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Contents List of plates oo Preface oo 1 Introduction 00 2 How much water is used for producing our goods and services? 00 Virtual water 00 How to estimate the virtual-water content of an agricultural product 00 Water use for crop and livestock products 00 Water use for industrial products 00 Water for domestic services 00 3 Virtual-water flows between nations as a result of trade in agricultural and industrial products 00 Virtual-water ?trade? or ?transfer?? 00 How to assess international virtual-water flows 00 International virtual-water flows 00 Virtual-water flows between world regions 00 Are consumers co-responsible for the effects of water use? 00 The relation between trade and water scarcity 00 4 Water saving through international trade in agricultural products 00 Method 00 National water savings 00 National water losses 00 Global water savings 00 Global blue water savings at the cost of green water losses 00 Physical versus economic savings 00 The downside of virtual-water import as a solution to water scarcity 00 5 The water footprints of nations 00 Two methods of assessing the water footprint of a nation 00 Internal and external water footprint 00 Water footprints of nations 00 Determining factors 00 How can water footprints be reduced? 00 The water footprint as a new indicator of water use 00 6 The water footprints of Morocco and the Netherlands 00 Virtual-water flows and balances 00 Agricultural water footprints of Morocco and the Netherlands 00 Water savings 00 Trade in the context of managing water 00 7 Virtual- versus real-water transfers within China 00 Assessing virtual-water flows between regions in China 00 Virtual-water content per product category per region 00 Food trade within China 00 Virtual-water transfers within China 00 Virtual- versus real-water budgets 00 Virtual-water transfers in relation to water availability 00 North--South virtual-water flows in relation to the South--North Water Transfer Project 00 8 The water footprint of coffee and tea consumption 00 Virtual-water content of coffee and tea in different production stages Virtual-water flows related to the trade in coffee and tea The water needed to drink a cup of coffee or tea 00 The water footprint of coffee and tea consumption 00 Green, blue, and gray water 00 9 The water footprint of cotton consumption 00 The virtual-water content of seed cotton 00 The virtual-water content of cotton products 00 Impact on water quality in the crop production stage 00 Impact on water quality in the processing stage 00 International virtual-water flows 00 Water footprints related to consumption of cotton products 00 Sustainable use of water 00 10 Water as a geopolitical resource 00 11 Efficient, sustainable, and equitable water use in a globalized world 00 Fairness and sustainability of large water footprints 00 Global rules of the game 00 An international protocol on water pricing 00 A water label for water-intensive products 00 Minimum water rights 00 (Tradable) water-footprint permits 00 Global arrangements versus the subsidiarity principle 00 Globalization: pro or anti? 00 Appendices I Analytical framework for the assessment of virtual-water content, virtual-water flows, water savings, water footprints, and water dependencies 00 II Virtual-water flows per country related to international trade in crop, livestock, and industrial products 00 III National water savings and losses due to trade in agricultural products 00 IV Water footprints of nations 00 V Water footprint versus water scarcity, self-sufficiency, and water import dependency per country 00 Glossary 00 References 00 Index 00
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Water-supply -- Management.
Water resources development.