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CONTENTS Preface viii Acknowledgments x Introduction xi 1. Triggering Mechanisms for Tsunami 1 Plate Tectonics and Tsunami Generation 1 Earthquake-Induced Tsunami 4 Volcanic Eruption-Induced Tsunami 6 Landslide-Induced Tsunami 11 Prediction of a Future Atlantic Tsunami From Collapse of Cumbre Vieja Volcano, Canary Islands 16 Natural Gas and Gas Hydrate Eruption-Induced Tsunami 19 Gas Hydrates and Future Energy Resources 21 Other Tsunami 23 Conclusion 24 2. Physics of Tsunami Movement 25 Movement in Open Ocean 26 The Physics of Wind-Blown Waves 28 Encounter with Shallow Water 32 Tsunami Run-Up 37 Force of Tsunami Impact and Backwash 39 Conclusion 41 3. Waves Similar to Tsunami 43 Seiche Waves and Meteorological Tsunami 43 Tidal Surges 45 Storm Surges 48 Storm Surge from the Galveston Island Hurricane, 1900 51 Conclusion 54 4. Historical Tsunami Disasters 56 Earthquake-Induced Tsunami 59 Volcanic Eruption-Induced Tsunami 77 Firsthand Accounts of the Tsunami From the Eruption of Krakatau 85 Landslide-Induced Tsunami 89 Conclusion 98 5. The Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 26, 2004 100 Tectonic Setting and Earthquake 102 Movement of the December 26 Tsunami across the Indian Ocean 105 Ten-Year-Old Tilly Smith Recognizes Tsunami Warning Signs and Saves 100 Lives 108 Effects of the Tsunami on Coastal Communities of the Indian Ocean 109 Environmental Impact of the Tsunami 112 Tsunami Uncovers Lost City of Mahabalipuram, India 113 Conclusion 115 6. Reducing the Threat From Tsunami 117 Monitoring Tsunami Threats 117 Reduction of Loss from Future Tsunami Through Ecosystem Preservation 119 Predicting Tsunami 120 Tsunami Hazard Zones and Risk Mapping 121 Tsunami Warning Systems 122 Knowing When a Tsunami Is Imminent 124 Public Education and Knowing how to Respond 125 Tsunami in the 21st Century 126 Conclusion 127 Summary 129 Glossary 132 Further Reading and Web Sites 141 Index 149
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Tsunamis -- Juvenile literature.