Table of contents for Access to environmental justice : a comparative study / edited by Andrew Harding.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Contents 
The Contributors xv 
Chapter 1 
Access to Environmental Justice: Some Introductory Perspectives 1 
Andrew Harding 
I. ORIGINS 1 
II. SOAS/A2EJ: AN OUTLINE 3 
III. SOAS/A2EJ: THE FINDINGS 7 
IV. THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THIS BOOK 11 
(a) Ghana (Accra) 11 
(b) India (Bangalore) 11 
(c) Indonesia 12 
(d) Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur) 13 
(e) Nepal 14 
(f) Pakistan (Karachi) 15 
(g) People's Republic of China 16 
(h) South West Pacific 16 
(i) Thailand 17 
(j) United Kingdom 18 
(k) United States 18 
V. FINALLY ... 19 
Chapter 2 
Access to Environmental Justice in Ghana (Accra) 21 
James S. Read 
I. INTRODUCTION: GENERAL BACKGROUND 21 
(a) Accra: the growth of the city and its people 23 
(b) Accra: its economy in the national context 24 
(c) Environmental law in Ghana in historical perspective 25 
(d) Accra: an environmental crisis 26 
v 
II. CONTEXT: GENERAL 'PARTICIPATION ENDOWMENTS' 27 
(a) Policy framework for citizen participation 27 
(b) The constitutional foundation for participation 27 
III. STRUCTURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING 30 
(a) National agencies and procedures 30 
(i) Ministry for Environment, Science and Technology 30 
(ii) National Development Planning 30 
(iii) Environmental Protection Agency 31 
(iv) Environmental Impact Assessment 32 
(v) Planning law 34 
(vi) Other legislation 35 
(vii) Judicial remedies 36 
(viii) Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice 38 
(b) Local agencies 39 
(i) Local government: structure and powers 39 
(ii) Local government in Accra 40 
(iii) Traditional authorities, local customary laws and indigenous culture 41 
(iv) Strengthening community management 43 
IV. THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS 44 
(a) CENCOSAD 44 
(b) La Mansaamo Kpee 45 
(c) Association of Vegetable Growers 45 
(d) Accra Sustainable Programme 46 
V. GATEWAYS TO PUBLIC PARTICIPATION: RIGHTS, 
DECISIONMAKING AND PROCESS 47 
(a) Water 47 
(b) Air 49 
(c) Land 50 
(i) Land tenure in Ghana 51 
(ii) Access to land in Accra 52 
(iii) Access to land: self-help as a gateway to law reform 54 
(d) Waste disposal 55 
VI. CONCLUSION 57 
Chapter 3 
Access to Environmental Justice in India's Garden City (Bangalore) 59 
Amanda Perry-Kessaris 
I. AN ANATOMY ... OF PUBLIC RESPONSIBILITY 60 
(a) Municipal Corporation 60 
(b) Development Authority 60 
(c) Industrial Areas Development Board 61 
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(d) Specialist agencies 62 
II. ... OF LEGAL GATEWAYS 63 
(a) Criminal 63 
(b) Civil 64 
(c) Public 65 
III. ... OF OBSTACLES TO ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE 67 
(a) Morale and motivation 69 
(b) Scepticism 69 
(c) Democratic deficit 71 
IV. 'THE POLITICS OF BANGLAORE IS THE POLITICS OF REAL ESTATE' 
76 
(a) Land use law and practice 76 
(i) Building and conversion of land use 76 
(ii) Compulsory acquisition of land for private companies 78 
(b) The Bangalore-Mysore Infrastructure Corridor saga 80 
(i) Environmental clearances and public input 81 
(ii) Acquisition of land 82 
(iii) NICE as real estate agent 84 
(iv) Concessions 85 
(v) Challenging the notification process in the courts 85 
(vi) The future 86 
V. CONCLUSION 86 
Chapter 4 
Access to Environmental Justice in Indonesia 89 
Adriaan Bedner 
I. INTRODUCTION 89 
(a) Environmental disputes in Indonesia 91 
(b) Environmental justice? 91 
II. LEGAL GATEWAYS TO ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE 92 
(a) Introduction 92 
(i) Principles 93 
(ii) The right to information 94 
(b) Civil litigation 96 
(i) Standing 97 
(ii) Limitation period 98 
(iii) The right to compensation 98 
(iv) Proving causation 99 
(v) Evidence of pollution or damage 100 
(vi) Strict liability 103 
(vii) Remedies 103 
(viii) Conclusion 105 
(b) Litigation against the state 105 
(i) Litigation in the Administrative Court 106 
vii 
(ii) Litigation against the police or the Public Prosecutor's Office 108 
III. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION 109 
(a) Legal framework 109 
(b) Getting started 110 
(c) Getting an agreement 113 
(d) Implementing the agreement 114 
(e) Conclusion 115 
IV. ACCESS TO LITIGATION AND MEDIATION AND FACTORS SHAPING 
THEIR EFFECTIVENESS 116 
(a) Economic conditions 116 
(b) Liberalisation 117 
(c) Decentralisation and democratisation 118 
(d) State control 119 
(e) The role of NGOs 120 
(f) The image of the judiciary 121 
V. CONCLUSIONS 122 
Chapter 5 
Access to Environmental Justice in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur) 125 
Andrew Harding and Azmi Sharom 
I. INTRODUCTION 125 
II. ENVIRONMENTAL LAW IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 127 
III. STRUCTURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING 128 
(a) Local Government 130 
(b) Planning and Development Control 131 
IV. THE JUDICIARY 135 
(a) Archaic rules of locus standi (standing) 136 
(b) Procedural barriers 137 
(c) Lack of development of planning law 137 
(d) Tort actions 138 
(i) Causation 139 
(ii) Limitation 140 
(iii) Expert evidence 140 
(iv) Costs and representation 140 
V. HUMAN RIGHTS 141 
VI. WATER POLLUTION 143 
VII. AIR POLLUTION 144 
VIII. SQUATTER COMMUNITIES 145 
(a) Land rights 146 
(b) Case study: Kampung Merbau Berdarah 148 
IX. LICENSING 149 
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X. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 151 
XI. GENERIC PROBLEMS 152 
XII. CONCLUSIONS 154 
Chapter 6 
Access to Environmental Justice in a Politically Unstable Environment: A 
Case Study of Nepal 157 
Surya Subedi 
I. INTRODUCTION 157 
II. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 160 
(a) An EIA for All Major Development Projects 160 
(b) EIAG 1993 162 
(c) Environment Protection Act 1997 163 
(d) Environmental Protection Regulations 1997 164 
III. ACCESS TO JUSTICE 164 
(a) Constitutional remedies 164 
(b) Remedies under the Environmental Protection Act 1997 166 
(c) The Civil Code 166 
(d) The case law 167 
(e) Individual right of access to environmental information 173 
IV. CONCLUSION 174 
Chapter 7 
Access to Environmental Justice: Karachi's Urban Poor and the Law 177 
Martin Lau 
I. INTRODUCTION: KARACHI AND ITS URBAN POOR 177 
(a) The setting 178 
(b) Master plans 180 
(c) The informal housing market 183 
(d) Case study: Rehmanabad 184 
(e) Regularisation 186 
II. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK 190 
(a) Constitutional rights 190 
(b) Environmental laws 192 
(c) Environmental laws and the urban poor 194 
(d) Environmental litigation 197 
(e) Access to justice 199 
III. CONCLUSION 203 
Chapter 8 
Towards a Greener China? Accessing Environmental Justice in the People's 
Republic of China 205 
Michael Palmer 
I. INTRODUCTION 205 
II. THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL 
PROTECTION 207 
III. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK 211 
IV. SEEKING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE 215 
(a) Avoidance and force 216 
(b) Negotiation and mediation 218 
(c) Umpiring - administrative penalties 223 
(d) Umpiring - going to court 226 
(e) Umpiring - criminal justice 231 
V. CONCLUSIONS 233 
References 235 
Chapter 9 
Access to Environmental Justice in the South West Pacific 237 
Nicola Pain 
I. INTRODUCTION 237 
II. THE SOUTH WEST PACIFIC 238 
(a) Regional environmental organisations 240 
(b) Environmental rights and customary ownership 241 
III. ACCESS TO JUSTICE: PROCEDURAL ASPECTS OF PARTICIPATION 
243 
(a) Constitutional provisions 244 
(b) Procedural rights in national legal systems 245 
(c) NGO participation at the national level 245 
IV. PUBLIC INTEREST ENVIRONMENTAL LITIGATION 247 
(a) The nature of environmental court action at the national and local levels 247 
(b) Hurdles to public interest litigation 250 
(c) Environmental litigation in developing countries 251 
V. CASE STUDY: MINING IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA 253 
(a) The Constitution 253 
(b) Large-scale mining activity and environmental protection 255 
(i) Panguna 256 
(ii) Ok Tedi 257 
(c) Access to legal representation 260 
Contents 
VI. CASE STUDY: FORESTRY IN THE SOLOMON ISLANDS 260 
(a) Constitution 261 
(b) Environmental protection and sustainable development 262 
(c) Managing natural resources: local v national interest 263 
(d) Access to the law 267 
VII. CONCLUSION 268 
Chapter 10 
Access to Environmental Justice and Public Participation in Thailand 271 
Thawilwadee Bureekul 
I. INTRODUCTION 271 
II. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 273 
(a) Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act 1992 
274 
(b) Official Information Act 1997 274 
(c) The Constitution 275 
(i) The Government 275 
(ii) Local government organisations 275 
(iii) Traditional communities 276 
(iv) Non-governmental organisations 276 
(v) Citizens 276 
(d) Public Hearing Regulation 1996 276 
IV. CASE STUDY: HIN KRUD POWER PLANT 278 
(a) The project 278 
(b) Public hearing activity 279 
(c) Conclusion 282 
V. MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 282 
(a) Legislative factors 282 
(b) Government policy commitment 283 
(c) Culture 283 
(i) Problem awareness 283 
(ii) Compromise orientation and trust 284 
(iii) Public participation factors 285 
(iv) Access to Information 285 
VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 285 Appendix: Chronology of 
the Hin Krud Project 287 Chapter 11 
Access to Environmental Justice in United Kingdom Law 289 
Jean-Jacques Paradissis and Michael Purdue 
I. ACCESS TO ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION 289 
(a) Public registers of environmental information 290 
(b) EC Directives 90/313 and 2003/4 and the Environmental Information 
Regulations 2004 294 
(c) Freedom of Information Act 2000 297 
II. LEGAL RIGHTS OF PUBLIC TO PARTICIPATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL 
DECISION-MAKING 298 
(a) Public participation in environmental impact assessment 299 
(b) General rights of public participation in environmental decisionmaking 300 
(c) Public participation in policy and plan-making 305 
(d) Strategic environmental assessment 307 
(e) Public participation in the preparation of legislation 308 
III. ACCESS TO THE COURTS 309 
(a) Who can apply to the courts 309 
(b) The costs of legal proceedings 312 
(c) The substantive law and the need for an environmental court or tribunal 315 
IV. CONCLUSIONS 315 
Chapter 12 
Access to Environmental Justice in the United States: Embracing 
Environmental and Social Concerns to Achieve Environmental Justice 317 
J. Mijin Cha 
I. THE BEGINNINGS OF ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE 319 
II. LOOKING TO STATUTES AND THE COURT FOR RELIEF 322 
III. STANDING REQUIREMENTS IN BRIEF 323 
(a) Article III Standing Requirements 324 
(b) Prudential Standing Requirements 324 
(c) Administrative Agency Action 325 
IV. EXECUTIVE ORDER 12898 327 
V. FEDERAL SUBSTANTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS 329 
(a) Clean Air Act 331 
(b) Clean Water Act 332 
(c) Citizen Suit Provisions 334 
(d) National Environmental Protection Act 334 
(e) Title VI, Civil Rights Act of 1964 336 
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(f) 42 USC 1983 337 
(i) South Camden Citizens in Action v New Jersey Department of 
Environmental Protection 340 
(ii) District Court's Initial Decision 340 
(iii) The Introduction of Alexander v Sandoval 344 
(iv) District Court's Decision after Sandoval 345 
VI. THE CENTRE ON RACE, POVERTY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 349 
(a) The Kivalina Relocation Planning Committee Case 349 
(b) The Residents of Blythe, California's Title VI Claim 351 
VII. CONCLUSIONS 354 
A Note on Environmental Law-Enforcement Duties 355 
Andrew Harding 
Index 363 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Environmental law.
Environmental justice.
Environmental policy.