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Contents List of Tables and Figures 000 Preface 000 1 Background and History 000 Introduction: The Nature of Unauthorized Immigration 000 The Roots of the Problem 000 The Change in Legal Immigration Setting the Stage for Illegal Immigration 000 The Crisis of Border Control, Illegal Immigration, and the Enactment of IRCA 000 Border Security and Anti-Terrorism Concerns 000 Creating the Department of Homeland Security and Dissolving the INS 000 Conclusion 000 References 000 2 Problems, Controversies, and Solutions 000 Introduction 000 Current Domestic Policy Concerns 000 Amnesty or Legalization Issues of Current Unauthorized Immigrants 000 Incorporation of Illegal Immigrants and Their Children 000 Border Control and Management Issues 000 The Cost of Illegal Immigration 000 Guest-Workers Issues 000 Restructuring the INS 000 Some Current Proposals to Deal with the Illegal Immigration Problem 000 Other Proposals 000 State Initiated Proposals 000 Conclusion 000 References and Further Reading 000 3 Worldwide Perspective 000 Introduction 000 Amnesty or "Regularisation" Issues 000 Control of Illegal Immigration 000 Global Refugees Issues and Illegal Immigration 000 Border Management Issues 000 Plagues and Illegal Immigration 000 Illegal Immigration and Economic Development Issues 000 The Economics of Illegal Immigration 000 Regional Approaches to Illegal Migration Issues 000 The European Union 000 Conclusion 000 References 000 4 Chronology of Illegal Immigration 000 Precursor Legislation: Setting the Stage for Things to Come 000 The Revolving-Door Era, 1965 to 2000 000 The Storm Door Era? 2001-? 000 References and Further Readings 000 5 Biographies 000 Angelo Amador 000 John Ashcroft 000 Roy Beck 000 Robert Beauprez 000 Robert Bennett 000 Sandford D. Bishop 000 Patrick Buchanan 000 George Walker Bush 000 Jeanne Butterfield 000 Chris Cannon 000 James Earl Carter Jr. 000 Saxby Chambliss 000 Linda Chavez 000 Michael Chertoff 000 William Jefferson Clinton 000 John Cornyn 000 Larry Craig 000 Tom Delay 000 Dianne Feinstein 000 Barney Frank 000 Antonio O. Garza 000 Robert Goldsborough 000 Alberto Gonzales 000 Bob Goodlatte 000 Chuck Hagel 000 J. D. Hayworth 000 Tamar Jacoby 000 Lyndon Baines Johnson 000 Edward Kennedy 000 John Fitzgerald Kennedy 000 Peter King 000 Mark Krikorian. 000 Jon Kyl 000 Richard Lamm 000 Joseph I. Lieberman 000 Susan Forbes Martin 000 John McCain 000 Candice Miller 000 Charles Norwood 000 Demetrios Papademetriou 000 Nancy Pelosi 000 Richard Pombo 000 Ronald Reagan 000 Silvestre Reyes 000 Charles E. Schumer 000 James Sensenbrenner 000 Frank Sharry 000 Christopher H. Smith 000 Gordon H. Smith 000 Lamar S. Smith 000 Arlen Specter 000 John E. Sununu 000 Roberto Suro 000 Tom Tancredo 000 John H. Tanton 000 Georges Vernez 000 Ron Wyden 000 References 000 6 Data and Documents 000 Introduction 000 Section I: Tables and Figures of Important Data 000 Section II: Key Legislative and Case Summaries of Actions, 1965-2006 000 Summary of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 000 Act of November 2, 1966 to Adjust the Status of Cuban Refugees 000 Act of October 20, 1976, to Amend the 1965 Immigration Act 000 Act of March 17, 1980-The Refugee Act of 1980 000 Executive Summary Recommendations of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy, 1981 000 INS v. Chadha et al., 1983 000 Jean et al. v. Nelson, 1985 000 Act of November 6, 1986-The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 000 California's Proposition 187-The "Save Our State" Initiative 000 LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson, et al. 000 Welfare Reform Act of 1996 000 Immigration Provisions of the Welfare Reform Act 000 Illegal Aliens 000 Act of September 30, 1996 000 Illegal Immigration Provisions of the Omnibus Spending Bill 000 Border Controls 000 Document Fraud and Alien Smuggling 000 Detention and Deportation 000 Employee Verification 000 Public Benefits 000 Other Provisions 000 USA Patriot Act of 2001 000 Department of Homeland Security Act of November 19, 2002 000 References and Further Readings 000 7 Agencies and Organizations 000 National Government Agencies and Organizations 000 International Agencies and Organizations 000 Immigration Research Centers-Think Tanks 000 8 Print and Nonprint Sources 000 Print Resources 000 Books 000 Leading Scholarly Journals in the Field 000 Reports and Government Document Sources 000 Nonprint Resources 000 Glossary 000 Index 000 About the Author 000 Tables and Figures Table 6.1 Distribution of Mexican Immigrants by State of Residency, 1940-2000 000 Table 6.2 Immigration by State, Share of Population, and Arrival Since 2000 000 Table 6.3 Coping with Illegal Immigration-from A to Z 000 Table 6.4 Refugees/Asylees by Host Country 000 Table 6.5 Asylum Applications, 28 Industrialized Countries, January 2001-June 2002 and Asylum Seekers, Top-Twenty Nations of Origin 000 Figure 6.1 INS Apprehensions at U.S. Borders, 1960-1988 000 Figure 6.2 Aliens Apprehended, FY 1951-1991 000 Figure 6.3 Estimates of Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States, 1988-2002 000 Figure 6.4 Unauthorized Alien Residents by Region of Origin, 1986 and 2002 000 Figure 6.5 Unauthorized Alien Residents, Arrivals and Redistribution 000 Figure 6.6 Legal Status of Immigrants, 2004 000 Figure 6.7 Annual Migration to U.S.-Peaked 1999-2000 000 Figure 6.8 Trend down for LPRs; Unauthorized Exceed LPRs 000 Figure 6.9 Mexican Migration Follows Trends in U.S. Employment Rage 000 Figure 6.10 Rapid Growth of Mexicans in U.S. 000 Figure 6.11 Country Groups Show Similar Trends: Rise, Peak, and Decline 000 Figure 6.12 Border Patrol Sectors 000 Figure 6.13 Department of Homeland Security 000 Figure 6.14 Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, and Others of Concern to UNHCR-End 2004 000 Preface Illegal Immigration: A Reference Handbook examines the flow of unauthorized immigration to the United States, largely since 1970, and the policy attempts to grapple with this vexing political issue. It documents the unanticipated consequences of legal immigration policy and shows how gaps and failures in those laws and in policy implementation have fed the unauthorized immigration flood. It discusses how immigration policy both influences and reacts to the flow of immigration, whether legal or unauthorized. It emphasizes the struggle among competing interests in U.S. politics and society to determine the nature and content of illegal immigration policy. Finally, it examines the issue within the context of increasing globalization: how worldwide events, agreements, and organizations and the effects of policy enacted by other nations influence the illegal immigration problem for U.S. domestic policy-making. Since 1970, concern over the flow of unauthorized immigration has remained on the national agenda. It is a political policy issue that is substantive in its importance and ever timely in its impact on U.S. culture, economy, politics, society, and sense of national identity (that is, of our collective "peoplehood"). Most recently, it has become an important element in our sense of homeland security and defense against international terrorism. The United States is unique among the nations of the world in the scope and degree to which it has absorbed immigrants from other nations. As a "nation of nations" the United States has permanent residents among its population who have come from more than 170 countries of origin. It has welcomed some 70 million legal immigrants. In addition, it has experienced the influx of an estimated 11 million illegal immigrants. How these vastly differing groups of newcomers have mixed and mingled and ultimately incorporated into U.S. society is a story of compelling human interest. Immigration policy is intended to control the flow of newcomers. The unauthorized flow is a perennially vexing issue in U.S. politics and policy-making. Immigration policy-making, whether directed at legal or illegal immigration flow, is a blend of four major elements: (1) the effect that immigration has on the economy, and the question of whether illegal immigration is an economic burden or a blessing; (2) how the flow of immigrants, both legal and illegal, affects the very nature of the mix of race and ethnicity that makes up the American people; (3) how that flow affects the composite sense of "peoplehood"; and (4) considerations of national defense, homeland security, and foreign policy. Sometimes these four elements reinforce one another, defining or characterizing an "era" of immigration policy lasting several decades; at other times, they work against one another. Then, contending forces, competing interest groups in U.S. politics, seek to influence immigration policy, sometimes precipitating a major shift in immigration policy and ushering in a new era. In all cases and periods, however, these four elements are key to an understanding of policy aimed at illegal immigration. The 1970s have been described as a decade of stagflation, an unprecedented mixture of double-digit unemployment and inflation. Those unsettling economic conditions, coupled with a shift in the national origin of both legal and, increasingly, illegal immigrants away from northwestern Europe and toward Latin America and Asia, led to calls for sweeping changes in immigration law. One such dramatic shift in policy aimed at illegal immigration was the enactment of employer sanctions as the "new" approach to discouraging it, embodied in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). The policy issues and battles associated with the decade-long struggle to enact IRCA have continued on and characterize much of the debate over the issue today. Proposals before the Congress in 2006 were remarkably similar to the issues and proposals of the mid-1980s. Politics today struggles with heightened fears that illegal immigration overburdens governmental education, health care, prison, and welfare systems, particularly at the state and local levels-as well as the presumed harm done by illegal immigration's to the national economy and culture. The attacks of September 11, 2001, on the New York World Trade Center Twin Towers and on the Pentagon led to serious proposals involving major overhauls of U.S. immigration policy to cope with the threat that international terrorism poses through the possibility of terrorist cells infiltrating the country through of illegal immigration. The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service was dissolved into the new Department of Homeland Security. As of this writing, Congress is again involved in considering a guest-worker program, the problems of human trafficking, and the dual nationality aspects of a new world order with its increasingly multiple allegiances. Such developments suggest that we are entering a new era of immigration policy-making-one that we refer to as the "storm-door era." Chapter One discusses the background and history of the illegal immigration issue, beginning with the seeds planted in the Bracero Program of 1942 to 1964, and covering all of the major laws and developments since the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 established the present basis of U.S. immigration policy. Chapter Two covers the problems and controversies raised by illegal immigration and discusses numerous proposed solutions. It covers the major laws and court cases that implement policy aimed at control of the unauthorized immigration flow, and shows how gaps in or unanticipated consequences of those policies have affected the issue. Chapter Three presents a worldwide perspective on the issue. It discusses major international agreements and organizations that are involved in international migration, both legal and illegal. It touches on how other nations are grappling with the issue of illegal immigration, and how failures in national policy in other nations contribute to emigration that swells the illegal migration flow. Chapter Four lists a chronology of the major events, court cases, laws, and policies concerning the issue of illegal immigration. Chapter Five offers brief biographical sketches of the major actors involved in illegal immigration policy matters. These include governmental officials and the leaders of numerous nongovernmental organizations. Chapter Six offers graphs and tables that illuminate the issue of illegal immigration. The chapter also presents summary excerpts from the key laws and court cases that determine or implement immigration policy. Chapter Seven presents a directory of the organizations, both governmental and nongovernmental, engaged in the arena of immigration policy-making. Chapter Eight contains an annotated list of print and nonprint resources, including books, government reports, journals, and videos, that collectively provide the basis for a firm grasp of this complex and controversial public policy issue. The book closes with a detailed glossary of key terms one needs to grasp in order to understand the topic.
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Illegal aliens -- United States.
Illegal aliens -- Government policy -- United States.
United States -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy.