Table of contents for Essentials of psychiatric mental health nursing / Mary C. Townsend.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
Contents
Unit One 
Introduction to Psychiatric/Mental Health Concepts	1	
Chapter 1
Mental Health and Mental Illness	3
Introduction	4
Mental Health	4
Mental Illness	5
Physical and Psychological Responses to Stress	5
	Physical Responses	5
	Psychological Responses	6
The DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial Evaluation System	11
Summary	12
Chapter 2
Concepts of Personality Development	15
Introduction	16
Psychoanalytic Theory	16
	Structure of the Personality	16
	Topography of the Mind	17
	Dynamics of the Personality	17
	Freud's Stages of Personality Development	18
	Relevance of Psychoanalytic Theory to Nursing Practice	19
Interpersonal Theory	19
	Sullivan's Stages of Personality Development	20
	Relevance of Interpersonal Theory to Nursing Practice	20
Theory of Psychosocial Development	21
	Erikson's Stages of Personality Development	21
	Relevance of Psychosocial Development Theory to Nursing Practice	23
Theory of Object Relations	23
 Phase I: The Autistic Phase (Birth to 1 Month)	23
 Phase II: The Symbiotic Phase (1 to 5 Months)	24
 Phase III: Separation-Individuation (5 to 36 Months)	24
 Relevance of Object Relations Theory to Nursing Practice	25
A Nursing Model-Hildegard E. Peplau	25
 Peplau's Stages of Personality Development 	26
	Learning to Count on Others	26
 Learning to Delay Satisfaction	26
 Identifying Oneself	27
 Developing Skills in Participation	27
 Relevance of Peplau's Model to Nursing Practice	28
Summary	28
Chapter 3
Biological Implications	31
Introduction	32
Neurophysiological Influences	32
	The Nervous System	32
	The Neuroendocrine System	39
Implications for Psychiatric Illness	43
	Schizophrenia	43
	Mood Disorders	43
	Anxiety Disorders	44
	Anorexia Nervosa	44
	Alzheimer's Disease	45
Diagnostic Procedures Used to Detect Altered Brain Function	45
 Electroencephalography	45
 Computerized EEG Mapping		46
 Computed Tomographic Scan		46
 Magnetic Resonance Imaging		46
 Positron Emission Tomography	46
 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography	46
Implications for Nursing	46
Summary	47
Chapter 4
Ethical and Legal Issues	50
Introduction	51
Ethical Considerations	51
	Theoretical Perspectives	51
 A Model for Making Ethical Decisions	54
 Ethical Issues in Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing	54
Legal Considerations	55
	Nurse Practice Acts	56
	Types of Law	56
 Classifications Within Statutory and Common Law	56
 Legal Issues in Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing	57
Summary	62
Chapter 5
Cultural and Spiritual Concepts Relevant to Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing	66
Cultural Concepts	67
How do Cultures Differ?	68
	Communication	68
	Space	68
	Social Organization	68
	Time	69
	Environmental Control	69
	Biological Variations	69
Application of the Nursing Process	69
 Background Assessment Data		69
 Culture-Bound Syndromes	76
 Planning/Implementation	79
 Evaluation	81
Spiritual Concepts	81
	Spiritual Needs	82
	Religion	84
Assessment of Spiritual and Religious Needs	84
 Diagnoses/Outcome Identification/Evaluation	86
 Planning/Implementation	86
Summary	86
Unit Two	
Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing Interventions	93	
Chapter 6
Relationship Development and Therapeutic Communication	95
Introduction	96
The Therapeutic Nurse-Client Relationship	96
	Therapeutic Use of Self	97
Conditions Essential to Development of a Therapeutic Relationship	97
	Rapport	97
	Trust	97
	Respect	98
	Genuineness	98
	Empathy	98
Phases of a Therapeutic Nurse-Client Relationship	99
	The Preinteraction Phase	99
	The Orientation (Introductory) Phase		100
	The Working Phase	100
	The Termination Phase	101
Boundaries in the Nurse-Client Relationship	101
Interpersonal Communication		102
	The Impact of Pre-existing Conditions	102
	Values, Attitudes, and Beliefs		102
	Culture or Religion	103
 Social Status	103
 Gender	103
 Age or Developmental Level	103
 Environment in Which the Transaction Takes Place	103
 Nonverbal Communication	104
	Physical Appearance and Dress	104
	Body Movement and Posture	104
	Touch	104
	Facial Expressions	105
	Eye Behavior	105
 Vocal Cues, or Paralanguage	106
 Therapeutic Communication Techniques	106
	Nontherapeutic Communication Techniques	106
	Process Recordings	106
	Active Listening	106
	Feedback	108
Summary	112
Chapter 7
The Nursing Process in Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing	115
Introduction	116
The Nursing Process	116
	Definition	116
Standards of Care	116
	Standard I. Assessment	116
	Standard II. Diagnosis		117
	Standard III. Outcome Identification	117
	Standard IV. Planning		117
	Standard V. Implementation	126
	Standard VI. Evaluation	127
Why Nursing Diagnosis?	127
Nursing Case Management	129
	Critical Pathways of Care	129
Applying the Nursing Process in the Psychiatric Setting	131
Concept Mapping	132
Documentation of the Nursing Process	134
	Problem-Oriented Recording	134
	Focus Charting	134
	The PIE Method	135
	Electronic Documentation	136
Summary	137
Chapter 8
Milieu Therapy-The Therapeutic Community	140
Introduction	141
Milieu, Defined	141
Current Status of the Therapeutic Community	141
Basic Assumptions	141
Conditions that Promote a Therapeutic Community	142
The Program of the Therapeutic Community	143
The Role of the Nurse	143
Summary	146
Chapter 9
Intervention in Groups	149
Introduction	150
Functions of a Group	150
Types of Groups	150
	Task Groups	150
	Teaching Groups	150
	Supportive/Therapeutic Groups	151
	Self-Help Groups	151
Physical Conditions that Influence Group Dynamics		151
	Seating		151
	Size	151
	Membership	152
Curative Factors	152
Phases of Group Development	153
	Phase I. Initial or Orientation Phase	153
	Phase II. Middle or Working Phase	153
	Phase III. Final or Termination Phase		153
Leadership Styles	154
	Autocratic	154
 Democratic	154
 Laissez-Faire	154
Member Roles		154
Psychodrama	155
The Family as a Group	156
The Role of the Nurse in Group Interventions	157
Summary	157
Chapter 10
Intervening in Crises	162
Introduction	163
Characteristics of a Crisis	163
Phases in the Development of a Crisis	163
Types of Crises	164
	Class 1: Dispositional Crises	164
 Class 2: Crises of Anticipated Life Transitions	165
 Class 3: Crises Resulting from Traumatic Stress	165
 Class 4: Maturational/Developmental Crises	165
 Class 5: Crises Reflecting Psychopathology	166
 Class 6: Psychiatric Emergencies	166
Crisis Intervention	166
Phases of Crisis Intervention: The Role of the Nurse		167
	Phase 1. Assessment	167
	Phase 2. Planning of Therapeutic Intervention	168
	Phase 3. Intervention	168
	Phase 4. Evaluation of Crisis Resolution and Anticipatory Planning		168
Crisis on the Inpatient Unit: Anger/Aggression Management	169
	Assessment	169
	Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	170
	Outcome Criteria	170
	Planning/Implementation	170
	Evaluation	170
Disaster Nursing	170
Application of the Nursing Process to Disaster Nursing	173
 Background Assessment Data		173
	Nursing Diagnoses/Outcome Identification	173
	Planning/Implementation	174
	Evaluation	174
Summary	174
Chapter 11
Psychopharmacology	182
Introduction	183
Historical Perspectives	183
How do Psychotropics Work?	183
Applying the Nursing Process in Psychopharmacological Therapy	186
	Antianxiety Agents	186
	Antidepressants	189
	Mood-Stabilizing Agents	195
	Antipsychotic Agents	200
	Sedative-Hypnotics	205
	Agents for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)	206
Summary	208
Chapter 12
Complementary and Psychosocial Therapies	212
Complementary Therapies	213
Introduction	213
Commonalities and Contrasts	214
Types of Complementary Therapies	215
	Herbal Medicine	215
	Acupressure and Acupuncture	216
	Diet and Nutrition	216
	Chiropractic Medicine	224
	Therapeutic Touch	224
	Massage	225 
 Yoga	225
	Pet Therapy	225
Psychosocial Therapies	226
 Individual Psychotherapy	226
 Psychoanalysis	226
 Interpersonal Psychotherapy	227
 Reality Therapy	228
 Relaxation Therapy	228
 Assertiveness Training	229
 Cognitive Therapy	230
Summary	231
Unit Three	
Care of Clients with Psychiatric Disorders	235
Chapter 13
Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic Disorders	237
Introduction	238
Delirium	238
 Etiological Implications	239
Dementia	239
	Etiological Implications	241
Amnestic Disorders	245
	Etiological Implications	246
Application of the Nursing Process	247
	Assessment	247
	The Client History	247
 Physical Assessment	247
 Diagnostic Laboratory Evaluations	247
 Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	251
	Planning/Implementation	251
	Client/Family Education	253
	Evaluation	253
Medical Treatment Modalities	253
	Delirium	253
	Dementia	253
	Cognitive Impairment		254
	Agitation, Aggression, Hallucinations, Thought Disturbances, and Wandering 255
	Depression	255
	Anxiety	256
	Sleep Disturbances	256
Summary	256
Chapter 14
Substance-Related Disorders	262
Introduction	263
Substance-Use Disorders	263
	Substance Abuse	263
	Substance Dependence	264
Substance-Induced Disorders	264
	Substance Intoxication	264
	Substance Withdrawal	265
Classes of Psychoactive Substances	265
Etiological Implications	265
	Biological Factors	265
	Psychological Factors	266
	Sociocultural Factors	266
The Dynamics of Substance-Related Disorders	267
	Alcohol Abuse and Dependence	267
	Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Abuse and Dependence	271
	CNS Stimulant Abuse and Dependence	274
	Inhalant Abuse and Dependence	277
	Opioid Abuse and Dependence	278
	Opioid Intoxication	280
 Hallucinogen Abuse and Dependence	280
	Cannabis Abuse and Dependence	283
Application of the Nursing Process	285
	Assessment	285
	Dual Diagnosis	289
	Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	290
	Planning/Implementation	291
	Evaluation	292
Treatment Modalities for Substance-Related Disorders	294
	Alcoholics Anonymous	294
	Pharmacotherapy	295
	Counseling	297
	Group Therapy	297
	Psychopharmacology for Substance Intoxication and Substance Withdrawal 297
Summary	299
Chapter 15
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders	304
Introduction	305
Nature of the Disorder	305
 Prognosis	307
Etiological Implications	307
	Biological Influences	307
	Genetics	307
	Biochemical Influences	307
	Physiological Influences	309
	Psychological Influences	309
	Environmental Influences	310
	Theoretical Integration	310
Types of Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders	310
	Disorganized Schizophrenia	310
	Catatonic Schizophrenia	310
	Paranoid Schizophrenia	311
	Undifferentiated Schizophrenia	311
	Residual Schizophrenia	311
	Schizoaffective Disorder	311
	Brief Psychotic Disorder	311
	Schizophreniform Disorder	312
	Delusional Disorder	312
	Shared Psychotic Disorder	312
	Psychotic Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition	313
	Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder	313
Application of the Nursing Process	313
	Background Assessment Data		313
	Content of Thought	314
	Form of Thought	314
	Perception	315
	Affect	315
	Sense of Self	315
	Volition	316
	Psychomotor Behavior	316
	Associated Features	316
	Positive and Negative Symptoms	316
	Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	316
	Planning/Implementation	317
	Client/Family Education	321
	Evaluation	321
Treatment Modalities for Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders	321
	Psychological Treatments	321
	Social Treatment	324
	Organic Treatment	325
Summary	327
Chapter 16
Mood Disorders	332
Introduction	333
Historical Perspective	333
Epidemiology	334
	Gender		334
	Age	334
	Social Class	334
	Race and Culture	334
	Marital Status	335
 Seasonality	335
Types of Mood Disorders	335
	Depressive Disorders	335
	Bipolar Disorders	336
	Other Mood Disorders	338
Depressive Disorders	339
	Etiological Implications	339
	Developmental Implications	342
Application of the Nursing Process to Depressive Disorders		345
 Background Assessment Data		345
 Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	347
 Planning/Implementation	348
 Client/Family Education	352
 Evaluation of Care for the Depressed Client	352
Bipolar Disorder (Mania)	352
	Etiological Implications	352
	Developmental Implications	353
	Treatment Strategies	354
Application of the Nursing Process to Bipolar Disorder (Mania)	355
	Background Assessment Data		355
	Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	356
	Planning/Implementation	357
	Client/Family Education	358
	Evaluation of Care for the Manic Client	358
Treatment Modalities for Mood Disorders	360
	Psychological Treatments	360
	Organic Treatments	362
Suicide		366
	Epidemiological Factors	366
Application of the Nursing Process with the Suicidal Client	366
	Assessment	366
	Planning/Implementation	369
	Evaluation	372
Summary	372
Chapter 17
Anxiety Disorders	379
Introduction	380
Historical Aspects	380
Epidemiological Statistics	380
How Much is Too Much?	381
Application of the Nursing Process	381
	Panic Disorder		381
	Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia	382
 Generalized Anxiety Disorder	382
	Phobias	387
	Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder	391
	Posttraumatic Stress Disorder		398
	Anxiety Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition	404
	Substance-Induced Anxiety Disorder		404
Treatment Modalities	404
	Individual Psychotherapy	404
	Cognitive Therapy	405
	Behavior Therapy	406
	Group/Family Therapy	407
 Psychopharmacology	407
Summary	409
Chapter 18
Anxiety-Related Disorders	413
Introduction	414
Historical Aspects	414
Epidemiological Statistics	415
Application of the Nursing Process	416
	Background Assessment Data-Types of Psychophysiological Disorders	416
	Background Assessment Data-Types of Somatoform Disorders	426
	Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	428
	Planning/Implementation	429
	Evaluation	434
 Medical Treatment Modalities for Somatoform Disorders	434
	Background Assessment Data-Types of Dissociative Disorders	434
 Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	437
 Planning/Implementation	438
 Evaluation	438
 Medical Treatment Modalities	438
 Dissociative Fugue	438
 Dissociative Identity Disorder	441
 Depersonalization Disorder	441
Summary	443
Chapter 19
Disorders of Human Sexuality	448
Introduction	449
Development of Human Sexuality	449
	Birth Through Age 12		449
	Adolescence	450
	Adulthood	450
	The "Middle" Years-40 to 65	451
Sexual Disorders	451
	Paraphilias	451
	Sexual Dysfunctions	455
	Application of the Nursing Process to Sexual Disorders	459
Variations in Sexual Orientation	467
	Homosexuality	467
	Transsexualism	468
	Bisexuality	469
Sexually Transmitted Diseases	470
Summary	470
Chapter 20
Eating Disorders	476
Introduction	477
Epidemiological Factors	477
Application of the Nursing Process	478
	Background Assessment Data (Anorexia Nervosa)	478
	Background Assessment Data (Bulimia Nervosa)	478
	Etiological Implications for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa	479
	Background Assessment Data (Obesity)	480
	Etiological Implications for Obesity	481
	Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	482
	Planning/Implementation	482
	Client/Family Education	482
	Evaluation	482
Treatment Modalities	488
	Behavior Modification	488
	Individual Therapy	488
	Family Therapy	489
	Psychopharmacology	489
Summary	490
Chapter 21
Personality Disorders	495
Introduction	496
Historical Aspects	496
Types of Personality Disorders	498
	Paranoid Personality Disorder	498
	Schizoid Personality Disorder		498
	Schizotypal Personality Disorder	499
	Antisocial Personality Disorder	499
	Borderline Personality Disorder	500
	Histrionic Personality Disorder	500
	Narcissistic Personality Disorder	501
	Avoidant Personality Disorder	502
	Dependent Personality Disorder	502
	Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder	503
	Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder	503
Application of the Nursing Process	504
	Borderline Personality Disorder	504
	Antisocial Personality Disorder	509
Treatment Modalities	513
	Interpersonal Psychotherapy	513
	Psychoanalytical Psychotherapy	516
	Milieu or Group Therapy	516
	Cognitive/Behavioral Therapy	516
	Psychopharmacology	516
Summary	518
Unit Four	
Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing of Special Populations	523
Chapter 22
Children and Adolescents	525
Introduction	526
Mental Retardation	526
	Etiological Implications	526
	Application of the Nursing Process to Mental Retardation	527
	Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	528
	Planning/Implementation	528
	Evaluation	528
Autistic Disorder	530
 Etiological Implications	530
 Application of the Nursing Process to Autistic Disorder	530
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder	531
	Etiological Implications	533
	Application of the Nursing Process to ADHD	534
Conduct Disorder	539
 Etiological Implications	540
 Application of the Nursing Process to Conduct Disorder	541
Oppositional Defiant Disorder	542
	Etiological Implications	542
	Application of the Nursing Process to Oppositional Defiant Disorder	544
Tourette's Disorder	545
	Etiological Implications	545
	Application of the Nursing Process to Tourette's Disorder	547
Separation Anxiety Disorder	550
	Etiological Implications	550
	Application of the Nursing Process to Separation Anxiety Disorder		551
General Therapeutic Approaches	553
	Behavior Therapy	553
	Family Therapy	553
	Group Therapy	553
	Psychopharmacology	555
Summary	555
Chapter 23
Victims of Abuse or Neglect	561
Introduction	562
Historical Perspectives	562
Etiological Implications	563
	Biological Theories	563
	Psychological Theories	563
	Sociocultural Theories	563
Application of the Nursing Process	565
	Background Assessment Data		565
	Diagnosis/Outcome Identification 	571
	Planning/Implementation 	572
	Evaluation	572
Treatment Modalities	572
	Crisis Intervention	572
Summary	576
Chapter 24
The Aging Individual	581
Introduction	582
How Old is Old?	582
Epidemiological Statistics	583
	The Population	583
	Marital Status	583
	Living Arrangements	583
	Economic Status	583
	Employment	583
	Health Status	584
Theories of Aging	584
	Biological Theories	584
	Genetic Theory	584
	Wear-and-Tear Theory	584
	Environmental Theory	584
	Immunity Theory	584
 Neuroendocrine Theory	584
 Psychosocial Theories		585
 Personality Theories	585
	Developmental Task Theory	585
	Disengagement Theory	585
	Activity Theory	586
	Continuity Theory	586
The Normal Aging Process	586
	Biological Aspects of Aging	586
	Psychological Aspects of Aging	588
	Sociocultural Aspects of Aging	590
	Sexual Aspects of Aging	591
Special Concerns of the Elderly Population	592
	Retirement	592
	Long-Term Care	594
	Elder Abuse	595
	Suicide		597
Application of the Nursing Process	598
	Assessment	598
	Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	599
	Planning/Implementation	600
	Evaluation	600
Summary	605
Chapter 25
Community Mental Health Nursing	611
Introduction	612
The Changing Focus of Care	612
The Public Health Model	613
The Community as Client	614
	Primary Prevention	614
	Secondary Prevention	620
	Tertiary Prevention	623
The Homeless Population	629
	Historical and Epidemiological Aspects	629
	Community Resources for the Homeless	635
	The Homeless Client and the Nursing Process	636
Summary	636
Chapter 26
The Bereaved Individual	642
Introduction	643
Theoretical Perspectives on Loss and Bereavement	643
 Stages of Grief	643
Length of the Grief Process	646
Anticipatory Grief	647
Maladaptive Responses to Loss	647
 Delayed or Inhibited Grief	647
 Distorted (Exaggerated) Grief Response	648
 Chronic or Prolonged Grieving	648
 Normal versus Maladaptive Grieving		648
Application of the Nursing Process	648
	Background Assessment Data: Concepts of Death-Developmental Issues	648
	Background Assessment Data: Concepts of Death-Cultural Issues		650
	Nursing Diagnosis/Outcome Identification	652
	Planning/Implementation	652
	Evaluation	652
Additional Assistance	654
	Hospice	654
	Advance Directives	657
Summary	657
Appendix A: DSM-IV-TR Classification: Axes I and II Categories and Codes	663
Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence	663
Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and other Cognitive Disorders	664
Mental Disorders due to a General Medical Condition Not Elsewhere Classified	664
Substance-Related Disorders	664
Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders		666
Mood Disorders	667
Somatoform Disorders	667
Factitious Disorders	667
Dissociative Disorders	667
Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders	667
Eating Disorders	668
Sleep Disorders	668
Other Conditions that may be a Focus of Clinical Attention	669
Additional Codes	669
Appendix B: NANDA Nursing Diagnoses: Taxonomy II DOMAINS, CLASSES, AND 
 DIAGNOSES	670
Domain 1: Health Promotion	670
Domain 2: Nutrition	670
Domain 3: Elimination and Exchange	670
Domain 4: Activity/Rest	671
Domain 5: Perception/Cognition	671
Domain 6: Self-Perception	671
Domain 7: Role Relationships	672
Domain 8: Sexuality	672
Domain 9: Coping/Stress Tolerance	672
Domain 10: Life Principles	672
Domain 11: Safety/Protection		673
Domain 12: Comfort	673
Domain 13: Growth/Development	673
Appendix C: Assigning Nursing Diagnoses to Client Behaviors	674
Appendix D: Mental Status Assessment	676
Identifying Data	676
General Description	676
Emotions	676
Thought Processes	677
Perceptual Disturbances	677
Sensorium and Cognitive Ability	677
Impulse Control	677
Judgment and Insight	677
Appendix E: Glossary		678
Appendix F: Answers to Review Questions	699
Chapter 1. Mental Health and Mental Illness	699
Chapter 2. Concepts of Personality Development	699
Chapter 3. Biological Implications	699
Chapter 4. Ethical and Legal Issues	699
Chapter 5. Cultural and Spiritual Concepts Relevant to Psychiatric/Mental Health 
 Nursing	699
Chapter 6. Relationship Development and Therapeutic Communication	699
Chapter 7. The Nursing Process in Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing	699
Chapter 8. Milieu Therapy-The Therapeutic Community	700
Chapter 9. Intervention in Groups	700
Chapter 10. Intervening in Crises	700
Chapter 11. Psychopharmacology	700
Chapter 12. Complementary and Psychosocial Therapies	700
Chapter 13. Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic Disorders	700
Chapter 14. Substance-Related Disorders	700
Chapter 15. Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders	700
Chapter 16. Mood Disorders	700
Chapter 17. Anxiety Disorders	700
Chapter 18. Anxiety-Related Disorders	700
Chapter 19. Disorders of Human Sexuality	700
Chapter 20. Eating Disorders	700
Chapter 21. Personality Disorders	700
Chapter 22. Children and Adolescents	700
Chapter 23. Victims of Abuse or Neglect	701
Chapter 24. The Aging Individual	701
Chapter 25. Community Mental Health Nursing	701
Chapter 26. The Bereaved Individual		701
Index	703

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Psychiatric nursing.
Psychiatric Nursing -- methods.
Mental Disorders -- nursing.