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Table of Contents Foreword: Sir Philip Craven Foreword: Prof. Dr. Gudrun Doll-Tepper Preface Chapter 1: A showcase of ability Introduction No excuses, no limits The International Paralympic Committee Qualification, eligibility and classification The ?medical model of disability? versus the ?social model of disability? Disabling barriers and the role of competitive sport Language defines and restricts Reading and writing a history of the Paralympic Movement Paralympic terminology Origins of Organisations of Sport for Persons with a disability Conclusion Chapter 2: An air of hopelessness Introduction From Rehabilitation to Sport: Ludwig Guttmann?s legacy The Stoke Mandeville Spirit goes international Wheelchair Basketball develops in the United States Meetings of experts Conclusion Chapter 3: The era of development 1960 ? 1980 Introduction First Paralympic Games, Rome, 1960 Commonwealth Paraplegic Games, Perth Western Australia 1962 ?The World United in One?: Tokyo 1964 Technical, titular and regional developments Mexico off, Israel on: 1968 Was the Stoke Mandeville influence waning? ?1000 Competitors, 1000 Winners?: the 4th Paralympic Games, Heidelberg, 1972 Regional and ?World Zone? Games take on greater significance First Winter Paralympic Games: ¿rnsk¿ldsvik, Sweden 1976 Torontolympiad, Canada 1976 Geilo, Norway 1980 Waiting patiently for a reply from Moscow, and the South African question The passing of Ludwig Guttmann Arnhem hosts 1980 Paralympic Games Joint Study Group explores the way ahead Conclusion Chapter 4: Fair, not equal: 1980 ? 1988 Overview Progress of the ISOD/ISMGF Study Group The birth of a new umbrella organisation for disability sport First dealings with the International Olympic Committee Canadians offer a national perspective Getting down to business Friendship, Unity and Sportsmanship The International Fund Sport Disabled ICC meets at the 3rd World Winter Games for the Disabled, Innsbr¿ck, 1984 The collapse of the Illinois Games 1984 International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair GameThe camaraderie of teamwork, the thrill of competition The International Coordinating Committee meets at the International Games for the Disabled in New York, June 1984 Olympic Scientific Congress, Eugene, Oregon July 1984 Demonstration Events at Los Angeles Olympic Games Slow progress at Lausanne, but some signs of promise Arnhem hosts ICC again Grant explores the Olympic Family Comit¿ International des Sports des Sourds starts to climb aboard, August 1985 Sport for athletes with intellectual disabilities, February 1986 Planning for Seoul, and terminology ?Every handicap is ours? The Sixth Clause Administrative overload, 1986 ?And then there were six, January 1987 Rift develops with the International Fund Bids from Barcelona and Albertville An illusion of unity Arnhem Seminar shapes the future, March 1987 Developing countries The revolution has come at last Calgary is off, Innsbr¿ck hosts the 4th World Winter Games for the Disabled Combined bids for Olympic and Paralympic Games in future, June 1988 Conclusion Chapter 5: Building bridges not walls: 1988 to 1992 Overview Seoul 1988: the first Paralympic Games of the Modern Era ?Keep the mentally handicapped out of our arena? ? Copenhagen, January 1989 Classification for fairness Turbulent times in D¿sseldorf, September 1989 Frustration and slow progress Classification issues raised by COOB?92 Building bridges, not walls Agreement with CISS discussed Steadward addresses the ICC Tensions and resistance to change Cabezas provides a route map for transfer of authority Signing an orderly and harmonious transfer The ?teardrops? or Tae-Geuks Martin Mansell - Athletes? Representative International Coordinating Committee checks preparation for Barcelona IPC supports Sledge Hockey and dressage More tears for IPC Logo IOC Executive discusses disability, September 1991 CISS withdraws from ICC Athletes first, disabled second Winter Paralympic Games, Tignes 1992 IPC is hot on the heels of the ICC Sports without Limits: Barcelona Paralympic Games Paralympic Congress in Barcelona, September 1992 Our origins are not nearly as important as our destination Manchester welcomes the International Paralympic Committee Larnaca send-off to the International Coordinating Committee Conclusion Chapter 6: Spirit in Motion: 1992 to 1996 Overview ?The future of IPC ? what do you want?? - from Barcelona to Lillehammer Administration International Olympic Committee Finances Inclusion and integration Paralympic Games preparation Minimum disability Intellectual disability Technical matters US Wheelchair Basketball Team still had not returned Gold Medals Sport science and medicine ?No Limits?: 5th Paralympic Winter Games, Lillehammer, Norway 1994 2nd Paralympic Congress in Lillehammer Triumph of the Human Spirit: From Lillehammer to Atlanta Administration International Federations attempt to take control of finances Finances Inclusion and integration Paralympic Games preparation Intellectual disability Technical matters Sport science and medicine A Task Force to steer the IPC onwards Atlanta Olympic Games, 19th July to 4th August The Task Force reports back at Atlanta The Extraordinary General Assembly votes Conclusions Chapter 7: Repair what needs repair? 1996 to 2000 Overview IBSA presents its concerns Communication and the future structure of IPC Andr¿ Raes stands down New Headquarters for IPC causes trouble for the Executive Committee Membership, solidarity and elections International Olympic Committee Progress in establishing a Headquarters in Bonn Inclusion and integration Paralympic Games preparation Technical matters Sport science and medicine Sports news, not disability news: Nagano, 1998 From Nagano to Sydney Administration Voting rights The new IPC Headquarters is opened in Bonn, September 1999 Executive meeting in Bonn General Assembly at Salt Lake City, 1999 World Summit on Physical Education, November 1999 International Olympic Committee Finances Paralympic Games preparation Intellectual disability Technical matters Women in Sport, 2000 Development National and Regional representation issues Sport science and medicine Vista ?99 Testing times Strategic matters and preparations Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games: The Best Yet The Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games begin: ?The things that unite mankind far outweigh the things that divide? Amalgamation of ISMWGF and ISOD at Sydney Sydney Closing Ceremony ? a big party Major disgrace at Basketball for athletes with intellectual disability Conclusion Chapter 8: Sport is about emotion: 2000 to 2004 Overview Not just a ?Spanish ulcer? ATHENS 2004 Paralympic Games Contract Split from WeMedia Steadward to be conferred with title of Honorary President Sport Science Committee renamed Executive Committee decide on INAS-FID Kuala Lumpur IPC Strategic Planning Congress, April 2001 Update on INAS-FID in Kuala Lumpur Agreement signed with International Olympic Committee, June 2001 IPC and the World Anti-Doping Agency Unity, tolerance and respect, Athens December 2001 A lively General Assembly in Athens, December 2001 Voting on INAS-FID suspension at Athens General Assembly New President: a ?team player? Redefining the impossible: Salt Lake City, USA, March 2002 Executive Committee does business at Salt Lake City Manchester hosts Commonwealth Games Paralympic Games preparation discussed in Bonn, October 2002 INAS-FID still not up to the mark, according to IPC Strategic Review gains momentum, and Medical Committee restructures itself Public relations SportAccord convention in Madrid Commission for Athletes with a Severe Disability Phil Craven elected as IOC Member VISTA Conference 2003, Bolln¿s, Sweden Evolution, not Revolution Engineering the Future, Torino General Assembly, November 2003 Athens prepares to welcome the world Conclusion: Paralympic Movement: how far have we come? Bibliography Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Special Olympics -- History.
Paralympics -- History.
Sports for people with disabilities.
Athletes with disabilities.