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Contents Preface to Second Edition List of Sources Introduction: What is Metaphysics? Part I What Are the Most General Features of the World? Introduction A What is Existence? Introduction 1 Holes DAVID LEWIS AND STEPHANIE LEWIS 2 On What There Is W. V. O. QUINE 3 Beyond Being and Nonbeing RODERICK. M. CHISHOLM B What is the Relationship between an Individual and its Characteristics? Introduction 4 Universals: an Excerpt from The Problems of Philosophy BERTRAND RUSSELL 5 Universals as Attributes: an Excerpt from Universals: an Opinionated Introduction DAVID M. ARMSTRONG 6 Universals and Resemblances: Chapter 1 of Thinking and Experience H. H. PRICE 7 The Elements of Being D. C. WILLIAMS 8 The Identity of Indiscernibles MAX BLACK 9 Distinct Indiscernibles and the Bundle Theory DEAN W. ZIMMERMAN C What is Time? What is Space? Introduction 10 Time: an Excerpt from The Nature of Existence J. MCT. E. MCTAGGART 11 McTaggart?s Arguments against the Reality of Time: an Excerpt from Examination of McTaggart?s Philosophy C. D. BROAD 12 The Notion of the Present A. N. PRIOR 13 Changes in Events and Changes in Things ARTHUR N. PRIOR 14 The General Problem of Time and Change: an Excerpt from Scientific Thought C. D. BROAD 15 The Myth of Passage D. C. WILLIAMS 16 Some Free Thinking about Time A. N. PRIOR 17 The Fourth Dimension: an Excerpt from The Ambidextrous Universe MARTIN GARDNER 18 Incongruent Counterparts and Higher Dimensions JAMES VAN CLEVE 19 The Traditional Conception of Space, and the Principle of Extensive Abstraction: an Excerpt from Scientific Thought C. D. BROAD 20 Achilles and the Tortoise MAX BLACK 21 A Contemporary Look at Zeno?s Paradoxes: an Excerpt from Space, Time, and Motion WESLEY C. SALMON 22 Grasping the Infinite JOS¿ A. BENARDETE 23 The Paradoxes of Time Travel DAVID LEWIS D How do Things Persist through Changes of Parts and Properties? Introduction 24 Of Confused Subjects Which Are Equivalent to Two Subjects: an Excerpt from The Port-Royal Logic ANTOINE ARNAULD AND PIERRE NICOLE 25 The Paradox of Increase ERIC T. OLSON 26 Identity, Ostension, and Hypostasis W. V. O. QUINE 27 In Defense of Stages: Postscript B to ?Survival and Identity? DAVID LEWIS 28 The Problem of Temporary Intrinsics: an Excerpt from On the Plurality of Worlds DAVID LEWIS 29 Temporary Intrinsics and Presentism DEAN W. ZIMMERMAN E How do Causes Bring about their Effects? Introduction 30 Constant Conjunction: an Excerpt from A Treatise of Human Nature DAVID HUME 31 Efficient Cause and Active Power: an Excerpt from Essays on the Active Powers of the Human Mind THOMAS REID 32 Psychological and Physical Causal Laws: an Excerpt from The Analysis of Mind BERTRAND RUSSELL 33 Causality: an Excerpt from A Modern Introduction to Logic L. SUSAN STEBBING 34 Causality and Determination G. E. M. ANSCOMBE Part II What is Our Place in the World? Introduction A How Are Mind and Body Related? Introduction 35 Which Physical Thing Am I?: an Excerpt from ?Is There a Mind?Body Problem?? RODERICK M. CHISHOLM 36 Personal Identity: a Materialist Account SYDNEY SHOEMAKER 37 An Argument for Animalism ERIC T. OLSON 38 Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons DEREK PARFIT 39 Personal Identity: the Dualist Theory RICHARD SWINBURNE 40 The Causal Theory of Mind DAVID M. ARMSTRONG 41 The Puzzle of Conscious Experience DAVID J. CHALMERS 42 Neutral Monism: an Excerpt from Philosophy BERTRAND RUSSELL B Is it Possible for Us to Act Freely? Introduction 43 We Are Never Free: an Excerpt from The System of Nature PAUL-HENRI DIETRICH, BARON D?HOLBACH 44 Free Will as Involving Determination and Inconceivable without It R. E. HOBART 45 Freedom, Causation, and Preexistence: an Excerpt from Problems of Mind and Matter JOHN WISDOM 46 Human Freedom and the Self RODERICK M. CHISHOLM 47 The Consequence Argument PETER VAN INWAGEN 48 The Mystery of Metaphysical Freedom PETER VAN INWAGEN 49 The Agent as Cause TIMOTHY O?CONNOR 50 Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility HARRY G. FRANKFURT 51 Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person HARRY G. FRANKFURT Part III Are There Many Worlds? Introduction A Are There Worlds Other than the Actual World? Introduction 52 Modal Realism at Work: an Excerpt From On the Plurality of Worlds DAVID K. LEWIS 53 Counterparts of Persons and Their Bodies DAVID K. LEWIS 54 Identity and Necessity SAUL KRIPKE B Is There More than One Actual World? Introduction 55 After Metaphysics, What? HILARY PUTNAM 56 Truth and Convention HILARY PUTNAM 57 Nonabsolute Existence and Conceptual Relativity: an Excerpt from ?Putnam?s Pragmatic Realism? ERNEST SOSA 58 Addendum to ?Nonabsolute Existence and Conceptual Relativity?: Objections and Replies ERNEST SOSA Part IV Why is There a World? Introduction 59 The Problem of Being: Chapter 3 of Some Problems of Philosophy WILLIAM JAMES 60 Why Anything? Why This? DEREK PARFIT 61 Response to Derek Parfit RICHARD SWINBURNE 62 The Cosmological Argument: an Excerpt from A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God SAMUEL CLARKE 63 The Cosmological Argument and the Principle of Sufficient Reason WILLIAM L. ROWE 64 The Ontological Argument: Chapters II?IV of the Proslogion ST ANSELM 65 Anselm?s Ontological Arguments NORMAN MALCOLM
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