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Contents Preface v SECTION I INTRODUCTION 1 1The Evolution of Flowers3 1.1The origin of flowering plants3 1.2Early reproductive structures7 1.3The first flowers7 1.4Floral diversification8 2Historical Interpretations of Flower Induction and Flower Development10 2.1The foliar theory of the flower10 2.2The foliar theory in an evolutionary context15 2.3The transition to flowering15 2.4Developmental explanations of floral induction16 2.5Environmental explanations of floral induction16 2.6The florigen problem19 SECTION II THE MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF FLOWERING: INDUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT 21 PART A Induction of Flowering 23 3Flower Induction in Arabidopsis thaliana25 3.1Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system for the study of flowering25 3.2Flowering-time mutants30 4The Autonomous Pathways for Floral Inhibition and Induction35 4.1The floral inhibition pathway35 4.2The autonomous induction pathway39 4.3Other endogenous factors which influence flowering time41 5The Photoperiodic Pathway of Floral Induction43 5.1Sensing daylight43 5.2Measuring time48 5.3Integrating light and clock signals50 6The Vernalization Pathway of Floral Induction and the Role of Gibberellin52 6.1The vernalization promotion pathway52 6.2The gibberellin promotion pathway56 6.3Does gibberellin act in the vernalization promotion pathway as well as independently?58 7Integrating the Arabidopsis thaliana Flower Induction Pathways and Assessing the Extent to Which the Model Is Ubiquitous59 7.1Integrating the flowering-time pathways59 7.2The Arabidopsis flowering-time model in other species63 PART B Development of Flowers 69 8Changes at the Shoot Apical Meristem in Response to Floral Induction71 8.1Physiological changes at the shoot apical meristem71 8.2Shoot apical meristem anatomy72 8.3Gene expression patterns in the shoot apical meristem73 8.4Floral meristem identity genes act downstream of the flowering-time integrators74 8.5Floral meristem identity genes74 9Development of the Floral Organs83 9.1The original ABC model of flower development83 9.2The role of D function genes90 9.3The role of E function genes90 9.4The role of cadastral genes92 9.5The quartet model of organ identity94 10The ABC Model in Evolution95 10.1Evolutionary history of MADS box transcription factors95 10.2ABC model in gymnosperms?96 10.3ABC model in monocots?98 10.4Variations on the ABC model101 11Function and Development of Gametophytes103 11.1Alternation of generations in multicellular organisms103 11.2The angiosperm female gametophyte105 11.3The angiosperm male gametophyte107 11.4Events following pollination109 12Preventing Self-fertilization111 12.1Reducing self-pollination in a hermaphroditic flower111 12.2Monoecy113 12.3Dioecy114 12.4Self-incompatibility (SI)115 12.5Sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI)116 12.6Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI)119 12.7Heteromorphic self-incompatibility120 SECTION III POLLINATION SUCCESS: MOLECULAR AND ECOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS 123 PART A How and Why Does Floral Form Vary? 125 13Why Are Flowers Different? Pollination Syndromes--The Theory127 13.1Cross pollination127 13.2Abiotic pollen vectors127 13.3Biotic pollen vectors129 13.4Principles underlying the pollination syndrome concept129 13.5The pollination syndromes130 14Changing Floral Shape and Structure138 14.1Changing corolla size138 14.2Changing corolla symmetry140 14.3Changing petal shape143 14.4Generating a composite inflorescence145 15Colouring the Flower147 15.1Colour as a signal147 15.2Plant pigments148 15.3Carotenoid synthesis149 15.4Flavonoid synthesis151 15.5Betalains156 16Enhancing Flower Colour158 16.1Mixing pigments158 16.2Co-pigmentation158 16.3Regulation of pigment distribution159 16.4The effects of metal ions162 16.5The importance of pH163 16.6The role of petal cell shape165 PART B The Influence of Pollinators on Floral Form 169 17Are Flowers under Selective Pressure to Increase Pollinator Attention?171 17.1Competition for pollinator attention171 17.2Facilitation of pollination172 17.3Techniques for investigating the role of pollinator attention in limiting fitness172 17.4Evidence based on fruit and seed set following hand pollination175 17.5Evidence from mixed species plots176 17.6Analysis of character traits potentially displaced by pollination competition177 18Do Pollinators Discriminate between Different Floral Forms?181 18.1What pollinators see181 18.2What pollinators sense in other ways183 18.3Discrimination between petals of different colours184 18.4Discrimination between corollas of different sizes189 18.5Discrimination between zygomorphic and actinomorphic flowers190 18.6Discrimination between flowers with different petal cell shapes190 18.7Discrimination between flowers on the basis of scent191 19Pollination Syndromes--The Evidence192 19.1Historical context192 19.2Putting the assumptions together193 19.3Evidence for pollination syndromes195 19.4Evidence against pollination syndromes197 19.5The most effective pollinator?198 Epilogue 201 References 203 Index 000
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Flowers -- Morphology.
Angiosperms -- Development.
Plants, Flowering of.