Table of contents for Human physiology / Stuart Ira Fox.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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1 The Study of Body Function 2
2 Chemical Composition of the Body 24
3 Cell Structure and Genetic Control 50
4 Enzymes and Energy 86
5 Cell Respiration and Metabolism 104
6 Interactions Between Cells and the 
Extracellular Environment 126
7 The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses 
152
8 The Central Nervous System 192
9 The Autonomic Nervous System 226
10 Sensory Physiology 250
11 Endocrine Glands: Secretion and Action of 
Hormones 296
12 Muscle: Mechanisms of Contraction and 
Neural Control 338
13 Heart and Circulation 380
14 Cardiac Output, Blood Flow, and Blood 
Pressure 424
15 The Immune System 464
16 Respiratory Physiology 500
17 Physiology of the Kidneys 548
18 The Digestive System 584
19 Regulation of Metabolism 624
20 Reproduction 662
Appendix A
Solutions to Clinical Investigations 717
Appendix B
Answers to Test Your Knowledge of Terms
and Facts Questions 721
Glossary 723
Credits 743
Index 745
ents
Chapter 1
The Study of Body
Function 2
Objectives 2
Chapter at a Glance 2
Introduction to Physiology 4
Scientific Method 4
Homeostasis and Feedback Control 6
History of Physiology 6
Negative Feedback Loops 6
Positive Feedback 9
Neural and Endocrine Regulation 9
Feedback Control of Hormone
Secretion 9
The Primary Tissues 10
Muscle Tissue 10
Nervous Tissue 11
Epithelial Tissue 12
Connective Tissue 16
Organs and Systems 18
An Example of an Organ:The Skin 18
Systems 18
Body-Fluid Compartments 18
Summary 20
Review Activities 21
Related Websites 22
Chapter 2
Chemical Composition of the Body 24
Objectives 24
Chapter at a Glance 24
Atoms, Ions, and Chemical Bonds 26
Atoms 26
Chemical Bonds, Molecules, and Ionic Compounds 27
Acids, Bases, and the pH Scale 29
Organic Molecules 31
Carbohydrates and Lipids 33
Carbohydrates 33
Lipids 36
Proteins 40
Structure of Proteins 40
Functions of Proteins 43
Nucleic Acids 44
Deoxyribonucleic Acid 44
Ribonucleic Acid 46
Summary 47
Review Activities 48
Related Websites 49
Chapter 3
Cell Structure and Genetic Control 50
Objectives 50
Chapter at a Glance 50
Plasma Membrane and AssociatedStructures 52
Structure of the Plasma Membrane 53
Phagocytosis 55
Endocytosis 55
Exocytosis 56
Cilia and Flagella 56
Microvilli 57
Cytoplasm and Its Organelles 57
Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton 58
Lysosomes 59
Peroxisomes 59
Mitochondria 60
Ribosomes 60
Endoplasmic Reticulum 61
Golgi Complex 61
Cell Nucleus and Gene Expression 63
Genome and Proteome 63
Chromatin 65
RNA Synthesis 65
Protein Synthesis
and Secretion 68
Transfer RNA 69
Formation of a Polypeptide 69
Functions of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Complex 71
DNA Synthesis and Cell Division 72
DNA Replication 72
The Cell Cycle 74
Mitosis 76
Meiosis 79
Interactions 82
Summary 83
Review Activities 84
Related Websites 85
Chapter 4
Enzymes and Energy 86
Objectives 86
Chapter at a Glance 86
Enzymes as Catalysts 88
Mechanism of Enzyme Action 88
Naming of Enzymes 90
Control of Enzyme Activity 91
Effects of Temperature and pH 91
Cofactors and Coenzymes 92
Enzyme Activation 92
Substrate Concentration and Reversible Reactions 92
Metabolic Pathways 93
Bioenergetics 95
Endergonic and Exergonic Reactions 96
Coupled Reactions:ATP 96
Coupled Reactions: Oxidation-
Reduction 98
Summary 100
Review Activities 102
Related Websites 103
Chapter 5
Cell Respiration and Metabolism 104
Objectives 104
Chapter at a Glance 104
Glycolysis and the Lactic Acid Pathway 106
Glycolysis 106
Lactic Acid Pathway 107
Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis 109
Cori Cycle 109
Aerobic Respiration 110
Krebs Cycle 111
Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation 111
Coupling of Electron Transport to ATP Production 113
ATP Balance Sheet 115
Metabolism of Lipids and Proteins 116
Lipid Metabolism 116
Amino Acid Metabolism 118
Uses of Different Energy Sources 120
Interactions 122
Summary 123
Review Activities 124
Related Websites 125
Chapter 6
Interactions Between Cells and the 
Extracellular Environment 126
Objectives 126
Chapter at a Glance 126
Extracellular Environment 128
Body Fluids 128
Extracellular Matrix 128
Categories of Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 129
Diffusion and Osmosis 130
Diffusion Through the Plasma Membrane 130
Rate of Diffusion 131
Osmosis 132
Regulation of Blood Osmolality 136
Carrier-Mediated Transport 136
Facilitated Diffusion 137
Active Transport 138
Bulk Transport 141
The Membrane Potential 143
Equilibrium Potentials 144
Resting Membrane Potential 145
Cell Signaling 146
Interactions 148
Summary 149
Review Activities 150
Related Websites 151
Chapter 7
The Nervous System: Neurons and
Synapses 152
Objectives 152
Chapter at a Glance 152
Neurons and Supporting Cells 154
Neurons 154
Classification of Neurons and Nerves 155
Supporting Cells 157
Neurilemma and Myelin Sheath 157
Functions of Astrocytes 160
Electrical Activity in Axons 162
Ion Gating in Axons 163
Action Potentials 164
Conduction of Nerve Impulses 168
The Synapse 170
Electrical Synapses: Gap Junctions 171
Chemical Synapses 172
Acetylcholine as a Neurotransmitter 174
Chemically Regulated Channels 175
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) 177
Acetylcholine in the PNS 178
Acetylcholine in the CNS 179
Monoamines as Neurotransmitters 180
Serotonin as a Neurotransmitter 181
Dopamine as a Neurotransmitter 182
Norepinephrine as a Neurotransmitter 183
Other Neurotransmitters 183
Amino Acids as Neurotransmitters 183
Polypeptides as Neurotransmitters 184
Endocannabinoids as Neurotransmitters 185
Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide as Neurotransmitters 186
Synaptic Integration 186
Synaptic Plasticity 186
Synaptic Inhibition 187
Summary 188
Review Activities 190
Related Websites 191
Chapter 8
The Central Nervous System 192
Objectives 192
Chapter at a Glance 192
Structural Organization of the Brain 194
Cerebrum 196
Cerebral Cortex 197
Basal Nuclei 202
Cerebral Lateralization 203
Language 204
Emotion and Motivation 206
Memory 207
Emotion and Memory 210
Diencephalon 211
Thalamus and Epithalamus 211
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 211
Midbrain and Hindbrain 213
Midbrain 214
Hindbrain 215
Spinal Cord Tracts 216
Ascending Tracts 217
Descending Tracts 217
Contents ix
Cranial and Spinal Nerves 220
Cranial Nerves 220
Spinal Nerves 221
Summary 222
Review Activities 224
Related Websites 225
Chapter 9
The Autonomic Nervous System 226
Objectives 226
Chapter at a Glance 226
Neural Control of Involuntary Effectors 228
Autonomic Neurons 228
Visceral Effector Organs 229
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System 230
Sympathetic Division 230
Parasympathetic Division 231
Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System 233
Adrenergic and Cholinergic Synaptic Transmission 235
Responses to Adrenergic Stimulation 236
Responses to Cholinergic Stimulation 240
Other Autonomic Neurotransmitters 241
Organs with Dual Innervation 242
Organs Without Dual Innervation 243
Control of the Autonomic Nervous System by Higher Brain Centers 244
Interactions 245
Summary 246
Review Activities 247
Related Websites 248
Chapter 10
Sensory Physiology 250
Objectives 250
Chapter at a Glance 250
Characteristics of Sensory Receptors 252
Categories of Sensory Receptors 252
Endocrine Glands and Hormones 298
Chemical Classification of Hormones 299
Prohormones and Prehormones 301
Common Aspects of Neural and Endocrine Regulation 302
Hormone Interactions 302
Effects of Hormone Concentrations on Tissue Response 302
Mechanisms of Hormone Action 304
Hormones That Bind to Nuclear Receptor Proteins 304
Hormones That Use Second Messengers 307
Pituitary Gland 312
Pituitary Hormones 312
Hypothalamic Control of the Posterior Pituitary 314
Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitary 314
Feedback Control of the Anterior Pituitary 316
Higher Brain Function and Pituitary Secretion 317
Adrenal Glands 318
Functions of the Adrenal Cortex 319
Functions of the Adrenal Medulla 320
Stress and the Adrenal Gland 320
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 321
Production and Action of Thyroid Hormones 322
Parathyroid Glands 325
Pancreas and Other Endocrine Glands 326
Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans) 326
Pineal Gland 327
Thymus 329
Gastrointestinal Tract 329
Gonads and Placenta 329
Autocrine and Paracrine Regulation 330
Examples of Autocrine Regulation 330
Prostaglandins 331
Interactions 333
Summary 334
Review Activities 335
Related Websites 337
Law of Specific Nerve Energies 253
Generator (Receptor) Potential 253
Cutaneous Sensations 254
Neural Pathways for Somatesthetic Sensations 255
Receptive Fields and Sensory Acuity 256
Lateral Inhibition 256
Taste and Smell 258
Taste 258
Smell 260
Vestibular Apparatus and Equilibrium 261
Sensory Hair Cells of the Vestibular Apparatus 261
Utricle and Saccule 263
Semicircular Canals 263
The Ears and Hearing 265
Outer Ear 266
Middle Ear 266
Cochlea 267
Spiral Organ (Organ of Corti) 268
The Eyes and Vision 272
Refraction 275
Accommodation 275
Visual Acuity 276
Retina 278
Effect of Light on the Rods 279
Electrical Activity of Retinal Cells 281
Cones and Color Vision 282
Visual Acuity and Sensitivity 284
Neural Pathways from the Retina 284
Neural Processing of Visual Information 287
Ganglion Cell Receptive Fields 287
Lateral Geniculate Nuclei 287
Cerebral Cortex 288
Interactions 289
Summary 290
Review Activities 293
Related Websites 294
Chapter 11
Endocrine Glands: Secretion and Action
of Hormones 296
Objectives 296
Chapter at a Glance 296
Chapter 12
Muscle: Mechanisms of Contraction and
Neural Control 338
Objectives 338
Chapter at a Glance 338
Skeletal Muscles 340
Structure of Skeletal Muscles 340
Motor Units 342
Mechanisms of Contraction 344
Sliding Filament Theory of Contraction 345
Regulation of Contraction 349
Contractions of Skeletal Muscles 354
Twitch, Summation, and Tetanus 354
Types of Muscle Contractions 355
Series-Elastic Component 355
Length-Tension Relationship 356
Energy Requirements of Skeletal Muscles 357
Metabolism of Skeletal Muscles 357
Slow- and Fast-Twitch Fibers 359
Muscle Fatigue 360
Adaptations of Muscles to Exercise Training 361
Muscle Damage and Repair 361
Neural Control of SkeletalMuscles 362
Muscle Spindle Apparatus 363
Alpha and Gamma Motoneurons 364
Coactivation of Alpha and Gamma Motoneurons 364
Skeletal Muscle Reflexes 365
Upper Motor Neuron Control of Skeletal Muscles 368
Cardiac and Smooth Muscles 369
Cardiac Muscle 369
Smooth Muscle 370
Interactions 374
Summary 375
Review Activities 377
Related Websites 379
Chapter 14
Cardiac Output, Blood Flow, and
Blood Pressure 424
Objectives 424
Chapter at a Glance 424
Cardiac Output 426
Regulation of Cardiac Rate 426
Regulation of Stroke Volume 427
Venous Return 429
Blood Volume 430
Exchange of Fluid Between Capillaries and Tissues 431
Regulation of Blood Volume by the Kidneys 434
Vascular Resistance to Blood Flow 437
Physical Laws Describing Blood Flow 437
Extrinsic Regulation of Blood Flow 439
Paracrine Regulation of Blood Flow 440
Intrinsic Regulation of Blood Flow 440
Blood Flow to the Heart and Skeletal Muscles 441
Aerobic Requirements of the Heart 441
Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow 442
Regulation of Blood Flow Through Skeletal Muscles 443
Circulatory Changes During Exercise 443
Blood Flow to the Brain and Skin 445
Cerebral Circulation 445
Cutaneous Blood Flow 446
Blood Pressure 448
Baroreceptor Reflex 449
Atrial Stretch Reflexes 451
Measurement of Blood Pressure 451
Pulse Pressure and Mean Arterial
Pressure 453
Hypertension, Shock, and Congestive Heart Failure 454
Hypertension 454
Circulatory Shock 456
Congestive Heart Failure 457
Interactions 459
Summary 460
Review Activities 461
Related Websites 463
Chapter 13
Heart and Circulation 380
Objectives 380
Chapter at a Glance 380
Functions and Components of the Circulatory System 382
Functions of the Circulatory System 382
Major Components of the Circulatory System 382
Composition of the Blood 383
Plasma 383
The Formed Elements of Blood 384
Hematopoiesis 386
Red Blood Cell Antigens and Blood Typing 388
Blood Clotting 390
Dissolution of Clots 392
Structure of the Heart 394
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations 394
Atrioventricular and Semilunar Valves 394
Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds 396
Pressure Changes During the Cardiac Cycle 397
Heart Sounds 397
Electrical Activity of the Heart and the 
Electrocardiogram 400
Electrical Activity of the Heart 400
The Electrocardiogram 403
Blood Vessels 406
Arteries 407
Capillaries 408
Veins 410
Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Arrhythmias 411
Atherosclerosis 411
Arrhythmias Detected by the Electrocardiograph 414
Lymphatic System 416
Summary 419
Review Activities 421
Related Websites 422
Contents xi
Chapter 15
The Immune System 464
Objectives 464
Chapter at a Glance 464
Defense Mechanisms 466
Innate (Nonspecific) Immunity 466
Adaptive (Specific) Immunity 469
Lymphocytes and Lymphoid Organs 470
Local Inflammation 471
Functions of B Lymphocytes 473
Antibodies 474
The Complement System 476
Functions of T Lymphocytes 478
Killer, Helper, and Suppressor T Lymphocytes 478
Interactions Between Antigen-Presenting Cells and T Lymphocytes 481
Active and Passive Immunity 484
Active Immunity and the Clonal Selection Theory 484
Immunological Tolerance 487
Passive Immunity 487
Monoclonal Antibodies 487
Tumor Immunology 488
Natural Killer Cells 489
Immunotherapy for Cancer 490
Effects of Aging and Stress 490
Diseases Caused by the Immune
System 490
Autoimmunity 491
Immune Complex Diseases 492
Allergy 492
Interactions 495
Summary 496
Review Activities 497
Related Websites 499
Chapter 16
Respiratory Physiology 500
Objectives 500
Chapter at a Glance 500
The Respiratory System 502
Structure of the Respiratory System 502
Thoracic Cavity 502
Physical Aspects of Ventilation 507
Intrapulmonary and Intrapleural Pressures 507
Physical Properties of the Lungs 507
Surfactant and the Respiratory Distress Syndrome 509
Mechanics of Breathing 510
Inspiration and Expiration 511
Pulmonary Function Tests 511
Pulmonary Disorders 514
Gas Exchange in the Lungs 516
Calculation of PO2 516
Partial Pressures of Gases in Blood 517
Significance of Blood PO2 and PCO2 Measurements 518
Pulmonary Circulation and
Ventilation/Perfusion Ratios 519
Disorders Caused by High Partial
Pressures of Gases 521
Regulation of Breathing 522
Brain Stem Respiratory Centers 522
Effects of Blood PCO2 and pH on Ventilation 524
Effects of Blood PO2 on Ventilation 526
Effects of Pulmonary Receptors on Ventilation 526
Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport 527
Hemoglobin 527
The Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve 529
Effect of pH and Temperature on Oxygen Transport 530
Effect of 2,3-DPG on Oxygen Transport 530
Inherited Defects in Hemoglobin Structure and Function 532
Muscle Myoglobin 532
Carbon Dioxide Transport 533
The Chloride Shift 533
The Reverse Chloride Shift 534
Acid-Base Balance of the Blood 535
Principles of Acid-Base Balance 535
Ventilation and Acid-Base Balance 536
Effect of Exercise and High Altitude on Respiratory
Function 537
Ventilation During Exercise 537
Acclimatization to High Altitude 538
Interactions 541
Summary 542
Review Activities 544
Related Websites 546
Chapter 17
Physiology of the Kidneys 548
Objectives 548
Chapter at a Glance 548
Structure and Function of the Kidneys 550
Gross Structure of the Urinary System 550
Microscopic Structure of the Kidney 552
Glomerular Filtration 555
Glomerular Ultrafiltrate 555
Regulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate 557
Reabsorption of Salt and Water 558
Reabsorption in the Proximal Tubule 559
The Countercurrent Multiplier System 560
Collecting Duct: Effect of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) 564
Renal Plasma Clearance 566
Transport Processes Affecting Renal Clearance 566
Renal Clearance of Inulin: Measurement of GFR 567
Clearance of PAH: Measurement of Renal Blood Flow 570
Reabsorption of Glucose 571
Renal Control of Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance 571
Role of Aldosterone in Na_/K_ Balance 571
Control of Aldosterone Secretion 572
Relationship Between Na_, K_, and H_ 574
Renal Acid-Base Regulation 575
Clinical Applications 577
Use of Diuretics 577
Renal Function Tests and Kidney Disease 578
Interactions 580
Summary 581
Review Activities 582
Related Websites 583
Chapter 18
The Digestive System 584
Objectives 584
Chapter at a Glance 584
Introduction to the Digestive System 586
Layers of the Gastrointestinal Tract 588
Regulation of the Gastrointestinal Tract 589
From Mouth to Stomach 589
Esophagus 590
Stomach 590
Pepsin and Hydrochloric Acid
Secretion 592
Small Intestine 594
Villi and Microvilli 595
Intestinal Enzymes 596
Intestinal Contractions and Motility 596
Large Intestine 598
Fluid and Electrolyte Absorption in the Intestine 600
Defecation 600
Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas 601
Structure of the Liver 601
Functions of the Liver 603
Gallbladder 606
Pancreas 607
Neural and Endocrine Regulation of the Digestive System 609
Regulation of Gastric Function 610
Regulation of Intestinal Function 612
Regulation of Pancreatic Juice and Bile Secretion 613
Trophic Effects of Gastrointestinal Hormones 614
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates, Lipids,
and Proteins 614
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates 614
Digestion and Absorption of Proteins 615
Digestion and Absorption of Lipids 616
Interactions 619
Summary 620
Review Activities 621
Related Websites 623
Chapter 19
Regulation of Metabolism 624
Objectives 624
Chapter at a Glance 624
Nutritional Requirements 626
Metabolic Rate and Caloric Requirements 626
Anabolic Requirements 627
Vitamins and Minerals 629
Free Radicals and Antioxidants 630
Regulation of Energy Metabolism 632
Regulatory Functions of Adipose Tissue 632
Regulation of Hunger and Metabolic Rate 635
Caloric Expenditures 637
Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism 638
Energy Regulation by the Pancreatic Islets 640
Regulation of Insulin and Glucagon Secretion 640
Insulin and Glucagon:Absorptive State 642
Insulin and Glucagon: Postabsorptive State 642
Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia 644
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 645
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 646
Hypoglycemia 647
Metabolic Regulation by Adrenal Hormones,Thyroxine, and 
Growth Hormone 647
Adrenal Hormones 648
Thyroxine 649
Growth Hormone 650
Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Balance 652
Bone Deposition and Resorption 652
Hormonal Regulation of Bone 653
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 654
Negative Feedback Control of Calcium and Phosphate Balance 655
Summary 658
Review Activities 659
Related Websites 661
Chapter 20
Reproduction 662
Objectives 662
Chapter at a Glance 662
Sexual Reproduction 664
Sex Determination 664
Development of Accessory Sex Organs and External Genitalia 667
Disorders of Embryonic Sexual Development 669
Endocrine Regulation of Reproduction 670
Interactions Between the Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland, and Gonads 670
The Onset of Puberty 672
Pineal Gland 673
The Human Sexual Response 673
Male Reproductive System 674
Control of Gonadotropin Secretion 675
Endocrine Functions of the Testes 676
Spermatogenesis 677
Male Accessory Sex Organs 680
Erection, Emission, and Ejaculation 682
Male Fertility 684
Female Reproductive System 684
Ovarian Cycle 685
Ovulation 688
Pituitary-Ovarian Axis 689
Menstrual Cycle 690
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle: Cyclic Changes in the Ovaries 691
Cyclic Changes in the Endometrium 693
Contraceptive Methods 694
Menopause 695
Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Parturition 696
Fertilization 696
Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation 698
Implantation of the Blastocyst and Formation of the Placenta 701
Exchange of Molecules Across the Placenta 704
Endocrine Functions of the Placenta 704
Labor and Parturition 706
Lactation 708
Concluding Remarks 710
Interactions 711
Summary 712
Review Activities 714
Related Websites 715
Appendix A
Solutions to Clinical Investigations 717
Appendix B
Answers to Test Your Knowledge of Terms and Facts
Questions 721
Glossary 723
Credits 743
Index 745

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Human physiology -- Textbooks.