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CONTENTS Preface vi 1 INTRODUCTION & SYNOPSIS ? AUDIENCE & DESIGN ? Boundaries 3 Outlines & References 4 Th e Primer 4 A Preprimer 4 SYNOPSIS 5 NOTES ?4 ACRONYMS & SYMBOLS ?4 2 PRIMER AND GLOSSARY ?7 3 ADIRONDACK RESEARCH BEGINS 4? Th e Rediscovery of Acid Rain, 1950-1979 4? New Research Programs, 1978-1989 42 THE LAKE-WATERSHED STUDIES 44 Th e ILWAS Model: Flowpaths Matter 45 Th e RILWAS Lake Classifi cation: Drainage & Seepage Lakes 48 Th e Chemical Signatures of Diff erent Lake Types 49 Th e Chemical Signature of Atmospheric Acids 5? Which lakes have high inorganic aluminum concentrations? 5? A Watershed-Scale Example: Th e North Branch of the Moose River 52 Soil Depth and Acid-Neutralizing Capacity 54 Seasonal Acidity Peaks 55 Which properties of watersheds predict lake chemistry? 56 RECONSTRUCTING LAKE HISTORIES 56 Direct Historical Comparisons 57 Paleolimnological Techniques 58 Th e Early Chemical History of Th ree High Peaks Ponds 58 Th e Recent Chemical History of Big Moose Lake 59 Th e Chemical Histories of Panther, Sagamore, and Woods Lakes 60 SUMMARY 6? NOTES 62 4 THE BIG SYNOPTIC STUDIES, 1984-1991 65 THE EASTERN LAKE SURVEY, 1984-1986 65 Th e Second Phase of the Eastern Lake Survey, 1986 68 THE ADIRONDACK LAKES SURVEY, 1984-1987 69 Th e Design of the Survey 69 General Chemical Results 70 Th e Geography of Acidifi cation 7? Lake Classifi cation 7? Th e Sources of Lake Acidity 73 Fish and Acidity 75 Fish in Diff erent Types of Lakes 77 Historical Changes in Fish Diversity 77 Why do some lakes lack fi sh? 79 How many lakes are acid? 79 THE PIRLA PROJECT 8? Pirla-i 8? Th e First North American Synthesis, 1990 83 Pirla-ii & the Regional Picture 84 Further Lessons from Paleolimnology 86 SUMMARY: HOW MANY ADIRONDACK LAKES ARE ACID AND HOW MUCH HAVE THEY ACIDIFIED 88 5 THE CYCLING OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN 9? Watersheds as Transformers 92 Watersheds Have Histories 93 SULFUR ADSORPTION AND SULFUR CYCLING 94 Sulfur Cycling in a Hardwood Forest 95 Sulfur Retention & Loss: Th e Direct Delayed Response Project, 1984-1989 96 Sulfur Budgets at Arbutus Lake & Hubbard Brook 97 NITROGEN CYCLING AND NITROGEN BALANCES 98 Nitrogen Neglected 98 Nitrogen Acidifi cation Appears 99 Nitrogen in Forests ?00 Nitrogen-Cycle Acidifi cation ?0? Nitrogen Cycling on Whiteface Mountain ?0? Th e Nitrogen Balance of Arbutus Watershed ?02 Nitrogen Cycling in Hardwood Forest Floors ?03 Estimates of Nitrogen-Cycle Acidifi cation ?04 Th e Nitrogen Cycle Generalized ?04 NITROGEN PEAKS IN LAKES, MELTWATER, & STREAMS ?05 Acid Episodes in Adirondack lakes ?05 Snowmelt Chemistry at Twitchell Lake ?06 New and Old Water in the ALTM Watersheds ?08 Acid Episodes on Four Adirondack Streams ?09 Th e Nitrate Balance of the ERP Streams ??? Which ions control acid episodes? ??? THE NITROGEN SATURATION OF WATERSHEDS ??2 Diagnosing the Stages of Nitrogen Saturation ??3 What is the evidence for nitrogen saturation? ??6 Th e Extent of Nitrogen Saturation ??6 Do forests progress though the nitrogen saturation stages? ??7 A Synoptic Study of Nitrogen y Retention ??9 Summer Nitrate Levels in the Adirondacks ?20 SUMMARY: NITROGEN AND SULFUR CYCLES ?2? NOTES ?26 6 THE CYCLING & LOSS OF CALCIUM ?29 CALCIUM CYCLING & CALCIUM DEPLETION ?29 About Calcium ?29 Calcium Pools in a Forest ?30 Calcium Cycling ?3? Can acid deposition deplete calcium pools? ?33 Calcium & Streams ?36 How much calcium has been lost from forest soils? ?39 Do forest disturbances remove calcium or acidify surface waters? ?40 Correlating Disturbance & Acidifi cation ?42 MANIPULATING CALCIUM ?44 Liming a Lake ?45 Liming a Watershed ?48 SUMMARY 150 NOTES ?5? 7 WETLANDS, CARBON, & MERCURY ?53 Case Study 1: A Beaver Pond as a Chemical Transformer ?54 ANC Generation in the Pancake-Hall Pond ?55 Case Study 2: A Swamp in Ontario Releases Pulses of Acid ?56 Case Study 3: Liming a Beaver Pond Stimulates Decay and Generates ANC ?58 About DOC ?60 Th e Sources of DOC ?6? THE MERCURY PROBLEM & THE MERCURY CYCLE ?64 About Mercury ?64 Th e First Adirondack Mercury Studies ?65 Mercury & Fish in the 1980s and 1990s 166 Th e Mercury Cycle ?67 Recent Mercury Research ?69 SUMMARY 173 8 FISH, ACIDS, & AQUATIC ECOLOGY ?77 Th e Biology of Acidifi cation ?77 Ecosystem-Level Eff ects of Acidifi cation ?79 Do fi sh die in acid episodes? ?80 Historical Losses of Fish Populations ?82 Ecological Monitoring in the 1990s 184 Indicators of Ecological Stress ?86 Regional Fish Diversity ?86 SUMMARY ?89 NOTES ?89 9 MONITORING & TRENDS ?9? Monitoring Emissions, Air Chemistry, and Deposition ?92 Monitoring Surface Waters ?94 TRENDS IN EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION ?95 Trends in Acid Emissions ?95 Trends in Wet Deposition ?96 TRENDS IN ADIRONDACK LAKES & STREAMS ?97 What should recovery look like? ?97 Trends at Big Moose Lake ?99 Trends in the ALTM Lakes ?99 Recovery Times 203 Trends in Adirondack Streams, 1991-2001 203 REGIONAL TRENDS 203 Acidifi cation vs. Dilution 205 Stoddard 1999: ANCs Begin to Recover in Europe 206 Stoddard 2003: ANCs Improve in the United States 207 But Recovery Is Delayed 208 WATERSHED MONITORING AT ARBUTUS LAKE 2?0 Seasonal Uptake & Release 2?? SUMMARY 2?2 ?0 CONCLUSIONS 2?5 ? When did acid deposition begin, and when did it reach its peak? 2?5 2 How does acid deposition in the Adirondacks compare with acid deposition elsewhere in the country? 2?6 3 Have Adirondack surface waters been acidifi ed by acid deposition? 2?6 4 How much have Adirondack lakes acidifi ed? 2?7 5 Has the acidifi cation of Adirondack waters had biological eff ects? 2?7 6 Has acid deposition had cumulative eff ects on watersheds? 2?8 7 How much has acid deposition been reduced? 2?9 8 Have the reductions been refl ected in changes in surface water chemistry? 220 9 Are further reductions necessary to achieve recovery? 22? ?0 What were the most important scientifi c results of the ?990s? 223 ?? What are the main scientifi c tasks of the next decade? 223 ?2 How important are the current Adirondack long-term monitoring programs? 224 ?3 Are they adequate to monitor acidifi cation and recovery? 225 ?4 What might an expanded monitoring system include? 225 Appendix I: Major Adirondack Research Studies 226 Appendix Ii: Adirondack Acid Rain Data On The Web 227 Bibliography 228 Index 239
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Acid rain -- New York (State) -- Adirondack Mountains Region.
Lakes -- New York (State) -- Adirondack Mountains Region.
Adirondack Mountains Region (N.Y.) -- Environmental conditions.