Table of contents for Landscape design : theory and application / Ann Marie VanDerZanden, Steven N. Rodie.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
Table of Contents
Preface	xix
Acknowledgements	xx
 
About the Authors	xxii
Chapter 1: Landscape Design Tools of the Trade
Objectives	1
Key Terms	1
Introduction	1
Getting started: Drawing Table or Board, T-square, Paper Types, and Tape	2
Drawing Surface and T-Square	2
Drawing Papers	3
Drafting Tape	5
Drawing and Erasing: Pencils, Pens and Markers, Erasers, Dusting Brush	5
Drawing Leads	6
Millimeter or Mechanical Pencils	7
Colored Pencils	7
Pens and Markers	8
Erasers	10
Dusting Brush	11
Measuring: Scales and Rolling Ruler	13
Architect?s Scale	14
Engineer?s Scale	15
Rolling Ruler	17
Angles and Curves: Triangles, Protractor, Compass, and Curves	17
Triangles	17
Protractor	18
Compass	18
Irregular Curves	19
Time Savers: Lettering Guide and Templates	20
Lettering Guide	20
Templates	21
Digital and Computer-aided Design and Drafting	22
Types of Computer-aided Design Tools	23
Making the Purchase	28
Summary	28
Knowledge Application	29
References	30
Online Resources	30
Chapter 2: Landscape Graphics 
Objectives	32
Key Terms	32
Introduction	32
Importance of Graphics	33
Choosing Between Drafted and Freehand Graphics	35
Graphics?Black-and-White Mechanics	37
Line and Dot Quality 	39
Line Weight Hierarchy and Contrast	41
Value Contrast 	42
Texture 	44
Graphic Symbols and Definitions	46
Plan View Graphics 	47
Additional Graphic Methods	51
Analysis and Concept Graphics	58
Color Basics	58
Common Media 	59
Principles for Using Color Effectively	61
Applications	63
Freehand Drawing and Sketching 	64
The Right Frame of Mind for Accurate Sketching	64
Drafting	65
Lettering	65
Criteria for All Lettering Styles 	67
Sheet Mechanics and Layout	68
General Layout 	68
Title Block	69
North Arrow and Drawing Scale 	70
Additional Information and Formatting	70
Graphics Applications for Specific Drawing Types	71
Base Map	71
Site Inventory and Analysis	72
Functional Diagram	73
Preliminary Design	74
Final Design	74
Computer and CAD Graphics 	76
Benefits of Computer-Aided Design	76
Computer Graphics Trade-offs	77
CAD Graphics Summary	79
Other Graphics Applications and Considerations	81
Summary	81
Knowledge Application	81
Literature Cited	83
References	83
Chapter 3: Defining Landscape Design and the Foundations that Shape the Design Process
Objectives	86
Key Terms	86
Introduction	86
A Landscape Design Definition	87
Aesthetic and Functional Components of Design	87
Additional Components that Define Landscape Design	88
Common Misconceptions about Landscape Design 	90
Misconception: Landscape Design Is a Product 	90
Misconception: Good Designers Don?t Have to Think 
about Design	91
Misconception: Design is a Rare Talent	92
Misconception: Good Designers Have an Obvious 
Signature Style	93
Misconception: Good Designers Work Best Alone	93
Misconception: Quality Design is Unique	93
Misconception: Good Designers Don?t Need to Follow 
the Basic Aesthetic Design Principles	94
Design as a Process	95
Accept Situation	96
Analyze	97
Define Desired Outcomes 	97
Generate Ideas	97
Select	98
Implement	98
Evaluate	99
Relationships of People and the Outdoor Environment	103
Landscape Preference	104
Restorative Value of Landscapes	107
Summary 	109
Knowledge Application	110
Literature Cited	110
References	112
Chapter 4: The Principles of Design: Description and Application
	
Objectives	113
Key Terms	113
Introduction	113
How We Learn to Design	115
Awareness	115
Perception	115
Imagination	116
Expression	116
Elements of Art	117
Line	117
Form	118
Color	118
Texture	121
Space	122
Landscape Design Principles	123
Overarching Design Principles	124
Simplicity	124
Blending Form and Function	126
Reflecting Local Elements of Architecture, History, 
Nature, and Sense of Place	126
Aesthetic Landscape Design Principles	130
Order or Design Framework	131
Repetition	132
Rhythm	133
Unity	135
Balance	136
Proportion and Scale	137
Emphasis	140
Aesthetic Principles Applied	141
Visually Connect Structures to the Landscape	141
Define Space: Mass and Void	142
Direct People Physically and Visually 	142
Designing Outdoor Living Spaces to Meet the 
Physical, Cognitive, and Restorative Needs of People	143
Functional Design Principles	143
Working with the Existing Topography	144
Creating a Useful Outdoor Living Space	146
Accounting for Maintenance	147
Addressing Irrigation Needs	148
Incorporating Sustainability	149
Providing Wildlife Habitat	151
Summary	151
Knowledge Application	152
Literature Cited	152
References	153
Chapter 5: Landscape Design Process
Objectives	154
Key Terms	154
Introduction	154
The Landscape Design Process 	155
Design Process Case Study	156
Client?Designer Communications and the Sales Process	156
Making Initial Contact with the Client 	157
Design Planning Questionnaire	157
Meeting with the Client for the First Time	159
The Budget Question	165
Case Study: Client Feedback 	167
Site Documentation	168
Photos and Video	169 
Developing a Base Map	169
Case Study: Base Map Information	180
Site Inventory and Analysis	181
Capitalizing on the Homeowner as a Resource	181
Two Distinct Steps: Inventory and Analysis	181
Documenting the Information	183
Combining Site Inventory and Analysis 
with Sustainable Design 	195
Summary: Site Inventory and Analysis	196
Case Study: Site Inventory and Analysis	196
Developing a Design Concept and Design Program 	197
Design Concept	197
Design Program	199
Case Study: Design Concept and a Design Program	200
Functional Diagrams	201
Functional Diagram Elements and Information	202
Developing a Functional Diagram	203
Summary: Functional Diagrams	207
Case Study: Functional Diagrams	207
Preliminary Design 	208
Purpose and Characteristics 	208
Graphic Style and Content	216
Case Study: Selecting a Design Theme	217
Summary and Design Process Flexibility	217
Case Study: Preliminary Design	218
Final Design Package	218
Final Design Checklist	219
Final Design or Master Plan	220
Elevation Drawings, Construction Details, and other Graphics	221
Case Study: Final Design	222
Summary	222
How Four Design Professionals would Approach a New Landscape 
and a Landscape Renovation	223
Scenario #1?New Homeowners in a 
New Subdivision	223
Scenario #2?Renovating an Existing Landscape	229
Design Planning Questionnaire	236
Knowledge Application	240
Literature Cited	240
Online Resources	241
Chapter 6: Plant Selection: Blending Form and Function
Objectives	243
Key Terms	243
Introduction	243
Site Analysis and Plant Selection	244
Environmental Consideration	245
Plant Hardiness Zone	245
Heat Zone	247
Frost Occurrence	247
Seasonal Rainfall	248
Soil Characteristics	249
Sun Exposure	252
Microclimate	253
Aesthetic Qualities	253
Plant Types	254
Plant Lifecycles	255
Four-Season Plants	256
Form	257
Texture	260
Color	263
Flowering and Fruiting Habit	266
Mature Size	268
Maintenance Requirements	269
Woody Plants	270
Herbaceous Plants	271
Functional Uses in the Landscape	272
Defining Spaces	273
Views	274
Utility Purposes	275
Aesthetic Purposes	277
Conceptual Plant Communities	279
Trying to Replicate Nature	280
The Urban Growing Environment	281
Soil	281
Light Patterns	283
Humans	283
Native Plants vs. Nonnative Plants	284
Summary	285
Knowledge Application	286
Literature Cited	287
References	287
Chapter 7: Hardscapes: Selection and Use
Objectives	289
Key Terms	289
Introduction	289
Hardscapes in the Ground Plane	290
Patios	290
Decks	291
Walkways	292
Driveways	293
Steps	294
Hardscapes in the Vertical Plane	310
Fences	310
Walls	311
Hardscapes in the Overhead Plane	319
Pergolas and Arbors	319
Gazebos	321
Landscape Lighting	322
What Lighting Adds to a Landscape	322
Garden Features and Embellishments	326
Water Features	326
Fire Pits and Outdoor Fireplaces	331
Garden Embellishments	331
Summary	336
Knowledge Application	336
References	337
Chapter 8: Pricing the Proposed Design
Objectives	341
Key Terms	341
Introduction	341
Charging for Your Expertise	342
Proceeding after a Successful First Meeting	343
Pricing the Design Only	343
Developing a Contract for Design Services	345
A Final Meeting with the Client	348
Landscape Contracting Terminology	349
Differentiating between Cost and Price	350
Differentiating between Estimate, Bid, Proposal, and Contract	351
The Design/Build Business	355
Designers can Benefit from Collaborating with Installation 
 Professionals	355
Pricing for Design and Installation Services	356
Design Services	356
Materials Costs	357
Labor Costs	357
Overhead	359
Contingency	360
Profit	363
Developing a Bid	364
Managing Change	364
The Country Landscapes Business Model	366
The Process	367
What the Client Sees	368
Comparing Estimated to Actual Costs	369
Using Experience to Develop Estimates	369
Computer Software for Estimating and Bidding	370
EasyEst Estimating Software	371
Manual Measuring and Calculating for Estimating 	372
Accuracy is Essential	374
Summary	375
Knowledge Application	375
Literature Cited	376
References	377
 
Appendix
Case Study Landscape Design Scenarios
Case Study #1?Old Neighborhood Residence	A-1
Base Map and Site Photos	A-1
Owner Wish-list and Feedback	A-2
Site Inventory and Analysis	A-4
Case Study #2?Acreage Residence	A-5
Base Map and Site Photos	A-6
Owner Wish-list and Feedback	A-7
Site Inventory and Analysis	A-8
Case Study #3?Suburban Neighborhood Residence	A-9
Base Map and Site Photos	A-9
Owner Wish-list and Feedback	A-10
Site Inventory and Analysis	A-12
Case Study #4?Large Lot Residence	A-14
Base Map and Site Photos	A-15
Owner Wish-list and Feedback	A-15
Site Inventory and Analysis	A-17

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Landscape design.