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entry_topic Abd al-Qadir Abeokuta Abidjan Abouzeid, Leila Abu Bakr, Muhammad ibn Accra Achebe, Chinua Adama, Modibbo Addis Ababa Ad¿, Sunny Adulis Africa, History of the Name Afrocentrism Afua Kobi Agaja Age and Age Organization Aggrey, James Agriculture: Beginnings and Development Agriculture: Pests and Pest Control Agriculture: World Markets Ahidjo, El Hajj Ahmadou Ahmad, Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmad Grañ) Aid and Development: Overview Aid and Development: Consequences Aid and Development: Structural Adjustment Aid and Development: Balance of Payments Aid and Development: Environmental Impact Aid and Development: Humanitarian Assistance Aidoo, Ama Ata Aksum Alexandria Algeria: Geography and Economy Algeria: Society and Cultures Algeria: History and Politics Algiers Ali, Muhammad Ali, Mohammed Duse Allal al-Fassi Amin Dada, Idi Amina Andrianampoinimerina Angola: Geography and Economy Angola: Society and Cultures Angola: History and Politics Annan, Kofi Antananarivo Anthropology, Social, and the Study of Africa Apartheid Archaeology and Prehistory: Overview Archaeology and Prehistory: Tools and Technologies Archaeology and Prehistory: Stone Age Societies Archaeology and Prehistory: Historical Archaeology and Prehistory: Industrial Archaeology and Prehistory: Marine Archaeology and Prehistory: Islamic Archaeology and Prehistory: Christian Architecture: Domestic Architecture: Colonial Architecture: Contemporary Architecture: Monumental Architecture: Town Planning Armah, Ayi Kwei Art: Overview Art: Markets Art, Genres and Periods: Tourist Art, Genres and Periods: Contemporary Art, Genres and Periods: Rock Art, Eastern Africa Art, Genres and Periods: Rock Art, Saharan and Northern Africa Art, Genres and Periods: Rock Art, Southern Africa Art, Regional Styles: Central Africa Art, Regional Styles: Eastern Africa Art, Regional Styles: Northern Africa Art, Regional Styles: Southern Africa Art, Regional Styles: Western Africa Art, Regional Styles: Egypt Art, Regional Styles: Ethiopia Art History and the Study of Africa Arts: Basketry and Mat Making Arts: Beads Arts: Sculpture Asantewa, Yaa Asmara Asmau, Nana Astronomies Augustine of Hippo, Saint Awolowo, Obafemi Azania Azikiwe, Benjamin Nnamdi B¿, Mariama Baartman, Sara Baba, Ahmad Babangida, Ibrahim Gbadamosi Bamako Banda, Ngwazi Hastings Kamuzu Bangui Banjul Bantu, Eastern, Southern, and Western, History of (1000 BCE to 1500 CE) Barghash Ibn Said Barth, Heinrich Bashir, Omar Ahmad el- Bello, Ahmadu Bello, Muhammad Ben Barka, Mehdi Benga, Ota Benguela B¿nin: Geography and Economy B¿nin: Society and Cultures B¿nin: History and Politics Benin City Beti, Mongo Biko, Steve Bin Ali, Zine el-Abidine Bin Shaykh, Tawhida Bissau Blantyre Blyden, Edward Wilmot Body Adornment and Clothing: Overview Body Adornment and Clothing: Cosmetics and Body Painting Body Adornment and Clothing: Fashion Body Adornment and Clothing: Trade Bokassa, Jean-B¿del Botswana: Geography and Economy Botswana: Society and Cultures Botswana: History and Politics Bouabid, Abderrahim Bouhired, Djamila Boundaries, Colonial and Modern Bourguiba, Habib bin Ali Bouteflika, Abdelaziz Braide, Garrick Sokari Brazza, Pierre Paul Fran¿ois Camille Savorgnan de Brazzaville Bujumbura Bulawayo Burkina Faso: Geography and Economy Burkina Faso: Society and Cultures Burkina Faso: History and Politics Burundi: Geography and Economy Burundi: Society and Cultures Burundi: History and Politics Bushiri ibn Salim Busia, Kofi A. Buthelezi, Mangosuthu Cabinda, Angola Cabral, Amílcar Lopes Cairo Calabar Camara Laye Cameroon: Geography and Economy Cameroon: Society and Cultures Cameroon: History and Politics Canary Islands Candace Cape Coast Cape Colony and Hinterland, History of (1600 to 1910) Cape Town Cape Verde: Geography and Economy Cape Verde: Society and Cultures Cape Verde: History and Politics Capitalism and Commercialization: Overview Capitalism and Commercialization: Privatization Capitalism and Commercialization: Employment and Unemployment Carthage Cartography Casablanca Casely-Hayford, Joseph Ephraim Central African Republic: Geography and Economy Central African Republic: Society and Cultures Central African Republic: History and Politics Ceramics C¿saire, Aim¿ Cetshwayo Chad: Geography and Economy Chad: Society and Cultures Chad: History and Politics Childbearing Children and Childhood: Infancy and Early Development Children and Childhood: Status and Roles Children and Childhood: Soldiers Chilembwe, John China in African History Chingulia, Dom Jerónimo Chitapankwa, Mutale Mutaka Christianity: Overview Christianity: Africa and World Christianity Christianity: African Instituted Churches Christianity: Missionary Enterprise Christianity: Coptic Church and Society Christianity: Ethiopian Church Civil Society: Forms of Civil Society: Political Accountability Cleopatra VII Climate Coetzee, J. M. Cold War Colenso, John William Colonial Policies and Practices: Belgian Colonial Policies and Practices: British Central Africa Colonial Policies and Practices: British East Africa Colonial Policies and Practices: British West Africa Colonial Policies and Practices: Egyptian Colonial Policies and Practices: French North Africa Colonial Policies and Practices: French West and Equatorial Africa Colonial Policies and Practices: German Colonial Policies and Practices: Italian Colonial Policies and Practices: Portuguese Colonial Policies and Practices: Spanish Colonial Traditions and Inventions Colonialism and Imperialism: Overview Colonialism and Imperialism: The African Experience Colonialism and Imperialism: Concessionary Companies Communications: Electronic Communications: Oral Comoro Islands: Geography and Economy Comoro Islands: Society and Cultures Comoro Islands: History and Politics Conakry Congo, Democratic Republic of the: Geography and Economy Congo, Democratic Republic of the: Society and Cultures Congo, Democratic Republic of the: History and Politics Congo, Republic of: Geography and Economy Congo, Republic of: Society and Cultures Congo, Republic of: History and Politics Congo Independent State Congo River Correia, Mae Aur¿lia C¿te d'Ivoire: Geography and Economy C¿te d'Ivoire: Society and Cultures C¿te d'Ivoire: History and Politics Creoles Crowther, Samuel Ajayi Cummings-John, Constance Agatha Dakar Dance: Aesthetics Dance: Social Meaning Danquah, Joseph Kwame Kyeretwi Boakye Dar es Salaam De Klerk, Frederik Willem Death, Mourning, and Ancestors Debt and Credit: International Trade Debt and Credit: Entrustment D¿by Itno, Idriss Decolonization Demography: Overview Demography: Fertility and Infertility Demography: Mortality Demography: Population Data and Surveys Desertification, Modern Desertification, Reactions to, History of (c. 5000 to 1000 BCE) Diasporas: Overview Diasporas: Institutions Diasporas: Music Diasporas: Religions Diasporas: Arts Diasporas: Re-Africanization Dike, Kenneth Onwuka Dingiswayo Diogo, Luísa Dias Diop, Alioune Diop, Cheikh Anta Diouf, Abdou Disease: Viral and Infectious Disease: Climate and Disease Disease: Sexually Transmitted Disease: Industrial Disease: HIV/AIDS, Medical Aspects Disease: HIV/AIDS, Social and Political Aspects Divination and Oracles Djebar, Assia Djibouti, Republic of Djibouti City Domitien, Elizabeth Douala Douglas Camp, Sokari Dow, Unity Dreams and Dream Interpretation Du Bois, W. E. B. Early Human Society, History of (c. 50,000 BP to 19,000 BCE) Eastern Africa and Indian Ocean, History of (1500 to 1800) Eastern African Coast, History of (Early to 1600) ¿bou¿, Adolphe-F¿lix-Sylvestre Ecology: Human Roles Ecology: Modern Issues Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Economic History Economic Systems Economics and the Study of Africa Ecosystems: Coastal Environments Ecosystems: Deserts and Semi-Deserts Ecosystems: Montane Environments Ecosystems: Savannas Ecosystems: Tropical and Humid Forests Education, School: Overview Education, School: Anglophone Central and Southern Africa Education, School: Anglophone Eastern Africa Education, School: Anglophone Western Africa Education, School: Francophone Central Africa Education, School: Francophone Western and Indian Ocean Africa Education, School: Muslim Africa Education, University and College: Overview Education, University and College: Central Africa Education, University and College: Eastern Africa Education, University and College: Northern Africa Education, University and College: Southern Africa Education, University and College: Western Africa Egypt, Early: Predynastic Egypt, Early: Old and Middle Kingdoms Egypt, Early: New Kingdom Egypt, Early: Late and Ptolemaic Egypt, Early: Roman and Byzantine Egypt, Early: Islamic Egypt, Modern: Geography and Economy Egypt, Modern: Society and Cultures Egypt, Modern: History and Politics Elmina Emecheta, Buchi Energy: Domestic Energy: Electrification Energy: Internal Combustion Engine Energy: Petroleum and Derivatives Entebbe Equatorial Guinea: Geography and Economy Equatorial Guinea: Society and Cultures Equatorial Guinea: History and Politics Equiano, Olaudah Eritrea: Geography and Economy Eritrea: Society and Cultures Eritrea: History and Politics Ethiopia, Modern: Geography and Economy Ethiopia, Modern: Society and Cultures Ethiopia, Modern: History and Politics Ethiopia and the Horn, History of (1600 to 1910) Ethiopia and Vicinity, History of (600 to 1600 CE) Ethnicity: Overview Ethnicity: Central Africa Ethnicity: Eastern Africa Ethnicity: Northern Africa Ethnicity: Southern Africa Ethnicity: Western Africa Ethnomusicology and the Study of Africa Eunuchs ¿vora, Ces ria Eyadema, Gnassingbe (¿tienne) Ezana Family: Organization Family: Economics Famine Fanon, Frantz Farah, Nuruddin Farouk, King of Egypt Fasiladas Festivals and Carnivals Fetish and Fetishism Fez Film and Cinema Food: Supplies and Distribution Food: Nutrition Food: Marketing Food: Preparation and Cuisines Forestry: Overview Forestry: Central Africa Forestry: Eastern Africa Forestry: Southern Africa Forestry: Western Africa Freetown Frontiers Fuad, King of Egypt Fugard, Athol Gabon: Geography and Economy Gabon: Society and Cultures Gabon: History and Politics Gaborone Galawdewos Gama, Vasco da Gambia, The: Geography and Economy Gambia, The: Society and Cultures Gambia, The: History and Politics Games Gao Garvey, Marcus Mosiah Gbagbo, Laurent Koudou Gender: Overview Gender: Gender Roles Geography and the Study of Africa Geometries Ghana: Geography and Economy Ghana: Society and Cultures Ghana: History and Politics Gidada, Negasso Globalization Gond¿r Gordimer, Nadine Gordon, Charles George Gor¿e Government: Historical Political Systems Government: Local Government: Military Government: Parliamentary Government: Presidential Gowon, Yakubuh Guinea: Geography and Economy Guinea: Society and Cultures Guinea: History and Politics Guinea-Bissau: Geography and Economy Guinea-Bissau: Society and Cultures Guinea-Bissau: History and Politics Gungunyana Haile Selassie I Hamallah of Nioro Hamp¿t¿ B¿, Amadou Harar Harare Harris, William Wad¿ Hasan, Muhammad Abdallah Hasan II of Morocco Head, Bessie Emery Healing and Health Care: African Theories and Therapies Healing and Health Care: Hospitals and Clinics Healing and Health Care: Islamic Medicine Healing and Health Care: Medical Practitioners Healing and Health Care: Medicine and Drugs Heritage, Cultural: Management and Preservation Heritage, Cultural: Trade Historiography: Western and African Concepts of Historiography: European Historiography: Islamic Historiography: Oral History, World: Africa in History and the Study of Africa History of Africa: To Seventh Century History of Africa: Seventh to Sixteenth Century History of Africa: Sixteenth to Nineteenth Century History of Africa: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries Horton, James Africanus Beale Houphou¿t-Boigny, F¿lix Household and Domestic Groups Huddleston, Trevor Human Evolution: Patterns of Evolution Human Evolution: Origins of Modern Humans Human Evolution: Human Biological Diversity Human Rights Hydrology Ibadan Ibn Battuta, Muhammad ibn Abdullah Ibn Khaldun, Abd al-Rahman Idris, Ahmad ibn Ife (Ile-Ife) Ilori, Adam Abdullahi al- Immigration and Immigrant Groups: African American Immigration and Immigrant Groups: Arab Immigration and Immigrant Groups: Chinese Immigration and Immigrant Groups: European Immigration and Immigrant Groups: Indian Immigration and Immigrant Groups: Lebanese Independence and Freedom, Early African Writers Indian Ocean, Africa, History of (1000 BCE to 600 CE) Initiation: Overview Initiation: Clitoridectomy and Infibulation Interlacustrine Region, History of (1000 BCE to 1500 CE) Interlacustrine Region, History of (1500 to 1900) International Monetary Fund Islam: Overview Islam: Northern Africa Islam: Western Africa Islam: Eastern and Central Africa Islam: Southern Africa Islam: Sufi Orders Islam: Islamism Islam: Modernism Ivory Ja Ja, King Jenn¿ and Jenn¿-jeno Johannesburg Johnson, Samuel Johnson-Sirleaf, Ellen Joseph, Helen Judaism in Africa Kabarega Kabila, Laurent Desir¿, and Joseph Kadalie, Clements Kagame, Alexis Kagwa, Apolo Kahena Kakungulu, Semei Lwakirenzi Kalahari Desert Kampala Kanemi, Muhammad al-Amin al- Kano Kano, Alhaji Aminu Kateb, Yacine Kaunda, Kenneth Keita, Fodeba Keita, Salif Kenya: Geography and Economy Kenya: Society and Cultures Kenya: History and Politics Kenyatta, Jomo Kerma Khama, Seretse Khama, Tshekedi Khama III Khartoum Kibaki, Mwai Kigali Kimbangu, Simon Kimpa Vita, Dona Beatriz King Lists and Chronologies Kings and Kingdoms Kingship Kinjikitile Kinshasa Kinship and Affinity Kinship and Descent Kisangani Kiwanuka, Joseph Knowledge: Overview Knowledge: Traditional Kok, Adam, III Kongo, Angola, and Western Forests, History of (1500 to 1880) Koumbi-Saleh Kourouma, Ahmadou Kruger, Paul Kufuor, John Kumasi Kuti, Fela La Guma, Alex Labor: Child Labor: Conscript and Forced Labor: Domestic Labor: Industrial and Mining Labor: Migration Labor: Plantation Labor: Trades Unions and Associations Labor: Transport Ladysmith Black Mambazo Lagos Lake Chad Societies Lakwena, Alice Lalib¿la Land: Tenure Land: Reform Language: Choice in Writing Language: Government and Mission Policies Language: Slang Language: Sociolinguistics Languages: Overview Languages: Afro-Asiatic Languages: Arabic Languages: Creoles and Pidgins Languages: Khoesan and Click Languages: Malayo-Polynesian Languages: Niger-Congo Languages: Nilo-Saharan Languages: Surrogates Law: Overview Law: Anglophone Central Africa Law: Anglophone Eastern Africa Law: Anglophone Western Africa Law: Burundi, Congo, and Rwanda Law: Francophone Western, Equatorial, and Indian Ocean Africa Law: Islamic Law: Lusophone Africa Law: Southern Africa Leakey, Louis and Mary Lenshina, Alice Leo Africanus Lesotho: Geography and Economy Lesotho: Society and Cultures Lesotho: History and Politics Lewis, Samuel Liberia: Geography and Economy Liberia: Society and Cultures Liberia: History and Politics Libraries Libreville Libya: Geography and Economy Libya: Society and Cultures Libya: History and Politics Lilongwe Linguistics, Historical Linguistics and the Study of Africa Literacy Literature: Overview Literature: Epics and Epic Poetry Literature: Islamic Literature: Modern Poetry Literature: Oral Literature: Popular Literature Literature: Proverbs and Riddles Literature: Translation Literature: Women Writers, Northern Africa Literature: Women Writers, Sub-Saharan Africa Literature and the Study of Africa Literatures in African Languages: Arabic Literatures in African Languages: Berber Literatures in African Languages: Ethiopic Literatures in African Languages: Hausa Literatures in African Languages: Islamic Literatures in African Languages: Malagasy Literatures in African Languages: Somali Literatures in African Languages: South African Languages Literatures in African Languages: Swahili Literatures in African Languages: Yor¿b Literatures in European Languages: Afrikaans Literatures in European Languages: Anglophone Central and Southern Africa Literatures in European Languages: Anglophone Eastern Africa Literatures in European Languages: Anglophone Western Africa Literatures in European Languages: Francophone Central Africa Literatures in European Languages: Francophone Indian Ocean Africa Literatures in European Languages: Francophone Northern Africa Literatures in European Languages: Lusophone Livestock: Domestication Livestock: Species Livingstone, David Lobengula Lom¿ Lopes, Henri Luanda Lubumbashi Lugard, Frederick John Dealtry Lumumba, Patrice Lusaka Luthuli, Albert John Mavumbi Maathai, Wangari Macaulay, Herbert Samuel Heelas rbert Samuel Heelas Macaulay, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Zachary Machel, Gra¿a Machel, Samora Moises Madagascar: Geography and Economy Madagascar: Society and Cultures Madagascar: History and Politics (1895-2006) Madagascar: Early Settlement Madagascar: Religion in Madagascar and Western Indian Ocean, History of (Early to 1500) Madagascar and Western Indian Ocean, History of (1500 to 1895) Maghili, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Karim al- Maherero, Samuel Mahfouz, Naguib Maiduguri Makeba, Miriam Malawi: Geography and Economy Malawi: Society and Cultures Malawi: History and Politics Mali: Geography and Economy Mali: Society and Cultures Mali: History and Politics Mami Wata Mandela, Nelson Mandela, Winnie Mansa Musa Mapondera, Paitando Kadungure Maputo Maranke, John Margai, Milton Augustus Striery Marrakesh Marriage Systems Masekela, Hugh Maseru Masks and Masquerades: Northern Africa Masks and Masquerades: Sub-Saharan Africa Massawa Mathematics Mauritania: Geography and Economy Mauritania: Society and Cultures Mauritania: History and Politics Mauritius: Geography and Economy Mauritius: Society and Cultures Mauritius: History and Politics Mbabane Mbeki, Thabo Media: Overview Media: Book Publishing Media: Cinema Media: Comic Art Media: Journalism Media: Language Media: Politics Media: Radio and TV Media: Religion Mekki, Aicha Menelik II Mengistu, Haile Mariam Mensah, E. T. Mernissi, Fatima Metals and Minerals: Resources Metals and Minerals: Metallurgy Metals and Minerals: Iron Metals and Minerals: Copper and Alloys Metals and Minerals: Gold and Silver Military Organizations: History of Military Organizations: National Armies Military Organizations: Colonial Armies Military Organizations: Guerrilla Forces Military Organizations: Mercenaries Military Organizations: Militias Mirambo Mkapa, Benjamin Mobutu Sese Seko Modernity and Modernization: Antimodern and Postmodern Movements Mogadishu Mohammed, Bibi Titi Mohammed V Moi, Daniel arap Mombasa Mondlane, Eduardo Chivambo Money: Overview Money: Colonial Currencies Money: Commodity Currencies Money: Exchange Rate Systems Mongella, Gertrude I. Monrovia Moors in African History Morocco: Geography and Economy Morocco: Society and Cultures Morocco: History and Politics Morocco, History of (1000 to 1900) Morocco and Sub-Saharan Africa Moshoeshoe I Mozambique: Geography and Economy Mozambique: Society and Cultures Mozambique: History and Politics Mswati II Mubarak, Husni Mugabe, Robert Muhammad VI Mukhtar, Sidi al- Museums: History Museums: Memory Museveni, Yoweri Music: Overview Music: Structures Music: Islamic Music, Modern Popular: Overview Music, Modern Popular: Central Africa Music, Modern Popular: Eastern Africa Music, Modern Popular: Egypt Music, Modern Popular: Ethiopia Music, Modern Popular: Northern Africa Music, Modern Popular: Southern Africa Music, Modern Popular: Western Africa Musical Instruments Muslim Northern Africa, History of (641 to 1500 CE) Mutebi II Mutesa I Mvemba Nzinga Mwanga, Kabaka Myth and Cosmology Mzilikazi Nairobi N'Ait Atiq, Mririda Names and Naming Namibia: Geography and Economy Namibia: Society and Cultures Namibia: History and Politics Nandi Nasser, Gamal Abdel Nationalism N'Djamena N'Dour, Youssou Neocolonialism Neto, Agostinho Ngugi wa Thiong'o Niamey Niani Niger: Geography and Economy Niger: Society and Cultures Niger: History and Politics Niger River Nigeria: Geography and Economy Nigeria: Society and Cultures, Northeast Nigeria Nigeria: Society and Cultures, Northwest Nigeria Nigeria: Society and Cultures, Southeast Nigeria Nigeria: Society and Cultures, Southwest Nigeria Nigeria: Society and Cultures, Central Nigeria Nigeria: History and Politics, Northern Nigeria Nigeria: History and Politics, Southern Nigeria Nile River Njinga Mbandi Ana de Sousa Njoya, Ibrahim Mbombo Nketia, J. H. Kwabena Nkrumah, Francis Nwia Kofi Nongovernmental Organizations Nongqawuse Northeastern Africa, Classical Period, History of (1000 BCE to 600 CE) Northern Africa: Historical Links with Mediterranean Northern Africa: Historical Links with Sub-Saharan Africa Northwestern Africa, Classical Period, History of (1000 BCE to 600 CE) Nouakchott Nubia Nujoma, Samuel Shafiishuna Number Systems Nwapa, Flora Nyerere, Julius Kambarage Obasanjo, Olusegun Obote, Milton Odundo, Magdalene Ogot, Grace Ogunde, Hubert Adedeji Olympio, Sylvanus Epiphanio Organization of African Unity Osei Bonsu Osei Tutu Oshitelu, Josiah Ottoman Northern Africa, History of (1500 to 1850) Ouidah Paton, Alan Peasants: Overview Peasants: Central Africa Peasants: Eastern Africa Peasants: Southern Africa Peasants: Western Africa Pereira, Aristides Maria Perry, Ruth Sando Person, Concepts of Philip, John Philosophy Philosophy and the Study of Africa Photography: Aesthetics and Social Significance Photography: History Photography: Photojournalism Pilgrimages, Islamic Plaatje, Sol Plantation Economies and Societies Plants: Domestication Plants: Imported Species Plants: Varieties and Uses Pohamba, Hifikepunye Pointe-Noire Political Science and the Study of Africa Political Systems: States Political Systems: Chieftainships Political Systems: Islamic Popular Culture: Central Africa Popular Culture: Eastern Africa Popular Culture: Northern Africa Popular Culture: Political Ideology Popular Culture: Southern Africa Popular Culture: Western Africa Port Harcourt Port-Louis Porto Novo Postcolonialism Prehistory: Central Africa Prehistory: Eastern Africa Prehistory: Ethiopia and the Horn Prehistory: Sahara and Northern Africa Prehistory: Southern Africa Prehistory: Western Africa Prempeh, Agyeman Pretoria Production Strategies: Overview Production Strategies: Agriculture Production Strategies: Plow Farming Production Strategies: Hunting and Gathering Production Strategies: Pastoralism Production Strategies: Mining, Modern Production Strategies: Artisan Production Production Strategies: Peripatetic Production Prophetic Movements: Central Africa Prophetic Movements: Eastern Africa Prophetic Movements: Southern Africa Prophetic Movements: Western Africa Prostitution Psychology and the Study of Africa Qadhdhafi, Muammar Quaque, Philip Queens and Queen Mothers Rabat and Sal¿ Rabemananjara, Jacques Rabih bin Fadlallah Radama I Ramphele, Mamphela Ranavalona, Mada Ransome-Kuti, Olufunmilayo Ravalomanana, Marc Rawlings, Jerry Refugees Religion and Ritual Religion and the Study of Africa Research: Overview Research: Biological Sciences Research: Social Sciences Research: Historical Resources Research: Research Funding Research: Scholarly Ethics R¿union Rhodes, Cecil John Rouch, Jean Rwabugiri Rwanda: Geography and Economy Rwanda: Society and Cultures Rwanda: History and Politics Saad, Siti binti Saadawi, Nawal el- Sadat, Anwar al- Sahara Desert: Geography and History Sahara Desert: Caravan Routes Said bin Sultan Saint Helena Saint-Louis Salih, Tayeb Salt Samba, Ch¿ri Sanusi, Muhammad ibn &ayn;Ali al- Sao Tom¿ e Príncipe: Geography and Economy Sao Tom¿ e Príncipe: Society and Cultures Sao Tom¿ e Príncipe: History and Politics Sarbah, John Mensah Saro-Wiwa, Ken Sassou-Nguesso, Denis Savimbi, Jonas Schnitzer, Eduard Schreiner, Olive Secret Societies Sekhukhune I Semb¿ne, Ousmane Senegal: Geography and Economy Senegal: Society and Cultures Senegal: History and Politics Senghor, L¿opold S¿dar Serote, Mongane Sexual Behavior Seychelles: Geography and Economy Seychelles: Society and Cultures Seychelles: History and Politics Shaaban Robert Shaka Zulu Shembe, Isaiah Shyaam aMbul aNgoong Sierra Leone: Geography and Economy Sierra Leone: Society and Cultures Sierra Leone: History and Politics Sijilmasa Slave Trades: Atlantic, Central Africa Slave Trades: Atlantic, Western Africa Slave Trades: Indian Ocean Slave Trades: Northeastern Africa and Red Sea Slave Trades: Northern Africa and Sahara Slavery and Servile Institutions: Overview Slavery and Servile Institutions: Anthropological Perspectives Slavery and Servile Institutions: Colonial Slavery and Servile Institutions: Sudan Smuts, Jan Christiaan Sobhuza I and II Socialism and Postsocialisms Soga, John Henderson Soils Somalia: Geography and Economy Somalia: Society and Cultures Somalia: History and Politics Sony Labou Tansi South Africa, Republic of: Geography and Economy South Africa, Republic of: Society and Cultures South Africa, Republic of: History and Politics (1850-2006) Southeastern Africa, History of (1600 to 1910) Southern Africa, History of (1000 BCE to 1600 CE) Soyinka, Wole Spirit Possession: Mediumship Spirit Possession: Modernity Sports: Overview Sports: Football Stanley, Henry Morton Stevens, Siaka Stimulants and Intoxicants: Overview Stimulants and Intoxicants: Alcohol Stratification, Social Sudan: Geography and Economy Sudan: Society and Cultures Sudan: History and Politics Sudan: Wars Sudan, Eastern, History of (1500 to 1880 CE) Sudan, Western and Central, History of (1500 to 1880 CE) Sundjata Ke¿ta Sunni Ali Susenyos Suzman, Helen Swaziland: Geography and Economy Swaziland: Society and Cultures Swaziland: History and Politics Symbols and Symbolism: Overview Symbols and Symbolism: Animal Taboo and Sin Tafawa Balewa, Abubakar Tangier Tanzania: Geography and Economy Tanzania: Society and Cultures Tanzania: History and Politics Taylor, Charles Gahnhay Taytu, Empress Technological Specialization Period, History of (c. 19.000 to 5000 BCE) Tempels, Placied T¿touan T¿wodros Textiles Theater: Anglophone Central and Eastern Africa Theater: Anglophone Western Africa Theater: Francophone Africa Theater: Northern Africa Theater: Southern Africa Thuku, Harry Tijani, Ahmad Timbuktu Time Reckoning and Calendars Tinubu, Madame Tippu Tip Togo: Geography and Economy Togo: Society and Cultures Togo: History and Politics Tombalbaye, Fran¿ois-Ngarta Tour¿, Amadou Toumani Tour¿, Samori Tour¿, S¿kou Tourism Tracey, Hugh Trade, National and International Systems Transportation: Overview Transportation: Air Transportation: Caravan Transportation: Railways Transportation: River Transportation: Shipping and Ports Travel and Exploration: Arab Travel and Exploration: Chinese Travel and Exploration: European (Pre-1500) Travel and Exploration: European (1500 to 1800) Travel and Exploration: European (Since 1800) Tribe and Tribalism Tripoli Truth Commissions Tshombe, Mo¿se Kapenda Tubman, William Vacanarat Shadrach Tunis Tunisia: Geography and Economy Tunisia: Society and Cultures Tunisia: History and Politics Turabi, Hasan Abd Allah al- Tutu, Desmond Mpilo Tutuola, Amos Uganda: Geography and Economy Uganda: Society and Cultures Uganda: History and Politics Umar ibn Said Tal (al-Hajj) United Nations: Africa in the United Nations United Nations: United Nations in Africa Urbanism and Urbanization: Overview Urbanism and Urbanization: Prehistoric Urbanism and Urbanization: Historic Urbanism and Urbanization: Independence Era Urbanism and Urbanization: Housing Uthman dan Fodio Van Riebeeck, Jan Verwoerd, Hendrik Frensch Vodún Walata Warfare: Overview Warfare: Civil Wars Warfare: Colonial Warfare: Internal Revolts Warfare: Liberation Warfare: National and International Water and Irrigation Western Africa, Forest Region, History of (1000 to 1880) Western and Saharan Africa, History of (600 to 1600 CE) Western Desert and Margins, History of (1000 BCE to 600 CE) Western Sahara Wildlife: Preservation and Destruction Wildlife: National Parks Wildlife: Hunting, Sport Windhoek Witbooi, Hendrik Witchcraft: Overview Witchcraft: Witchcraft and Christianity Witchcraft: Witchcraft and Islam Witchcraft: Witchcraft and Politics Witchcraft: Witchcraft and Prophetism Witchcraft: Witchcraft and Wealth Women: Overview Women: Women and Islam in Northern Africa Women: Women and Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa Women: Women and Non-Islamic Religion Women: Women and Slavery Women: Women and the Law Women: Women and Theater Women: Women and Trade Women: Women and Urbanism Women: Women in African History Women: Widows World Bank World War I World War II Writing Systems: African Scripts Writing Systems: African Languages in Arabic Scripts Writing Systems: African Languages in Roman Scripts Writing Systems: Egyptian Writing Systems: Ethiopic Yamoussoukro Yaound¿ Youth: Overview Youth: Rural Youth: Urban Youth: Movements Youth: Gangs Youth: Soldiers Youth: Youth and Islam Zambezi River Zambia: Geography and Economy Zambia: Society and Cultures Zambia: History and Politics Zanzibar Zanzibar City Zanzibar Sultanate Zara Yaiqob Zayani, Moha ou Hammou Zimbabwe: Geography and Economy Zimbabwe: Society and Cultures Zimbabwe: History and Politics Zimbabwe, Great Zomba Zubayr, Rahma Mansur al-
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Africa -- Encyclopedias.