORK: CHOOSING AND EMBARKING ON A CAREER Identity During Young Adulthood: The Role of Work Picking an Occupation: Choosing Life?s Work Ginzberg?s Career Choice Theory Holland?s Personality Type Theory Gender and Career Choices: Women?s Work Why Do People Work? More Than Earning a Living Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Satisfaction on the Job The Informed Consumer of Development Choosing a Career Review & Apply Looking Back Epilogue Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood Prologue: Fit for Life Looking Ahead PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Physical Transitions: The Gradual Change in the Body?s Capabilities Height, Weight, and Strength: The Benchmarks of Change The Senses: The Sights and Sounds of Middle Age Vision Hearing Reaction Time: Not-so-slowing Down Sex in Middle Adulthood: The Ongoing Sexuality of Middle Age The Female Climacteric and Menopause From Research to Practice The Dilemma of Hormone Therapy: No Easy Answer The Psychological Consequences of Menopause The Male Climacteric Review & Apply HEALTH Wellness and Illness: The Ups and Downs of Middle Adulthood Developmental Diversity Individual Variation in Health: Ethnic and Gender Differences Stress in Middle Adulthood The A?s and B?s of Coronary Heart Disease: Linking Health and Personality Risk Factors for Heart Disease Type A?s and Type B?s The Threat of Cancer Routine Mammograms: At What Age Should Women Start? Psychological Factors Relating to Cancer: Mind Over Tumor? Review & Apply COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Does Intelligence Decline in Adulthood? The Difficulties in Answering the Question Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence Reframing the Issue: What Is the Source of Competence During Middle Adulthood? The Development of Expertise: Separating Experts from Novices Memory: You Must Remember This Types of Memory Memory Schemas Becoming and Informed Consumer of Development Effective Strategies for Remembering Review & Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 16 Social and Personality Development in Middle Adulthood Prologue: A Winding Journey to Success Looking Ahead PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT Two Perspectives on Adult Personality Development: Normative-Crisis Versus Life Events Erikson?s Stage of Generativity-Versus-Stagnation Building on Erikson?s Views: Vallliant, Gould, Levinson The Midlife Crisis: Reality or Myth? Developmental Diversity Middle Age: In Some Cultures It Doesn?t Exist Stability Versus Change in Personality Stability and Change in the Big Five Personality Traits Happiness Across the Life Span Review & Apply RELATIONSHIPS: FAMILY IN MIDDLE AGE Marriage The Ups and Downs of Marriage From Research to Practice After the Vows: Changes in marital Satisfaction Over Time Divorce Remarriage Family Evolutions: From Full House to Empty Nest Boomerang Children: Refilling the Empty Nest The Sandwich Generation: Between Children and Parents Becoming a Grandparent: Who, Me? Family Violence: The Hidden Epidemic The Prevalence of Spousal Abuse The Cycle of Violence Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Dealing with Spousal Abuse Spousal Abuse and Society: The Cultural Roots of Violence Review & Apply WORK AND LEISURE Work and Careers: Jobs at Midlife Challenges of Work: On-the-Job Dissatisfaction Burnout Unemployment: The Dashing of the Dream Switching?and Starting?Careers at Midlife Speaking of Development, Cathy Goodwin, Career Advisor Developmental Diversity Immigrants on the Job: Making It in America Leisure Time: Life Beyond Work Review & Apply Looking Back Epilogue Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood Prologue: Cycling Through Late Adulthood Looking Ahead PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN LATE ADULTHOOD Aging: Myth and Reality The Demographics of Late Adulthood Ageism: Confronting the Stereotypes of Late Adulthood Physical Transitions in Older People Outward Signs of Aging Internal Aging Slowing Reaction Time The Senses: Sight, Sound, Taste, and Smell Vision Hearing Taste and Smell Review & Apply HEALTH AND WELLNESS IN LATE ADULTHOOD Health Problems in Older People: Physical and Psychological Disorders Common Physical Disorders Psychological and Mental Disorders Alzheimer?s Disease Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Caring for People with Alzheimer?s Disease Wellness in Late Adulthood: The Relationship Between Aging and Illness Promoting Good Health Sexuality in Old Age: Use It or Lose It Approaches to Aging: Why Is Death Inevitable? Genetic program theories of aging Wear-and-tear theories of aging Reconciling the theories of aging Life Expectancy: How Long Have I Got? Postponing Aging: Can Scientists Find the Fountain of Youth? Developmental Diversity Gender, Race, and Ethnic Differences in Average Life Expectancy: Separate Lives, Separate Deaths Review & Apply COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN LATE ADULTHOOD Intelligence in Older People Recent Conclusions about the Nature of Intelligence in Older People From Research to Practice Exercising the Aging Brain Memory: Remembrance of Things Past?and Present Autobiographical Memory: Recalling the Days of Our Lives Explaining Memory Changes in Old Age Learning in Later Life: Never Too Late to Learn Review & Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms and Concepts Chapter 18 Social and Personality Development in Late Adulthood Prologue: Late Love Looking Ahead PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT AND SUCCESSFUL AGING Continuity and Change in Personality During Late Adulthood Ego-Integrity-Versus-Despair: Erikson?s Final Stage Peck?s Developmental Tasks Levinson?s Final Season: The Winter of Life Coping with Aging: Neugarten?s Study Life Review and Reminiscence: The Common Theme of Personality Development Age Stratification Approaches to Late Adulthood Developmental Diversity How Culture Shapes the Way We Treat People in Late Adulthood Does Age Bring Wisdom? Successful Aging: What Is the Secret? Disengagement Theory: Gradual Retreat Activity Theory: Continued Involvement Continuity Theory: A Compromise Position Selective Optimization with Compensation: A General Model of Successful Aging Review & Apply THE DAILY LIFE OF LATE ADULTHOOD Living Arrangements: The Places and Spaces of Their Lives Living at Home Specialized Living Environments Institutionalism and Learned Helplessness Financial Issues: The Economics of Late Adulthood Work and Retirement in Late Adulthood From Research to Practice Retirement: Looking Back and Looking Forward Older Workers: Combating Age Discrimination Retirement: Filling a Life of Leisure Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Planning For?and Living?a Good Retirement Review and Apply RELATIONSHIPS: OLD AND NEW Marriage in the Later Years: Together, Then Alone Dealing with Retirement: Too Much Togetherness? Caring for an Aging Spouse The Death of a Spouse: Becoming Widowed The Social Networks of Late Adulthood Friendship: Why Friends Matter in Late Adulthood Social Support: The Significance of Others Family Relationships: The Ties that Bind Children Grandchildren and Great-Grandchildren Elder Abuse: Relationships Gone Wrong Review & Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms & Concepts Chapter 19 Endings: Death and Dying Prologue: Choosing Death Looking Ahead DYING AND DEATH ACROSS THE LIFESPAN Defining Death: Determining the Point at Which Life Ends Death Across the Life Span: Causes and Reactions Death in Infancy and Childhood Death in Adolescence Death in Young Adulthood Death in Middle Adulthood Death in Late Adulthood Developmental Diversity Differing Conceptions of Death Can Death Education Prepare Us for the Inevitable? Review & Apply CONFRONTING DEATH Understanding the Process of Dying: Are There Steps Toward Death? Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Evaluating K¿bler-Ross?s Theory Choosing the Nature of Death: Is DNR the Way to Go? Living Wills Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide Caring for the Terminally Ill: The Place of Death Speaking of Development Dina C. Bianga, Hospice Nurse Review & Apply GRIEF AND BEREAVEMENT Mourning and Funerals: Final Rites Cultural Differences in Grieving Bereavement and Grief: Adjusting to the Death of a Loved One From Research to Practice Moving On: Surving the Loss of a Long-Time Spouse Differentiating Unhealthy Grief from Normal Grief The Consequences of Grief and Bereavement Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Helping a Child Cope with Grief Review & Apply Epilogue Looking Back Key Terms and Concepts
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Developmental psychology -- Textbooks.