Table of contents for The American presidency : origins and development, 1776-2007 / Sidney M. Milkis, Michael Nelson.

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@CT:Table of Contents
Preface			xi
CHAPTER 1: The Constitutional Convention	1
Antecedents		2
The Constitutional Convention		7
CHAPTER 2: Creating the Presidency	25
	The Making of the Presidency: An Overview	25
	Number of the Executive	28
	Selection and Succession	30
	Term of Office	33
	Removal	34
	Institutional Separation from Congress	36
	Enumerated Powers	39
	The Vice Presidency	52
	Ratifying the Constitution	56
CHAPTER 3: Implementing the Constitutional Presidency: George Washington and John Adams	67
	The Election of George Washington	68
	Making the Presidency Safe for Democracy	70
	Forming the Executive Branch	72
	Presidential ¿Supremacy¿ and the Conduct of the Executive Branch	74
	Presidential Nonpartisanship and the Beginning of Party Conflict		77
	Washington¿s Retirement and the Jay Treaty: The Constitutional Crisis of 1796	83
	The 1796 Election	86
	The Embattled Presidency of John Adams	87
	The Alien and Sedition Acts		90
CHAPTER 4: The Triumph of Jeffersonianism	96
	The ¿Revolution¿ of 1800		97
	Jefferson¿s War with the Judiciary	100
	The Democratic-Republican Program and the Adjustment to Power		101
	The Limits of ¿Popular¿ Leadership	104
	The Twelfth Amendment	105
	Jefferson¿s Mixed Legacy	107
	The Presidency of James Madison and the Rise of the House of Representatives 108
	The Presidencies of James Monroe and John Quincy Adams	111
CHAPTER 5: The Age of Jackson		118
	Jacksonian Democracy		119
	The Rise of the Party Convention	122
	Jackson¿s Struggle with Congress	122
	The Aftermath of the Bank Veto	124
	The Decline of the Cabinet	126
	The Limits of the Jacksonian Presidency	127
	Martin Van Buren and the Panic of 1837	130
	The Jacksonian Presidency Sustained		131
	John Tyler and the Problem of Presidential Succession	134
	The Presidency of James K. Polk	136
	The Slavery Controversy and the Twilight of the Jacksonian Presidency	140
CHAPTER 6: The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln		147
	Lincoln and the Slavery Controversy		149
	The Election of 1860		151
	Lincoln and Secession		152
	Lincoln¿s Wartime Measures		154
	The Emancipation Proclamation	158
	The Election of 1864		160
	Lincoln¿s Legacy		163
CHAPTER 7: The Reaction against Presidential Power: Andrew Johnson to William McKinley	167
	Reconstruction and the Assault on Executive Authority	168
	The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson 	172
	Ulysses S. Grant and the Abdication of Executive Power 	174
	The Fight to Restore Presidential Power 	179
	Congressional Government and the Prelude to a More Active Presidency 		189
CHAPTER 8: Progressive Politics and Executive Power: The Presidencies of Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft		200
	Theodore Roosevelt and the Expansion of Executive Power		202
	The Troubled Presidency of William Howard Taft		219
CHAPTER 9: Woodrow Wilson and the Defense of Popular Leadership		229
	Woodrow Wilson¿s Theory of Executive Leadership	231
	Wilson and Party Reform		233
	The Art of Popular Leadership	233
	Wilson¿s Relations with Congress	235
	Wilson as World Leader		238
CHAPTER 10: The Triumph of Conservative Republicanism	249
	The Harding Era	250
	The ¿Silent¿ Politics of Calvin Coolidge	257
	Herbert C. Hoover and the Great Depression		261
	The Twentieth Amendment		265
CHAPTER 11: The Consolidation of the Modern Presidency: Franklin D. Roosevelt to Dwight D. Eisenhower		270
	Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Modern Presidency	271
	The Modern Presidency Sustained: Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower	286
CHAPTER 12: Personalizing the Presidency: John F. Kennedy to Jimmy Carter	309
	John F. Kennedy and the Rise of the ¿Personal Presidency¿		310
	Lyndon B. Johnson and Presidential Government		317
	The Twenty-Fifth Amendment		323
	The Presidency of Richard Nixon		326
	Gerald R. Ford and the Post-Watergate Era		337
	A President Named Jimmy		340
CHAPTER 13: A Restoration of Presidential Power? Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush		350
	The Reagan Revolution	350
	The Reagan Legacy and the Accession of George Bush	363
	The Bush Presidency		369
CHAPTER 14: Bill Clinton and the Modern Presidency	381
	The Election of 1992		382
	The First Year of the Clinton Presidency		384
	The 1994 Election and the Restoration of Divided Government	389
	The Comeback President	390
	Balanced Budgets, Impeachment Politics, and the Limits of the ¿Third Way¿	395
CHAPTER 15: George W. Bush and Beyond	405
	The 2000 Election	405
	Bush v. Gore		409
	The Early Days of the Bush Presidency	411
	September 11 and the War on Terrorism	414
	An Expanded Presidency
	Bush and the Republican Party
	The Modern Presidency in the Twenty-first Century
CHAPTER 16: The Vice Presidency		424
	The Founding Period		425
	The Vice Presidency in the Nineteenth Century	428
	Theodore Roosevelt to Harry S. Truman	431
	The Modern Vice Presidency		434
	Conclusion		446
Appendix 	451
	Constitution of the United States		453
	U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents		472
	Summary of Presidential Elections, 17892004		475
Index		 483
@TEXT:Encouraged by the strong response to the first four editions of The American Presidency: Origins and Development, we have undertaken a fifth edition with three important objectives in mind. First, we wanted to take account of the first six and a half years of the George W. Bush presidency, including the 2004 and 2006 elections, the war in Iraq and its difficult aftermath, and the decline in the president¿s political standing. Second, we sought to refine the writing and analysis throughout the book. And third, we wanted to incorporate the best of the new scholarship on the origins and development of the presidency.
	At its launch, The American Presidency was the first comprehensive one-volume history of the presidency to be written by political scientists in more than fifty years. Not since Wilfred E. Binkley published The Powers of the President: Problems of American Democracy in 1937 had a similar effort been undertaken.
	One advantage of a historical approach to the presidency is that it fills the enormous gap that has arisen in the education of most contemporary students of the office. Because the historical profession (with notable exceptions) has in recent years de-emphasized political history in favor of social history, we political scientists have had to step into the breach. So be it: the historians¿ self-inflicted misfortune has become our good fortune.
	Another reason for political scientists to approach the presidency with an eye to history is that in doing so we supplement the approach taken by most standard textbooks. Instead of artificially segregating the presidency into its discrete parts--the president and Congress, presidential elections, party leadership, and so on--a historical approach necessarily integrates every aspect of the office in a way that accurately reflects the dynamic interaction of the various parts. We see, for example, how Franklin D. Roosevelt¿s attempt to seize control of the Supreme Court in 1937 simultaneously affected--and was affected by--his relations with Congress, his party, the public, and the media. The same can be said of George W. Bush¿s reelection in 2004 with a Republican Senate, which set the stage for his appointment of two conservative Supreme Court justices, and of his party¿s loss of both houses of Congress in 2006, which roused legislative pressures to end U.S. involvement in Iraq.
	In this edition, we continue to tell the history of how the institution of the presidency was created and how it has developed during its more than two centuries of existence. We describe what has remained constant in the office, mostly because of its constitutional design. We also discuss those historical innovations that have endured.
	We are less concerned about describing either the cyclical patterns in the history of the presidency or what is idiosyncratic about particular presidents. Abraham Lincoln and Millard Fillmore receive a chapter and a few paragraphs, respectively, but more because of how they affected the presidency than because of the kinds of people they were. Similarly, although cycles of politics and policy are important aspects of presidential power, we believe that the institutional history of the presidency is a sufficiently important and neglected topic to merit a book all its own.
	Some readers may ask: how pertinent is the presidency¿s first century and a half to its most recent seventy-five years? The answers of many political scientists, at least until recently, have ranged from ¿hardly¿ to ¿not at all.¿ Students of the modern presidency typically mark 1933, the year of FDR¿s first inauguration, as year one of presidential history.
	Our argument--and our evidence--is different. Many of the most important institutional characteristics of the presidency date from the Constitutional Convention and the earliest days of the Republic, which we chronicle in Chapters 13. During the nineteenth century, highly significant patterns and practices of presidential conduct took shape; these we discuss in Chapters 47. As for the era of the modern presidency--that is, the era in which the president replaces Congress and the political parties as the leading instrument of popular rule--we trace its origins to Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson as much as to Franklin Roosevelt and his successors (Chapters 815). Put simply, TR and Wilson began the practices that strengthened the president as the nation¿s popular and legislative leader; FDR then consolidated, or institutionalized, the president¿s new leadership roles in ways that subsequent presidents have continued.
	This book is an interpretive political history of the presidency as well as a factual one. We have worked hard to get our facts straight and to make our interpretations sound. Research scholars, we think, will continue to be stimulated by much of what we report about the deep roots of modern American political institutions. Students will gain a solid undergirding for their study of the presidency, the Constitution, political development, and contemporary U.S. politics and government. We also hope that this book will find its home not only in reading rooms and classrooms but also in living rooms. After all, in a system of republican government such as ours, political history means our politics, our history.
	We take pleasure and pride in the friendship and colleagueship that underlie our continuing collaboration on The American Presidency. The book is truly a joint intellectual endeavor.
	We have many thanks to offer, not least to our wives and children, to whom this book is dedicated. Michael Ebeid of Boston University, Jasmine Farrier of the University of Louisville, and Roger Larocca of Oakland University reviewed the fourth edition and provided several suggestions for improvement. We are indebted to Jay Sulzmann for his excellent index. For their work or encouragement (or, in most instances, both) on previous editions, we thank these members of CQ Press¿s extraordinarily able staff: David Tarr, Joanne Daniels, Margaret Sewell, and Shana Wagger. For their work and encouragement on this edition, we thank Brenda Carter, director of college publishing; Charisse Kiino, sponsoring editor; Sabra Bissette Ledent, freelance manuscript editor; and Anne Stewart, production editor.
Sidney M. Milkis and Michael Nelson

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Presidents -- United States -- History.
Executive power -- United States -- History.
Constitutional history -- United States.
United States -- Politics and government.