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Contents Preface 1 The Chemical Composition of Soils 1.1 Elemental Composition 1.2 Metal Elements in Soils 1.3 Solid Phases in Soils 1.4 Soil Air and Soil Water 1.5 Soil Mineral Transformations For Further Reading Problems Special Topic 1: Balancing Chemical Reactions 2 Soil Minerals 2.1 Ionic Solids 2.2 Primary Silicates 2.3 Clay Minerals 2.4 Metal Oxides, Oxyhydroxides, and Hydroxides 2.5 Carbonates and Sulfates For Further Reading Problems Special Topic 2: The Discovery of the Structures of Clay Minerals 3 Soil Humus 3.1 Biomolecules 3.2 Humic Substances 3.3 Cation Exchange Reactions 3.4 Reactions with Organic Molecules 3.5 Reactions with Soil Minerals For Further Reading Problems Special Topic 3: Film Diffusion Kinetics in Cation Exchange 4 The Soil Solution 4.1 Sampling the Soil Solution 4.2 Soluble Complexes 4.3 Chemical Speciation 4.4 Predicting Chemical Speciation 4.5 Thermodynamic Stability Constants For Further Reading Problems 5 Mineral Stability and Weathering 5.1 Dissolution Reactions 5.2 Predicting Solubility Control: Activity-Ratio Diagrams 5.3 Coprecipitated Soil Minerals 5.4 Predicting Solubility Control: Predominance Diagrams 5.5 Phosphate Transformations in Calcareous Soils For Further Reading Problems 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 6.1 Flooded Soils 6.2 Redox Reactions 6.3 The ?Redox Ladder? 6.4 Exploring the ?Redox Ladder? 6.5 pE-pH Diagrams For Further Reading Problems Special Topic 4: Balancing Redox Reactions Special Topic 5: The Invention of the pH Meter 7 Soil Particle Surface Charge 7.1 Surface Complexes 7.2 Adsorption 7.3 Surface Charge 7.4 Points of Zero Charge 7.5 Schindler Diagrams For Further Reading Problems 8 Soil Adsorption Phenomena 8.1 Measuring Adsorption 8.2 Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibria 8.3 Metal Cation Adsorption 8.4 Anion Adsorption 8.5 Surface Redox Processes For Further Reading Problems 9 Exchangeable Ions 9.1 Soil Exchange Capacities 9.2 Exchange Isotherms 9.3 Ion Exchange reactions 9.4 Biotic Ligand Model 9.5 Cation Exchange on Humus For Further Reading Problems 10 Colloidal Phenomena 10.1 Colloidal Suspensions 10.2 Soil Colloids 10.3 Interparticle forces 10.4 The Stability Ratio 10.5 Fractal Floccules For Further Reading Problems Special Topic 6: Mass Fractals 11 Soil Acidity 11.1 Proton Cycling 11.2 Acid-Neutralizing Capacity 11.3 Aluminum Geochemistry 11.4 Redox Effects 11.5 Neutralizing Soil Acidity For Further Reading Problems Special Topic 7: Measuring pH 12 Soil Salinity 12.1 Saline Soil Solutions 12.2 Cation Exchange and Colloidal Phenomena 12.3 Mineral Weathering 12.4 Boron Chemistry 12.5 Irrigation Water Quality For Further Reading Problems Appendix: Units and Physical Constants in Soil Chemistry
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