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CONTENTS Preface to the Fourth Edition PART I KINEMATICS OF MECHANISMS Chapter 1 Introduction 1.0 Purpose 1.1 Kinematics and Kinetics 1.2 Mechanisms and Machines 1.3 A Brief History of Kinematics 1.4 Applications of Kinematics 1.5 The Design Process Design. invention, Creativity Identification of Need Background Research Goal Statement Performance Specifications Ideation and Invention Analysis Selection Det ailed Design Prototyping and Testing Production 1.6 Other Approaches to Design Adomatic Design 1.7 Multiple Solutions 1.8 Human Factors Engineering ?1.9 The Engineering Report 1,10 Units 1.11 ADesignCaseStudy Educating for Creativity in Engineering 1.12 What?s to Come 1.13 Resources With This Text Programs Videos 1.14 References 1.15 Bibliography Chapter 2 Kinematics Fundamentals 2 0 Introduction 2.1 Degrees of Freedom (DOF ) or Mobility 2.2 Types of Motion 2.3 Links, Joints, and Kinematic Chains 2.4 Drawing Kinematic Diagrams 2.5 Determining Degree of Freedom or Mobility Degree of Freedom (Mobility) in Planar Mechanisms Degree of Freedom (Mobility) in Spatial Mechanisms 2 6 Mechanisms and Structures 2.7 Number Synthesis 2.8 Paradoxes 2.9 Isomers 2.10 Linkage Transformation 2.11 Intermittent Motion 2.12 Inversion 2.13 The Grashof Condition Classiñcation of The Foutbar Linkage 2.14 Linkages of More Than Four Bars Geared Fivebar Linkages Sixbor Linkages Grashof Type Rot atabi/ity Criteria for Higher Order Linkages 2.15 Springs as Links 2.16 Compliant Mechanisms 2.17Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) 2.18 Practical Considerations Pin Joints versus Sliders and Half Joints Cantilever or Straddle Mount? Short Links Bearing Ratio Commercial Slides Linkages versus Cams 2.19 Motor and Drives Electric Motors Air and Hydraulic Motors Air ad Hydraulic Cyllnders Solenoids 2.20 References 2.21 Problems 3 Graphical Linkage Synthesis 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Synthesis 3.2 Function, Path, and Motion Generation 3.3 Limiting Conditions 3.4 Dimensional Synthesis Two-Position SynThesis Three-Position Synthesis wiTh Specified Moving Pivots Three-Position Synthesis with A!terna e Moving Pivots Three Position Synthesis with SpecifI d Fixed Pivots Position Synthesis for More Than Three Positions 3.5 Quick-Return Mechanisms Fourbar Quick-Return Sixbar Quick-Return 3.6 Coupler Curves 3.7 Cognates Parallel Motion Geared Fivebar Cognates of the Fourbar 3.8 Straight-Line Mechanisms Designing Optimum Straight-Line Fourbar Linkages 3.9 Dwell Mechanisms Single Dwell Linkages Double-Dwell Linkages 3.10 Other Useful Linkages Constant Velocity Piston Motion Large Angular Excursion Rocker Motion Remote Center Circular Motion 3.11 References 3.12 Bibliography 3.13 Problems 3.14 Projects Chapter 4 Position Analysis 4.0 Introduction 4.1 CoordInate systems 4.2 Position and Displacement Position Coordinate Transformation Displacement 4.3 Translation, Rotation, and Complex Motion Translation Rotation Complex Motion Theorems 4.4 Graphical Position Analysis of Linkages 4.5 Algebraic Position Analysis of Linkages Vector Loop Representation of Linkages Complex Numbers as Vectors The Vector Loop Equation for a Fourbar Linkage 4.6 The Fourbar Slider-Crank Position Solution 4,7 An Inverted Slider-Crank Position Solution 4.8 Linkages of More Than Four Bars The Geared Fivebar Linkage Sixbar Linkages 4.9 Position of any Point on a Linkage 4.10 Transmission Angles Extreme Values of the Transmission Angle 4.11 Toggle Positions 4.12 CIrcuits and Branches in Linkages 4.13 Newton-Raphson Solution Method One-Dimensional Root-Finding (Newton?s Method) Multidimensional Root-Finding (Newton-Raphson Method) Newton -Raphson Solution for The Fourbar Linkage Equation Solvers 4.14 References 4.15 Problems Chapter 5 Analytical Linkage Synthesis 5.0 Introduction 5.1 Types of Kinematic Synthesis 5.2 Two-Position Synthesis for Rocker Output 5.3 Precision Points 5 4 Two Position Motion Generation by Analytical Synthesis 5.5 Comparison of Analytical and Graphical Two-Position Synthesis 5.6 Simultaneous Equation Solution ?5 7 Three Position Motion Generation by Analytical Synthesis 5 8 Comparison of Analytical and Graphical Three Position Synthesis 59 Synthesis for a Specified Fixed Pivot Location 5.10 Center-Point and Circle-Point Circles , 5 11 Four and Five Position Analytical Synthesis 5.12 Analytical Synthesis of a Path Generator with Prescribed Timing 5 13 Analytical Synthesis of a Fourbar Function Generator 5.14 Other Linkage Synthesis Methods Precision Point Methods Coupler Curve Equation Methods Optimization Methods 5 15 References 5 16 Problems Chapter 6 Velocity Analysis 6.0 Introduction 6.1 Definition of Velocity . 6 2 Graphical Velocity Analysis 6.3 Instant Centers of Velocity 6.4 Velocity Analysis with Instant Centers Angular Velocity Ratio Mechanical Advantage Using Instant Centers in Linkage Design 6.5 Centrodes A ?Linkless? Linkage Cusps 6.6 Velocity of Slip 6.7 Analytical Solutions for Velocity Analysis The Fourbar Pin-Jointed Linkage The Fourbar Slider Crank The Fourbar Inverted Slider-Crank 6.8 VelocIty Analysis of the Geared Fivebar Linkage 6.9 Velocity of any Point on a Linkage 6.10 References 6.11 Problems Chapter 7 Acceleration Analysis 7.0 Introduction 7.1 Definition of Acceleration 7.2 Graphical Acceleration Analysis 7.3 Analytical Solutions for Acceleration Analysis The Fourbar Pin-Jointed Linkage The Fourbar Slider-Crank Coriolis Acceleration The Fourbar Inverted Slider-Crank 7.4 Acceleration Analysis of the Geared Fivebar Linkage . 7.5 Acceleration of any Point on a Linkage 7.o Human Tolerance of Acceleration 7.7 Jerk 7.8 Linkages of N Bars 7.9 References 7.10 Problems 7.11 Virtual Laboratory Chapter 8 Cam Design 8 0 Introduction 8.1 Cam Terminology Type of Joint Closure Type of Follower Type of Cam Type of Motion Constraints Type of Motion Program 8.2 V A J Diagrams 8.3 Double-Dwell Cam Design?Choosing S V A J Functions The Fundamental Law of Cam. Design Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) Cycloidal Displacement Combined Functions The SCCA Family of Double-Dwell Functions ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,, Polynomial Functions Double-D well Appilcatlons of Polynomials 8.4 Single Dwell Cam Design?Choosing S V A J Functions Single Dwell Applications of Polynomials Effect of Asymmetry on the Rise-Fall Polynomial Solution 8.5 CritIcal Path Motion (CPM) Polynomials Used for Cntical Path Motion 8.6 Sizing the Cam?Pressure Angle and Radius of Curvature Pressure Angle?Translating Roller Followers Choosing a Prime Circle Radius Overturning Moment?Translating Flat-Faced Follower Radius of Curvature?Translating Roller Follower Radius of Curvature?Translating Flat-Faced Follower 8.7 Practical DesIgn Considerations Translating or Oscillating Follower?? Force or Form-Closed?? Radial or Axial Cam? Roller or Flat-Faced Follower?? To Dwell or Not to Dwell?? To Grind orNotto Grind?? To Lubricate or Not to Lubricate?? 8.8 References 8.9 Problems 8.10 Virtual Laboratory 8.11 Projects Chapter 9 Gear Trains 9.0 IntroductIon 9.1 Rolling Cylinders 9.2 The Fundamental Law of Gearing The Involute Tooth Form Pressure Angle Changing Center Distance Backlash 9.3 Gear Tooth Nomenclature 9.4 Interference and Undercutting Unequal-Addendum TooTh Forms . 9.5 Contact Ratio . . 9.6 GearTypes Spur, Helical, and Herringbone Gears Worms and Worm Gears Rack and Pinion Bevel and Hypoid Gears Noncircular Gears Belt and Chain Drives 9.7 Simple Gear Trains 9.8 Compound Gear Trains Design of Compound Trains Design of Reverted Compound Trains An Algonthm for The Design of Compound Gear Trains 9.9 Eplcyclic or Planetary Gear Trains The Tabular Method The Formula Method 9.10 Efficiency of GearTrains 9 11 TransmissIons 9.12 Differentials 9 13 References 9.14 Bibliography 9.15 Problems PART II DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Chapter 10 Dynamics Fundamentals 10.0 Introduction 10.1 Newtons Laws of Motion 10.2 Dynamic Models 10.3 Mass 10.4 Mass Moment and Center of Gravity 10.5 Mass Moment of Inertia (Second Moment of Mass) 10.6 Parallel Axis Theorem (Transfer Theorem) 10.7 DetermIning Mass Moment of Inertia Analytical MeThods Experimental Methods 10.8 Radius of Gyration 10.9 Modeling Rotating Links 10.10 Center of Percussion 10.11 Lumped Parameter Dynamic Models Spring Constant Damping 10.12 EquIvalent Systems Combining Dampers Combining Springs Combining Masses Lever and Gear Ratios 10.13 Solution Methods 10.14 The PrincIple of d?Alembert 10.15 Energy Methods?Virtual Work 10.16 References 10 17 Problems Chapter 11 Dynamic Force Analysis 11 0 Introduction 11.1 Newtonian Solution Method 11 2 SIngle Link in Pure Rotation 11 3 Force Analysis of A Threebar Crank Slide Linkage 11 4 Force Analysis of a Fourbar Linkage 11 5 Force Analysis of a Fourbar Slider Crank Linkage 11.6 Force Analysis of the Inverted Slider-Crank 11.7 Force Analysis?Linkages with More Than Four Bars 11.8 Shaking Force and Shaking Moment 11.9 Programs Fourbar, Fivebar, Slxbar, Slider 11.10 LInkage Force Analysis by Energy Methods 11.11 Controlling Input Torque?Flywheels 11.12 A Linkage Force Transmission index 11.13 Practical Considerations 11.14 References 11.15 Problems 11.16 VirtualLaboratory 11.17 Projects Chapter 12 Balancing 12.0 Introduction 12.1 StatIc Baiance 12.2 Dynamic Balance 12.3 Balancing Linkages Complete Force Balance of Linkages 12.4 Effect of Balancing on Shaking and Pin Forces 12.5 Effect of Balancing on input Torque 12.6 Balancing the Shaking Moment in Linkages 12.7 Measuring and Correcting imbalance 12.8 References 12.9 Problems 12.10 Virtual Laboratory Chapter 13 Engine Dynamics 13.0 IntroductIon 13.1 Engine Design 13.2 Slider-Crank Kinematics 13.3 Gas Force and Gas Torque 13.4 Equivalent Masses 13.5 Inertia and Shaking Forces 13.6 Inertia and Shaking Torques 13.7 Total Engine Torque 13.8 Flywheels 13.9 Pin Forces In the Single-Cylinder Engine 13.10 Balancing the Single-Cylinder Engine Effect of Crankshaft Balancing on Pin Forces 13.11 Design Trade-offs and Ratios Conrod/Crank Ratio Bore/Stroke Ratio Materials 13.12 Bibliography 13.13 Problems 13.14 Projects Chapter 14 Mufticylinder Engines 14.0 Introduction 14.1 Multicyiinder Engine Designs 14.2 The Crank Phase Diagram 14.3 Shaking Forces in Inline Engines 14 4 Inertia Torque in Inline Engines 14.5 Shaking Moment in inline Engines 14.6 Even Firing Two-Stroke Cycle Engine Four-Stroke Cycle Engine 14 7 Vee Engine Configurations 14.8 Opposed Engine Configurations 14 9 Balancing Multicylinder Engines Secondary Balance in the Four Cylinder Inline Engine A Perfectly Balanced Two Cylinder Engine 14.10 References 14.11 Bibliography 14.12 Problems 14.13 Projects Chapter 15 Cam Dynamics 15.0 introduction . 15.1 Dynamic Force Analysis of the Force-Closed Cam- Follower Undamped Response Damped Response 15.2 Resonance 15.3 Kinetostatic Force Analysis of the Force-closed Cam- Follower 15.4 Kinetostatic Force Analysis of the Form-Closed Cam- Follower 15.5 Kinetostatic Camshaft Torque 15.6 MeasurIng Dynamic Forces and Accelerations 15.7 Practical Considerations 15.8 References 15.9 Bibliography 15.10 Problems 15.11 VIrtual Laboratory Appendix A Computer Programs Appendix B Material Properties Appendix C Geometric Properties. Appendix D Spring Data Appendix E Linkage Atlases Appendix F Answers to selected problems Index DVD Catalog

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Machine design.