Table of contents for Design of machinery : an introduction to the synthesis and analysis of mechanisms and machines / Robert L. Norton.

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	Preface to the Fourth Edition	
	 Chapter 1 Introduction
	 	 1.0 Purpose 
	 	 1.1 Kinematics and Kinetics 
	 	 1.2 Mechanisms and Machines 
	 	 1.3 A Brief History of Kinematics 
	 	 1.4 Applications of Kinematics 
	 	 1.5 The Design Process 
		 Design. invention, Creativity	
		 Identification of Need	
		 Background Research	
		 Goal Statement	
		 Performance Specifications	
		 Ideation and Invention	
		 Det ailed Design	
		 Prototyping and Testing	
	 	1.6 Other Approaches to Design	
		 Adomatic Design	
	 	 1.7 Multiple Solutions		
	 	 1.8 Human Factors Engineering		
	 	?1.9 The Engineering Report		
	 	 1,10 Units		
	 	 1.11 ADesignCaseStudy		
 	 Educating for Creativity in Engineering	
	 	 1.12 What?s to Come		
	 	 1.13 Resources With This Text		
	 	1.14 References 
	 	1.15 Bibliography 
Chapter 2 Kinematics Fundamentals 
		2 0 Introduction
		2.1 Degrees of Freedom (DOF ) or Mobility 
		2.2 Types of Motion		
		2.3 Links, Joints, and Kinematic Chains		
		2.4 Drawing Kinematic Diagrams		
 2.5 Determining Degree of Freedom or Mobility	
	 Degree of Freedom (Mobility) in Planar Mechanisms 
 Degree of Freedom (Mobility) in Spatial Mechanisms	
 2 6 Mechanisms and Structures
	2.7 Number Synthesis		
	2.8 Paradoxes		
	2.9 Isomers		
	2.10 Linkage Transformation		
	2.11 Intermittent Motion		
	2.12 Inversion		
	2.13 The Grashof Condition		
	 Classiñcation of The Foutbar Linkage	
	2.14 Linkages of More Than Four Bars		
	 Geared Fivebar Linkages	
	 Sixbor Linkages	
	 Grashof Type Rot atabi/ity Criteria for Higher Order 
	2.15 Springs as Links
	2.16 Compliant Mechanisms		
	2.17Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)		
	2.18 Practical Considerations		
	 Pin Joints versus Sliders and Half Joints	
	 Cantilever or Straddle Mount?
	 Short Links	
	 Bearing Ratio	
	 Commercial Slides	
	 Linkages versus Cams	
	2.19 Motor and Drives		
	 Electric Motors	
	 Air and Hydraulic Motors	
	 Air ad Hydraulic Cyllnders	
	2.20 References		
	2.21 Problems		
 3 Graphical Linkage Synthesis	
	3.0 Introduction		
	3.1 Synthesis		
	3.2 Function, Path, and Motion Generation		
	3.3 Limiting Conditions		
	3.4 Dimensional Synthesis		
	 Two-Position SynThesis	
	 Three-Position Synthesis wiTh Specified Moving Pivots	
	 Three-Position Synthesis with A!terna
e Moving Pivots	
	 Three Position Synthesis with SpecifI
d Fixed Pivots	
	 Position Synthesis for More Than Three Positions	
	3.5 Quick-Return Mechanisms		
	 Fourbar Quick-Return	
	 Sixbar Quick-Return	
	3.6 Coupler Curves	
	3.7 Cognates	
	 Parallel Motion	
	 Geared Fivebar Cognates of the Fourbar	
	3.8 Straight-Line Mechanisms		
	 Designing Optimum Straight-Line Fourbar Linkages	
	3.9 Dwell Mechanisms		
	 Single Dwell Linkages	
	 Double-Dwell Linkages	
	3.10 Other Useful Linkages		
	 Constant Velocity Piston Motion	
	 Large Angular Excursion Rocker Motion	
		 Remote Center Circular Motion	
		 3.11 References		
	 3.12 Bibliography		
 3.13 Problems		 
3.14 Projects		
Chapter 4 Position Analysis	
	4.0	Introduction		
	4.1	CoordInate systems		
	4.2	Position and Displacement		
		 Coordinate Transformation	
 4.3	Translation, Rotation, and Complex Motion		
		 Complex Motion	
	4.4	Graphical Position Analysis of Linkages		
	4.5	Algebraic Position Analysis of Linkages		
		 Vector Loop Representation of Linkages	
		 Complex Numbers as Vectors	
		 The Vector Loop Equation for a Fourbar Linkage	
	4.6	The Fourbar Slider-Crank Position Solution		
	 4,7	An Inverted Slider-Crank Position Solution		
	4.8	Linkages of More Than Four Bars		
		 The Geared Fivebar Linkage	
		 Sixbar Linkages	
	4.9	Position of any Point on a Linkage		
	4.10	Transmission Angles		
		 Extreme Values of the Transmission Angle	
	4.11	Toggle Positions		
	4.12	CIrcuits and Branches in Linkages	
	4.13	Newton-Raphson Solution Method		
		 One-Dimensional Root-Finding (Newton?s Method)	
		 Multidimensional Root-Finding (Newton-Raphson Method)	
		 Newton -Raphson Solution for The Fourbar Linkage	
		 Equation Solvers	
	4.14	References		
	4.15	Problems		
Chapter 5 Analytical Linkage Synthesis	
	5.0	Introduction	
	5.1	Types of Kinematic Synthesis		
	5.2	Two-Position Synthesis for Rocker Output		
	5.3	Precision Points		
	5 4	Two Position Motion Generation by Analytical Synthesis	
	5.5	Comparison of Analytical and Graphical Two-Position Synthesis	 
	5.6	Simultaneous Equation Solution	 
	?5 7	Three Position Motion Generation by Analytical Synthesis	 
	5 8	Comparison of Analytical and Graphical Three Position Synthesis	 
	59	Synthesis for a Specified Fixed Pivot Location	 
	5.10	Center-Point and Circle-Point Circles	,
 5 11 Four and Five Position Analytical Synthesis	
	5.12	Analytical Synthesis of a Path Generator with Prescribed 
	5 13	Analytical Synthesis of a Fourbar Function Generator	
 5.14	Other Linkage Synthesis Methods	
		 Precision Point Methods	
		 Coupler Curve Equation Methods	
		 Optimization Methods	
 5 15	 References	
 5 16 	Problems	
Chapter 6 Velocity Analysis	
	6.0	Introduction	
	6.1	Definition of Velocity	.
	6 2	Graphical Velocity Analysis	
	6.3	Instant Centers of Velocity	
	6.4	Velocity Analysis with Instant Centers	
		 Angular Velocity Ratio	
		 Mechanical Advantage	
		 Using Instant Centers in Linkage Design	
	6.5	Centrodes	
		 A ?Linkless? Linkage	
	6.6	Velocity of Slip	
	6.7	Analytical Solutions for Velocity Analysis	
		 The Fourbar Pin-Jointed Linkage	
		 The Fourbar Slider
		 The Fourbar Inverted Slider-Crank	
	6.8	VelocIty Analysis of the Geared Fivebar Linkage	
	6.9	Velocity of any Point on a Linkage	
	6.10	References	
	6.11	Problems	
Chapter 7 Acceleration Analysis	
	 7.0 Introduction	
	 7.1 Definition of Acceleration	
	7.2 Graphical Acceleration Analysis	
	7.3	Analytical Solutions for Acceleration Analysis	
		 The Fourbar Pin-Jointed Linkage	
		 The Fourbar Slider-Crank	
		 Coriolis Acceleration	
		 The Fourbar Inverted Slider-Crank	
	7.4	Acceleration Analysis of the Geared Fivebar Linkage	.
	7.5	Acceleration of any Point on a Linkage	
	7.o	Human Tolerance of Acceleration	
	7.7	Jerk	
	7.8	Linkages of N Bars	
	7.9	References	
	7.10	Problems	
	7.11	Virtual Laboratory	
Chapter 8 Cam Design	
	8 0	Introduction	
	8.1	Cam Terminology	
		 Type of Joint Closure	
	 Type of Follower	
		 Type of Cam	
		 Type of Motion Constraints	
		 Type of Motion Program	
	 8.2 V A J Diagrams	
	 8.3	 Double-Dwell Cam Design?Choosing S V A J Functions	
		 The Fundamental Law of Cam. Design	
		 Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)	
		 Cycloidal Displacement	
		 Combined Functions	
			 The SCCA Family of Double-Dwell Functions ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,	
		 Polynomial Functions	
		 Double-D well Appilcatlons of Polynomials	
 8.4 Single Dwell Cam Design?Choosing S V A J Functions	
	 Single Dwell Applications of Polynomials	
		 Effect of Asymmetry on the Rise-Fall Polynomial Solution	
	 8.5 CritIcal Path Motion (CPM)	
	 	 Polynomials Used for Cntical Path Motion	
	 8.6	 Sizing the Cam?Pressure Angle and Radius of Curvature	
		 Pressure Angle?Translating Roller Followers	
		 Choosing a Prime Circle Radius	
		 Overturning Moment?Translating Flat-Faced Follower	
		 Radius of Curvature?Translating Roller Follower	
		 Radius of Curvature?Translating Flat-Faced Follower	
	 8.7 Practical DesIgn Considerations	
		 Translating or Oscillating Follower??	
		 Force or Form-Closed??	
		 Radial or Axial Cam?	
		 Roller or Flat-Faced Follower??	
		 To Dwell or Not to Dwell??	
		 To Grind orNotto Grind??	
		 To Lubricate or Not to Lubricate??	
	 8.8 References	
	 8.9 Problems	
	 8.10 Virtual Laboratory	
	 8.11 Projects	
Chapter 9 Gear Trains	
	 9.0 IntroductIon		
	 9.1 Rolling Cylinders		
	 9.2 The Fundamental Law of Gearing		
		 The Involute Tooth Form	
		 Pressure Angle	
		 Changing Center Distance	
	 9.3 Gear Tooth Nomenclature		
	 9.4 Interference and Undercutting	 
 Unequal-Addendum TooTh Forms	. 
	 9.5 Contact Ratio	.
	 9.6 GearTypes	
 Spur, Helical, and Herringbone Gears	
 Worms and Worm Gears	
 Rack and Pinion	
 Bevel and Hypoid Gears	
 Noncircular Gears	
 Belt and Chain Drives	
 9.7 Simple Gear Trains	
 9.8	 Compound Gear Trains	
Design of Compound Trains	
Design of Reverted Compound Trains	
An Algonthm for The Design of Compound Gear Trains	
	9.9 Eplcyclic or Planetary Gear Trains	
The Tabular Method	
The Formula Method	
	9.10 Efficiency of GearTrains	
 	 9 11 TransmissIons	
	 9.12	 Differentials	
	 9 13 References	
	9.14	Bibliography	
	9.15	Problems	
Chapter 10 Dynamics Fundamentals	
	10.0	Introduction	
	10.1	Newtons Laws of Motion	
	10.2	Dynamic Models	
	10.3	Mass	
	10.4	Mass Moment and Center of Gravity	
	10.5	Mass Moment of Inertia (Second Moment of Mass)	
	10.6	Parallel Axis Theorem (Transfer Theorem)	
	10.7	DetermIning Mass Moment of Inertia	
		 Analytical MeThods	
		 Experimental Methods	
	10.8	Radius of Gyration	
	10.9	Modeling Rotating Links	
	10.10	Center of Percussion	
	10.11	Lumped Parameter Dynamic Models	
		 Spring Constant	
	10.12	EquIvalent Systems	
		 Combining Dampers	
		 Combining Springs	
		 Combining Masses	
		 Lever and Gear Ratios	
	10.13	Solution Methods	
	10.14	The PrincIple of d?Alembert	
	10.15	Energy Methods?Virtual Work	
	10.16	References	
	 10 17 Problems	
Chapter 11 Dynamic Force Analysis	
	11 0	Introduction	
	11.1	Newtonian Solution Method	
	11 2	SIngle Link in Pure Rotation	
	11 3	Force Analysis of A Threebar Crank Slide Linkage	
	11 4	Force Analysis of a Fourbar Linkage	
 11 5	Force Analysis of a Fourbar Slider Crank Linkage	
		 11.6	Force Analysis of the Inverted Slider-Crank	
	 11.7	Force Analysis?Linkages with More Than Four Bars	
	 11.8	Shaking Force and Shaking Moment	
	 11.9	Programs Fourbar, Fivebar, Slxbar, Slider	
	11.10	LInkage Force Analysis by Energy Methods	
	11.11	Controlling Input Torque?Flywheels	
	11.12	A Linkage Force Transmission index	
	11.13	Practical Considerations	
	11.14	References	
	11.15	Problems	
	11.16	VirtualLaboratory	
	11.17	Projects 
Chapter 12 Balancing	
	12.0	Introduction	
	12.1	StatIc Baiance	
	12.2	Dynamic Balance	
	12.3	Balancing Linkages	
		 Complete Force Balance of Linkages	
	12.4	Effect of Balancing on Shaking and Pin Forces	
	12.5	Effect of Balancing on input Torque	
	12.6	Balancing the Shaking Moment in Linkages	
	12.7	Measuring and Correcting imbalance	
	12.8	References	
	12.9	Problems	
	12.10	Virtual Laboratory	
Chapter 13 Engine Dynamics	
	13.0	IntroductIon	
	13.1	Engine Design	
	13.2	Slider-Crank Kinematics	
	13.3	Gas Force and Gas Torque	
	13.4	Equivalent Masses	
	13.5	Inertia and Shaking Forces	
	13.6	Inertia and Shaking Torques	
	13.7	Total Engine Torque	
	13.8	Flywheels	
	13.9	Pin Forces In the Single-Cylinder Engine	
	13.10	Balancing the Single-Cylinder Engine	
		 Effect of Crankshaft Balancing on Pin Forces	
	13.11	Design Trade-offs and Ratios	
		 Conrod/Crank Ratio	
		 Bore/Stroke Ratio	
	13.12	Bibliography	
	13.13	Problems	
	13.14	Projects	
Chapter 14 Mufticylinder Engines	
	14.0	Introduction	
	14.1	Multicyiinder Engine Designs	
 14.2 The Crank Phase Diagram	
	14.3	Shaking Forces in Inline Engines		
	14 4	Inertia Torque in Inline Engines		
	14.5	Shaking Moment in inline Engines		
	14.6	Even Firing		
		 Two-Stroke Cycle Engine	
		 Four-Stroke Cycle Engine	
	14 7	Vee Engine Configurations		
	14.8	Opposed Engine Configurations		
 14 9 Balancing Multicylinder Engines	
		 Secondary Balance in the Four Cylinder Inline Engine	
		 A Perfectly Balanced Two Cylinder Engine	
	14.10	References	
	14.11	Bibliography	
	14.12	Problems	
	14.13	Projects	
Chapter 15 Cam Dynamics	
	15.0	introduction	. 
	 15.1	Dynamic Force Analysis of the Force-Closed Cam-
		 Undamped Response	
		 Damped Response	
 15.2	Resonance	
	15.3	Kinetostatic Force Analysis of the Force-closed Cam- 
	15.4	Kinetostatic Force Analysis of the Form-Closed Cam- 
 15.5	Kinetostatic Camshaft Torque	
	15.6	MeasurIng Dynamic Forces and Accelerations	
	15.7	Practical Considerations	
	15.8	References	
	15.9	Bibliography	
	15.10	Problems	
	15.11	VIrtual Laboratory	
	Appendix A	Computer Programs	
	Appendix B	Material Properties	
	Appendix C	Geometric Properties. 
	Appendix D	Spring Data	
	Appendix E	Linkage Atlases	
	Appendix F	Answers to selected problems	
	DVD Catalog	

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Machine design.