Table of contents for Illegal immigration : a reference handbook / Michael C. LeMay.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
List of Tables and Figures	000
Preface	000
1 Background and History	000
Introduction: The Nature of Unauthorized Immigration	000
The Roots of the Problem	000
The Change in Legal Immigration Setting the Stage for Illegal Immigration	000
The Crisis of Border Control, Illegal Immigration, and the Enactment of IRCA	000
Border Security and Anti-Terrorism Concerns	000
Creating the Department of Homeland Security and Dissolving the INS	000
Conclusion	000
References	000
2 Problems, Controversies, and Solutions	000
Introduction	000
Current Domestic Policy Concerns	000
	Amnesty or Legalization Issues of Current Unauthorized Immigrants	000
	Incorporation of Illegal Immigrants and Their Children	000
Border Control and Management Issues	000
The Cost of Illegal Immigration	000
Guest-Workers Issues	000
Restructuring the INS	000
Some Current Proposals to Deal with the Illegal Immigration Problem	000
Other Proposals	000
State Initiated Proposals	000
Conclusion	000
References and Further Reading	000
3 Worldwide Perspective	000
Introduction	000
Amnesty or "Regularisation" Issues	000
Control of Illegal Immigration	000
Global Refugees Issues and Illegal Immigration	000
Border Management Issues	000
Plagues and Illegal Immigration	000
Illegal Immigration and Economic Development Issues	000
The Economics of Illegal Immigration	000
Regional Approaches to Illegal Migration Issues	000
The European Union	000
Conclusion	000
References	000
4 Chronology of Illegal Immigration	000
Precursor Legislation: Setting the Stage for Things to Come	000
The Revolving-Door Era, 1965 to 2000	000
The Storm Door Era? 2001-?	000
References and Further Readings	000
5 Biographies	000
Angelo Amador	000
John Ashcroft	000
Roy Beck	000
Robert Beauprez	000
Robert Bennett	000
Sandford D. Bishop	000
Patrick Buchanan	000
George Walker Bush	000
Jeanne Butterfield	000
Chris Cannon	000
James Earl Carter Jr.	000
Saxby Chambliss	000
Linda Chavez	000
Michael Chertoff	000
William Jefferson Clinton	000
John Cornyn	000
Larry Craig	000
Tom Delay	000
Dianne Feinstein	000
Barney Frank	000
Antonio O. Garza	000
Robert Goldsborough	000
Alberto Gonzales	000
Bob Goodlatte	000
Chuck Hagel	000
J. D. Hayworth	000
Tamar Jacoby	000
Lyndon Baines Johnson	000
Edward Kennedy	000
John Fitzgerald Kennedy	000
Peter King	000
Mark Krikorian.	000
Jon Kyl	000
Richard Lamm	000
Joseph I. Lieberman	000
Susan Forbes Martin	000
John McCain	000
Candice Miller	000
Charles Norwood	000
Demetrios Papademetriou	000
Nancy Pelosi	000
Richard Pombo	000
Ronald Reagan	000
Silvestre Reyes	000
Charles E. Schumer	000
James Sensenbrenner	000
Frank Sharry	000
Christopher H. Smith	000
Gordon H. Smith	000
Lamar S. Smith	000
Arlen Specter	000
John E. Sununu	000
Roberto Suro	000
Tom Tancredo	000
John H. Tanton	000
Georges Vernez	000
Ron Wyden	000
References	000
6 Data and Documents	000
Introduction	000
Section I: Tables and Figures of Important Data	000
Section II: Key Legislative and Case Summaries of Actions, 1965-2006	000
Summary of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965	000
Act of November 2, 1966 to Adjust the Status of Cuban Refugees	000
Act of October 20, 1976, to Amend the 1965 Immigration Act	000
Act of March 17, 1980-The Refugee Act of 1980	000
Executive Summary Recommendations of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy, 1981	000
INS v. Chadha et al., 1983	000
Jean et al. v. Nelson, 1985	000
Act of November 6, 1986-The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986	000
California's Proposition 187-The "Save Our State" Initiative	000
LULAC et al. v. Pete Wilson, et al.	000
Welfare Reform Act of 1996	000
	Immigration Provisions of the Welfare Reform Act	000
		Illegal Aliens	000
Act of September 30, 1996	000
	Illegal Immigration Provisions of the Omnibus Spending Bill	000
		Border Controls	000
		Document Fraud and Alien Smuggling	000
		Detention and Deportation	000
		Employee Verification	000
		Public Benefits	000
		Other Provisions	000
USA Patriot Act of 2001	000
Department of Homeland Security Act of November 19, 2002	000
References and Further Readings	000
7 Agencies and Organizations	000
National Government Agencies and Organizations	000
International Agencies and Organizations	000
Immigration Research Centers-Think Tanks	000
8 Print and Nonprint Sources	000
Print Resources	000
Books	000
Leading Scholarly Journals in the Field	000
Reports and Government Document Sources	000
Nonprint Resources	000
Glossary	000
Index	000
About the Author	000
Tables and Figures
Table 6.1	Distribution of Mexican Immigrants by State of Residency, 1940-2000	000
Table 6.2	Immigration by State, Share of Population, and Arrival Since 2000	000
Table 6.3	Coping with Illegal Immigration-from A to Z	000
Table 6.4	Refugees/Asylees by Host Country	000
Table 6.5	Asylum Applications, 28 Industrialized Countries, January 2001-June 2002 and Asylum Seekers, Top-Twenty Nations of Origin	000
Figure 6.1	INS Apprehensions at U.S. Borders, 1960-1988	000
Figure 6.2	Aliens Apprehended, FY 1951-1991	000
Figure 6.3	Estimates of Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States, 1988-2002	000
Figure 6.4	Unauthorized Alien Residents by Region of Origin, 1986 and 2002	000
Figure 6.5	Unauthorized Alien Residents, Arrivals and Redistribution	000
Figure 6.6	Legal Status of Immigrants, 2004	000
Figure 6.7	Annual Migration to U.S.-Peaked 1999-2000	000
Figure 6.8	Trend down for LPRs; Unauthorized Exceed LPRs	000
Figure 6.9	Mexican Migration Follows Trends in U.S. Employment Rage	000
Figure 6.10	Rapid Growth of Mexicans in U.S.	000
Figure 6.11	Country Groups Show Similar Trends: Rise, Peak, and Decline	000
Figure 6.12	Border Patrol Sectors	000
Figure 6.13	Department of Homeland Security	000
Figure 6.14	Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, and Others of Concern to UNHCR-End 2004	000
Preface
Illegal Immigration: A Reference Handbook examines the flow of unauthorized immigration to the United States, largely since 1970, and the policy attempts to grapple with this vexing political issue. It documents the unanticipated consequences of legal immigration policy and shows how gaps and failures in those laws and in policy implementation have fed the unauthorized immigration flood. It discusses how immigration policy both influences and reacts to the flow of immigration, whether legal or unauthorized. It emphasizes the struggle among competing interests in U.S. politics and society to determine the nature and content of illegal immigration policy. Finally, it examines the issue within the context of increasing globalization: how worldwide events, agreements, and organizations and the effects of policy enacted by other nations influence the illegal immigration problem for U.S. domestic policy-making.
Since 1970, concern over the flow of unauthorized immigration has remained on the national agenda. It is a political policy issue that is substantive in its importance and ever timely in its impact on U.S. culture, economy, politics, society, and sense of national identity (that is, of our collective "peoplehood"). Most recently, it has become an important element in our sense of homeland security and defense against international terrorism.
The United States is unique among the nations of the world in the scope and degree to which it has absorbed immigrants from other nations. As a "nation of nations" the United States has permanent residents among its population who have come from more than 170 countries of origin. It has welcomed some 70 million legal immigrants. In addition, it has experienced the influx of an estimated 11 million illegal immigrants.
How these vastly differing groups of newcomers have mixed and mingled and ultimately incorporated into U.S. society is a story of compelling human interest. Immigration policy is intended to control the flow of newcomers. The unauthorized flow is a perennially vexing issue in U.S. politics and policy-making. Immigration policy-making, whether directed at legal or illegal immigration flow, is a blend of four major elements: (1) the effect that immigration has on the economy, and the question of whether illegal immigration is an economic burden or a blessing; (2) how the flow of immigrants, both legal and illegal, affects the very nature of the mix of race and ethnicity that makes up the American people; (3) how that flow affects the composite sense of "peoplehood"; and (4) considerations of national defense, homeland security, and foreign policy. Sometimes these four elements reinforce one another, defining or characterizing an "era" of immigration policy lasting several decades; at other times, they work against one another. Then, contending forces, competing interest groups in U.S. politics, seek to influence immigration policy, sometimes precipitating a major shift in immigration policy and ushering in a new era. In all cases and periods, however, these four elements are key to an understanding of policy aimed at illegal immigration.
The 1970s have been described as a decade of stagflation, an unprecedented mixture of double-digit unemployment and inflation. Those unsettling economic conditions, coupled with a shift in the national origin of both legal and, increasingly, illegal immigrants away from northwestern Europe and toward Latin America and Asia, led to calls for sweeping changes in immigration law. One such dramatic shift in policy aimed at illegal immigration was the enactment of employer sanctions as the "new" approach to discouraging it, embodied in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). The policy issues and battles associated with the decade-long struggle to enact IRCA have continued on and characterize much of the debate over the issue today. Proposals before the Congress in 2006 were remarkably similar to the issues and proposals of the mid-1980s.
Politics today struggles with heightened fears that illegal immigration overburdens governmental education, health care, prison, and welfare systems, particularly at the state and local levels-as well as the presumed harm done by illegal immigration's to the national economy and culture. The attacks of September 11, 2001, on the New York World Trade Center Twin Towers and on the Pentagon led to serious proposals involving major overhauls of U.S. immigration policy to cope with the threat that international terrorism poses through the possibility of terrorist cells infiltrating the country through of illegal immigration. The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service was dissolved into the new Department of Homeland Security. As of this writing, Congress is again involved in considering a guest-worker program, the problems of human trafficking, and the dual nationality aspects of a new world order with its increasingly multiple allegiances. Such developments suggest that we are entering a new era of immigration policy-making-one that we refer to as the "storm-door era."
Chapter One discusses the background and history of the illegal immigration issue, beginning with the seeds planted in the Bracero Program of 1942 to 1964, and covering all of the major laws and developments since the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 established the present basis of U.S. immigration policy.
Chapter Two covers the problems and controversies raised by illegal immigration and discusses numerous proposed solutions. It covers the major laws and court cases that implement policy aimed at control of the unauthorized immigration flow, and shows how gaps in or unanticipated consequences of those policies have affected the issue.
Chapter Three presents a worldwide perspective on the issue. It discusses major international agreements and organizations that are involved in international migration, both legal and illegal. It touches on how other nations are grappling with the issue of illegal immigration, and how failures in national policy in other nations contribute to emigration that swells the illegal migration flow.
Chapter Four lists a chronology of the major events, court cases, laws, and policies concerning the issue of illegal immigration.
Chapter Five offers brief biographical sketches of the major actors involved in illegal immigration policy matters. These include governmental officials and the leaders of numerous nongovernmental organizations.
Chapter Six offers graphs and tables that illuminate the issue of illegal immigration. The chapter also presents summary excerpts from the key laws and court cases that determine or implement immigration policy.
Chapter Seven presents a directory of the organizations, both governmental and nongovernmental, engaged in the arena of immigration policy-making.
Chapter Eight contains an annotated list of print and nonprint resources, including books, government reports, journals, and videos, that collectively provide the basis for a firm grasp of this complex and controversial public policy issue.
The book closes with a detailed glossary of key terms one needs to grasp in order to understand the topic.

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Illegal aliens -- United States.
Illegal aliens -- Government policy -- United States.
United States -- Emigration and immigration -- Government policy.