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CONTENTS Preface ix Acknowledgments xi Introduction xii Part I. Plate Tectonics 1. General Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics 1 Physiography: Shape of the Surface of the Planet 2 Historical Development of the Plate Tectonics Theorem 4 Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930) 7 Alexander Logie Du Toit (1878-1948) 10 Plate Tectonics and the Hazardous Earth 14 How Plate Tectonics Works 15 Conclusion 19 2. Divergent Plate Boundaries 20 Divergent Plate Boundary Processes 20 Divergent Plate Boundaries in Continents 21 Kevin C. Burke (1929-) 23 Modes of Extension 25 Transition from Continental to Oceanic Rifting: The Afar Triangle 28 Divergent Plate Boundaries in the Oceans 30 Conclusion 35 3. Transform Plate Boundaries and Transform Faults 37 Transform Margin Processes 38 Transform Boundaries in the Continents 39 Tanya Atwater (19XX-) 43 Transform Boundaries in the Oceans 44 Conclusion 46 4. Convergent Margins 47 Convergent Plate Margin Processes 48 Southern Alaska's Convergent Margin 49 Arcs 51 Variations between Different Types of Convergent Margin Arcs 54 Collisions 59 The Tibetan Plateau 63 Conclusion 69 Part II. Earthquakes 71 5. Earthquakes 71 Areas at Risk for Significant Earthquakes in the United States 73 Origins of Earthquakes 79 Method of Locating Epicenters Using Three Intersecting Circles 82 Measuring Earthquakes 84 Earthquake Magnitude 86 Conclusion 89 6. Earthquake Hazards 90 Ground Motion 91 Ground Breaks 93 Mass Wasting 9 Liquefaction 95 Changes in Ground Level 96 Tsunami and Seiche Waves 97 Damage to Utilities (Fires, Broken Gas Mains, Transportation Network) 98 Conclusion 99 7. Earthquake Prediction, Preparation, and Response 101 Earthquake Statistics 101 Predicting Earthquakes 102 China's Liaoning Earthquake: Successful Earthquake Prediction 106 Seismic Hazard Zones and Risk Mapping 108 Paleoseismicity: Understanding Ancient Earthquakes 108 Architecture and Building Codes 111 Agencies that Deal with Earthquakes 112 Earthquake Responses 113 Utilities Infrastructure and Emergency Response 114 Earthquake Readiness 115 Conclusion 117 8. Descriptions of Earthquake Disasters 119 Earthquakes that Struck Convergent Margins 121 Earthquakes that Struck Transform Margins 137 Earthquakes that Struck Intraplate Regions and Divergent Margins 141 Conclusion 149 Summary 151 The Geological Timescale 154 Glossary 156 Further Reading and Web Sites 171 Index 182
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