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@CT:Table of Contents Preface xi CHAPTER 1: The Constitutional Convention 1 Antecedents 2 The Constitutional Convention 7 CHAPTER 2: Creating the Presidency 25 The Making of the Presidency: An Overview 25 Number of the Executive 28 Selection and Succession 30 Term of Office 33 Removal 34 Institutional Separation from Congress 36 Enumerated Powers 39 The Vice Presidency 52 Ratifying the Constitution 56 CHAPTER 3: Implementing the Constitutional Presidency: George Washington and John Adams 67 The Election of George Washington 68 Making the Presidency Safe for Democracy 70 Forming the Executive Branch 72 Presidential ¿Supremacy¿ and the Conduct of the Executive Branch 74 Presidential Nonpartisanship and the Beginning of Party Conflict 77 Washington¿s Retirement and the Jay Treaty: The Constitutional Crisis of 1796 83 The 1796 Election 86 The Embattled Presidency of John Adams 87 The Alien and Sedition Acts 90 CHAPTER 4: The Triumph of Jeffersonianism 96 The ¿Revolution¿ of 1800 97 Jefferson¿s War with the Judiciary 100 The Democratic-Republican Program and the Adjustment to Power 101 The Limits of ¿Popular¿ Leadership 104 The Twelfth Amendment 105 Jefferson¿s Mixed Legacy 107 The Presidency of James Madison and the Rise of the House of Representatives 108 The Presidencies of James Monroe and John Quincy Adams 111 CHAPTER 5: The Age of Jackson 118 Jacksonian Democracy 119 The Rise of the Party Convention 122 Jackson¿s Struggle with Congress 122 The Aftermath of the Bank Veto 124 The Decline of the Cabinet 126 The Limits of the Jacksonian Presidency 127 Martin Van Buren and the Panic of 1837 130 The Jacksonian Presidency Sustained 131 John Tyler and the Problem of Presidential Succession 134 The Presidency of James K. Polk 136 The Slavery Controversy and the Twilight of the Jacksonian Presidency 140 CHAPTER 6: The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln 147 Lincoln and the Slavery Controversy 149 The Election of 1860 151 Lincoln and Secession 152 Lincoln¿s Wartime Measures 154 The Emancipation Proclamation 158 The Election of 1864 160 Lincoln¿s Legacy 163 CHAPTER 7: The Reaction against Presidential Power: Andrew Johnson to William McKinley 167 Reconstruction and the Assault on Executive Authority 168 The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson 172 Ulysses S. Grant and the Abdication of Executive Power 174 The Fight to Restore Presidential Power 179 Congressional Government and the Prelude to a More Active Presidency 189 CHAPTER 8: Progressive Politics and Executive Power: The Presidencies of Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft 200 Theodore Roosevelt and the Expansion of Executive Power 202 The Troubled Presidency of William Howard Taft 219 CHAPTER 9: Woodrow Wilson and the Defense of Popular Leadership 229 Woodrow Wilson¿s Theory of Executive Leadership 231 Wilson and Party Reform 233 The Art of Popular Leadership 233 Wilson¿s Relations with Congress 235 Wilson as World Leader 238 CHAPTER 10: The Triumph of Conservative Republicanism 249 The Harding Era 250 The ¿Silent¿ Politics of Calvin Coolidge 257 Herbert C. Hoover and the Great Depression 261 The Twentieth Amendment 265 CHAPTER 11: The Consolidation of the Modern Presidency: Franklin D. Roosevelt to Dwight D. Eisenhower 270 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Modern Presidency 271 The Modern Presidency Sustained: Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower 286 CHAPTER 12: Personalizing the Presidency: John F. Kennedy to Jimmy Carter 309 John F. Kennedy and the Rise of the ¿Personal Presidency¿ 310 Lyndon B. Johnson and Presidential Government 317 The Twenty-Fifth Amendment 323 The Presidency of Richard Nixon 326 Gerald R. Ford and the Post-Watergate Era 337 A President Named Jimmy 340 CHAPTER 13: A Restoration of Presidential Power? Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush 350 The Reagan Revolution 350 The Reagan Legacy and the Accession of George Bush 363 The Bush Presidency 369 CHAPTER 14: Bill Clinton and the Modern Presidency 381 The Election of 1992 382 The First Year of the Clinton Presidency 384 The 1994 Election and the Restoration of Divided Government 389 The Comeback President 390 Balanced Budgets, Impeachment Politics, and the Limits of the ¿Third Way¿ 395 CHAPTER 15: George W. Bush and Beyond 405 The 2000 Election 405 Bush v. Gore 409 The Early Days of the Bush Presidency 411 September 11 and the War on Terrorism 414 An Expanded Presidency Bush and the Republican Party The Modern Presidency in the Twenty-first Century CHAPTER 16: The Vice Presidency 424 The Founding Period 425 The Vice Presidency in the Nineteenth Century 428 Theodore Roosevelt to Harry S. Truman 431 The Modern Vice Presidency 434 Conclusion 446 Appendix 451 Constitution of the United States 453 U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents 472 Summary of Presidential Elections, 17892004 475 Index 483 @CT:Preface @TEXT:Encouraged by the strong response to the first four editions of The American Presidency: Origins and Development, we have undertaken a fifth edition with three important objectives in mind. First, we wanted to take account of the first six and a half years of the George W. Bush presidency, including the 2004 and 2006 elections, the war in Iraq and its difficult aftermath, and the decline in the president¿s political standing. Second, we sought to refine the writing and analysis throughout the book. And third, we wanted to incorporate the best of the new scholarship on the origins and development of the presidency. At its launch, The American Presidency was the first comprehensive one-volume history of the presidency to be written by political scientists in more than fifty years. Not since Wilfred E. Binkley published The Powers of the President: Problems of American Democracy in 1937 had a similar effort been undertaken. One advantage of a historical approach to the presidency is that it fills the enormous gap that has arisen in the education of most contemporary students of the office. Because the historical profession (with notable exceptions) has in recent years de-emphasized political history in favor of social history, we political scientists have had to step into the breach. So be it: the historians¿ self-inflicted misfortune has become our good fortune. Another reason for political scientists to approach the presidency with an eye to history is that in doing so we supplement the approach taken by most standard textbooks. Instead of artificially segregating the presidency into its discrete parts--the president and Congress, presidential elections, party leadership, and so on--a historical approach necessarily integrates every aspect of the office in a way that accurately reflects the dynamic interaction of the various parts. We see, for example, how Franklin D. Roosevelt¿s attempt to seize control of the Supreme Court in 1937 simultaneously affected--and was affected by--his relations with Congress, his party, the public, and the media. The same can be said of George W. Bush¿s reelection in 2004 with a Republican Senate, which set the stage for his appointment of two conservative Supreme Court justices, and of his party¿s loss of both houses of Congress in 2006, which roused legislative pressures to end U.S. involvement in Iraq. In this edition, we continue to tell the history of how the institution of the presidency was created and how it has developed during its more than two centuries of existence. We describe what has remained constant in the office, mostly because of its constitutional design. We also discuss those historical innovations that have endured. We are less concerned about describing either the cyclical patterns in the history of the presidency or what is idiosyncratic about particular presidents. Abraham Lincoln and Millard Fillmore receive a chapter and a few paragraphs, respectively, but more because of how they affected the presidency than because of the kinds of people they were. Similarly, although cycles of politics and policy are important aspects of presidential power, we believe that the institutional history of the presidency is a sufficiently important and neglected topic to merit a book all its own. Some readers may ask: how pertinent is the presidency¿s first century and a half to its most recent seventy-five years? The answers of many political scientists, at least until recently, have ranged from ¿hardly¿ to ¿not at all.¿ Students of the modern presidency typically mark 1933, the year of FDR¿s first inauguration, as year one of presidential history. Our argument--and our evidence--is different. Many of the most important institutional characteristics of the presidency date from the Constitutional Convention and the earliest days of the Republic, which we chronicle in Chapters 13. During the nineteenth century, highly significant patterns and practices of presidential conduct took shape; these we discuss in Chapters 47. As for the era of the modern presidency--that is, the era in which the president replaces Congress and the political parties as the leading instrument of popular rule--we trace its origins to Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson as much as to Franklin Roosevelt and his successors (Chapters 815). Put simply, TR and Wilson began the practices that strengthened the president as the nation¿s popular and legislative leader; FDR then consolidated, or institutionalized, the president¿s new leadership roles in ways that subsequent presidents have continued. This book is an interpretive political history of the presidency as well as a factual one. We have worked hard to get our facts straight and to make our interpretations sound. Research scholars, we think, will continue to be stimulated by much of what we report about the deep roots of modern American political institutions. Students will gain a solid undergirding for their study of the presidency, the Constitution, political development, and contemporary U.S. politics and government. We also hope that this book will find its home not only in reading rooms and classrooms but also in living rooms. After all, in a system of republican government such as ours, political history means our politics, our history. We take pleasure and pride in the friendship and colleagueship that underlie our continuing collaboration on The American Presidency. The book is truly a joint intellectual endeavor. We have many thanks to offer, not least to our wives and children, to whom this book is dedicated. Michael Ebeid of Boston University, Jasmine Farrier of the University of Louisville, and Roger Larocca of Oakland University reviewed the fourth edition and provided several suggestions for improvement. We are indebted to Jay Sulzmann for his excellent index. For their work or encouragement (or, in most instances, both) on previous editions, we thank these members of CQ Press¿s extraordinarily able staff: David Tarr, Joanne Daniels, Margaret Sewell, and Shana Wagger. For their work and encouragement on this edition, we thank Brenda Carter, director of college publishing; Charisse Kiino, sponsoring editor; Sabra Bissette Ledent, freelance manuscript editor; and Anne Stewart, production editor. @TEXTR: Sidney M. Milkis and Michael Nelson
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Presidents -- United States -- History.
Executive power -- United States -- History.
Constitutional history -- United States.
United States -- Politics and government.