Table of contents for Acid rain in the Adirondacks : an environmental history / Jerry Jenkins ... [et al.].

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CONTENTS
Preface vi
1 INTRODUCTION & SYNOPSIS ?
AUDIENCE & DESIGN ?
Boundaries 3
Outlines & References 4
Th e Primer 4
A Preprimer 4
SYNOPSIS 5
NOTES ?4
ACRONYMS & SYMBOLS ?4
2 PRIMER AND GLOSSARY ?7
3 ADIRONDACK RESEARCH BEGINS 4?
Th e Rediscovery of Acid Rain, 1950-1979 4?
New Research Programs, 1978-1989 42
THE LAKE-WATERSHED STUDIES 44
Th e ILWAS Model: Flowpaths Matter 45
Th e RILWAS Lake Classifi cation: Drainage &
Seepage Lakes 48
Th e Chemical Signatures of Diff erent Lake
Types 49
Th e Chemical Signature of Atmospheric Acids 5?
Which lakes have high inorganic aluminum concentrations?
5?
A Watershed-Scale Example: Th e North Branch of
the Moose River 52
Soil Depth and Acid-Neutralizing Capacity 54
Seasonal Acidity Peaks 55
Which properties of watersheds predict lake
chemistry? 56
RECONSTRUCTING LAKE HISTORIES 56
Direct Historical Comparisons 57
Paleolimnological Techniques 58
Th e Early Chemical History of Th ree High Peaks
Ponds 58
Th e Recent Chemical History of Big Moose
Lake 59
Th e Chemical Histories of Panther, Sagamore,
and Woods Lakes 60
SUMMARY 6?
NOTES 62
4 THE BIG SYNOPTIC STUDIES, 1984-1991 65
THE EASTERN LAKE SURVEY, 1984-1986 65
Th e Second Phase of the Eastern Lake Survey,
1986 68
THE ADIRONDACK LAKES SURVEY, 1984-1987 69
Th e Design of the Survey 69
General Chemical Results 70
Th e Geography of Acidifi cation 7?
Lake Classifi cation 7?
Th e Sources of Lake Acidity 73
Fish and Acidity 75
Fish in Diff erent Types of Lakes 77
Historical Changes in Fish Diversity 77
Why do some lakes lack fi sh? 79
How many lakes are acid? 79
THE PIRLA PROJECT 8?
Pirla-i 8?
Th e First North American Synthesis, 1990 83
Pirla-ii & the Regional Picture 84
Further Lessons from Paleolimnology 86
SUMMARY: HOW MANY ADIRONDACK LAKES ARE
ACID AND HOW MUCH HAVE THEY ACIDIFIED 88
5 THE CYCLING OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN 9?
Watersheds as Transformers 92
Watersheds Have Histories 93
SULFUR ADSORPTION AND SULFUR CYCLING 94
Sulfur Cycling in a Hardwood Forest 95
Sulfur Retention & Loss: Th e Direct Delayed
Response Project, 1984-1989 96
Sulfur Budgets at Arbutus Lake & Hubbard
Brook 97
NITROGEN CYCLING AND NITROGEN
BALANCES 98
Nitrogen Neglected 98
Nitrogen Acidifi cation Appears 99
Nitrogen in Forests ?00
Nitrogen-Cycle Acidifi cation ?0?
Nitrogen Cycling on Whiteface Mountain ?0?
Th e Nitrogen Balance of Arbutus Watershed ?02
Nitrogen Cycling in Hardwood Forest Floors ?03
Estimates of Nitrogen-Cycle Acidifi cation ?04
Th e Nitrogen Cycle Generalized ?04
NITROGEN PEAKS IN LAKES, MELTWATER, &
STREAMS ?05
Acid Episodes in Adirondack lakes ?05
Snowmelt Chemistry at Twitchell Lake ?06
New and Old Water in the ALTM Watersheds
?08
Acid Episodes on Four Adirondack Streams ?09
Th e Nitrate Balance of the ERP Streams ???
Which ions control acid episodes? ???
THE NITROGEN SATURATION OF WATERSHEDS
??2
Diagnosing the Stages of Nitrogen Saturation ??3
What is the evidence for nitrogen saturation? ??6
Th e Extent of Nitrogen Saturation ??6
Do forests progress though the nitrogen saturation
stages? ??7
A Synoptic Study of Nitrogen y Retention ??9
Summer Nitrate Levels in the Adirondacks ?20
SUMMARY: NITROGEN AND SULFUR CYCLES ?2?
NOTES ?26
6 THE CYCLING & LOSS OF CALCIUM ?29
CALCIUM CYCLING & CALCIUM DEPLETION ?29
About Calcium ?29
Calcium Pools in a Forest ?30
Calcium Cycling ?3?
Can acid deposition deplete calcium pools? ?33
Calcium & Streams ?36
How much calcium has been lost from forest
soils? ?39
Do forest disturbances remove calcium or acidify
surface waters? ?40
Correlating Disturbance & Acidifi cation ?42
MANIPULATING CALCIUM ?44
Liming a Lake ?45
Liming a Watershed ?48
SUMMARY 150
NOTES ?5?
7 WETLANDS, CARBON, & MERCURY ?53
Case Study 1: A Beaver Pond as a Chemical Transformer
?54
ANC Generation in the Pancake-Hall Pond ?55
Case Study 2: A Swamp in Ontario Releases
Pulses of Acid ?56
Case Study 3: Liming a Beaver Pond Stimulates
Decay and Generates ANC ?58
About DOC ?60
Th e Sources of DOC ?6?
THE MERCURY PROBLEM & THE MERCURY
CYCLE ?64
About Mercury ?64
Th e First Adirondack Mercury Studies ?65
Mercury & Fish in the 1980s and 1990s 166
Th e Mercury Cycle ?67
Recent Mercury Research ?69
SUMMARY 173
8 FISH, ACIDS, & AQUATIC ECOLOGY ?77
Th e Biology of Acidifi cation ?77
Ecosystem-Level Eff ects of Acidifi cation ?79
Do fi sh die in acid episodes? ?80
Historical Losses of Fish Populations ?82
Ecological Monitoring in the 1990s 184
Indicators of Ecological Stress ?86
Regional Fish Diversity ?86
SUMMARY ?89
NOTES ?89
9 MONITORING & TRENDS ?9?
Monitoring Emissions, Air Chemistry, and Deposition
?92
Monitoring Surface Waters ?94
TRENDS IN EMISSIONS AND DEPOSITION ?95
Trends in Acid Emissions ?95
Trends in Wet Deposition ?96
TRENDS IN ADIRONDACK LAKES & STREAMS ?97
What should recovery look like? ?97
Trends at Big Moose Lake ?99
Trends in the ALTM Lakes ?99
Recovery Times 203
Trends in Adirondack Streams, 1991-2001 203
REGIONAL TRENDS 203
Acidifi cation vs. Dilution 205
Stoddard 1999: ANCs Begin to Recover in
Europe 206
Stoddard 2003: ANCs Improve in the United
States 207
But Recovery Is Delayed 208
WATERSHED MONITORING AT ARBUTUS LAKE 2?0
Seasonal Uptake & Release 2??
SUMMARY 2?2
?0 CONCLUSIONS 2?5
? When did acid deposition begin, and when did
it reach its peak? 2?5
2 How does acid deposition in the Adirondacks
compare with acid deposition elsewhere in the
country? 2?6
3 Have Adirondack surface waters been acidifi ed
by acid deposition? 2?6
4 How much have Adirondack lakes acidifi
ed? 2?7
5 Has the acidifi cation of Adirondack waters had
biological eff ects? 2?7
6 Has acid deposition had cumulative eff ects on
watersheds? 2?8
7 How much has acid deposition been
reduced? 2?9
8 Have the reductions been refl ected in changes
in surface water chemistry? 220
9 Are further reductions necessary to achieve
recovery? 22?
?0 What were the most important scientifi c
results of the ?990s? 223
?? What are the main scientifi c tasks of the next
decade? 223
?2 How important are the current Adirondack
long-term monitoring programs? 224
?3 Are they adequate to monitor acidifi cation and
recovery? 225
?4 What might an expanded monitoring system
include? 225
Appendix I: Major Adirondack Research Studies 226
Appendix Ii: Adirondack Acid Rain Data On The
Web 227
Bibliography 228
Index 239

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Acid rain -- New York (State) -- Adirondack Mountains Region.
Lakes -- New York (State) -- Adirondack Mountains Region.
Adirondack Mountains Region (N.Y.) -- Environmental conditions.