Table of contents for Management of organizational behavior : leading human resources / Paul Hersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, Dewey E. Johnson.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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CONTENTS
Preface v
Acknowledgments ix
About the Authors xvii
CHAPTER 1 Management: An Applied Behavioral Sciences Approach 1 
The Purpose of Management 1 
The Impact of These Trends 3 
Organizations as Sources of Competitive Advantage 4 
The Challenges of Leading an Organization 4 
Distinctions between Management and Leadership 5 
Management Defined 5 
Leadership Defined 6 
Are Management and Leadership Really Necessary? 6 
Three Competencies of Leadership 7
Management Process 7
Skills of a Manager 9
Organizations as Social Systems 10
Ingredients for Effective Human Skills 11
Understanding Behavior 11 ¿ Predicting Behavior 12 ¿ Directing, 
Changing, and Influencing Behavior 12 ¿ Learning to Apply Behavioral 
Science Theory 12 
CHAPTER 2 Motivation and Behavior 15 
Theories of Behavior 15 
Goal-Oriented Behavior 16 ¿ Motives 17 ¿ Goals 17 
¿ Motive Strength 18 ¿ Changes in Motive Strength 18 
Categories of Activities 23
Motives, Goals, and Activities 24
Expectancy Theory 27
Availability 28
Hierarchy of Needs 30
Motivational Research 34
Physiological Needs 34 ¿ Safety Needs 35 ¿ Social Needs 37 
¿ Esteem Needs 39 ¿ Self-Actualization Needs 39 
CHAPTER 3 Motivating 45 
The Hawthorne Studies 45 
Elton Mayo 45 
Theory X and Theory Y 48 
Douglas McGregor 48 
Informal Work Groups 51 
George C. Homans 51 
Increasing Interpersonal Competence 52 
Chris Argyris 52 ¿ Argyris¿s Immaturity-Maturity Theory 53 
Motivation-Hygiene Theory 54 
Frederick Herzberg 54 ¿ Hygiene Factors 55 ¿ Motivators 56 
¿ The Relationship of Herzberg¿s Theory to Maslow¿s Theory 57 
¿ Job Enrichment 59 
CHAPTER 4 Leadership: An Initial Perspective 62 
Leadership Defined 62 
The Vision into Performance Model 63 
The ACHIEVE Model 70 
Background 70 
Using the ACHIEVE Model 72 
A¿Ability (Knowledge and Skills) 72 ¿ C¿Clarity (Understanding or 
Role Perception) 72 ¿ H¿Help (Organizational Support) 72 
¿ I¿Incentive (Motivation or Willingness) 72 ¿ E¿Evaluation 
(Coaching and Performance Feedback) 73 ¿ V¿Validity (Procedures, 
Practices, Rules, and Regulations) 73 ¿ E¿Environment 
(Environmental Fit) 74 ¿ Legacies of the Past 74 
Schools of Organizational Theory 74 
Scientific Management Movement¿Frederick Winslow Taylor 74 
¿ Human Relations Movement¿Elton Mayo 76 
Trait Approaches to Leadership 76 
Negative Leadership Traits 78 
Attitudinal Approaches 79 
Ohio State Leadership Studies 80 ¿ Michigan Leadership Studies 81 
¿ Group Dynamics Studies 81 ¿ Rensis Likert¿s Management Systems 82 
¿ Theory into Practice 87 ¿ The Leadership Grid®¿Robert R. Blake 
and Anne Adams McCanse 88 
Is There a Best Style of Leadership? 89
Preview 91
CHAPTER 5 Leadership: Situational Approaches 94 
Situational Approaches to Leadership 94 
Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum of Leader Behavior 95 ¿ Fiedler¿s 
Contingency Model 96 ¿ House-Mitchell Path-Goal Theory 97 
¿ Vroom-Yetton Contingency Model 100 ¿ Hersey-Blanchard 
Tridimensional Leader Effectiveness Model 104 ¿ Effectiveness 
Dimension 105 ¿ Instrumentation 107 ¿ What about 
Consistency? 108 ¿ Attitude versus Behavior 109 
CHAPTER 6 Determining Effectiveness 113 
Management Effectiveness versus Leadership Effectiveness 113 
Successful Leadership versus Effective Leadership 114 
What Determines Organizational Effectiveness? 118 
Causal Variables 118 ¿ Intervening Variables 118 ¿ Output, or End 
Result, Variables 118 ¿ Long-Term Goals versus Short-Term Goals 120 
¿ Organizational Dilemma 120 
Integration of Goals and Effectiveness 122 
Participation and Effectiveness 125 
Management by Objectives 125 
Style and Effectiveness 128 
CHAPTER 7 Situational Leadership 131 
Situational Leadership 132 
The Center for Leadership Studies 132 ¿ Basic Concept of Situational 
Leadership 132 ¿ Performance Readiness of the Followers or Group 134 
¿ Performance Readiness Defined 135 ¿ Going from R1 to R2 to R3 140 
Selecting Appropriate Styles 142 
Matching Performance Readiness Level 1 with Leadership Style 1¿Telling 142 
¿ Matching Performance Readiness Level 2 with Leadership Style 2¿ 
Selling 143 ¿ Matching Performance Readiness Level 3 with 
Leadership Style 3¿Participating 145 ¿ Matching Performance Readiness 
Level 4 with Leadership Style 4¿Delegating 146 ¿ Appropriate Leadership 
Styles 146 
Application of Situational Leadership 148 
Determining Appropriate Style 150 ¿ Effective Task Statements 151 
¿ Direction of Performance Readiness Change 152 ¿ Instruments to 
Measure Performance Readiness 153 ¿ Components of Leadership Style 155 
CHAPTER 8 Situational Leadership, Perception, and the 
Impact of Power 158 
Power Defined 158 
Position Power and Personal Power 159 
Selling within Your Own Organization 161 ¿ Additional Bases of 
Power 162 ¿ The Perception of Power 162 ¿ Get the 
Information Out 163 ¿ Performance Readiness, Styles, and Power 
Bases 163 ¿ Coercive Power¿The Perceived Ability to Provide Sanctions, 
Punishment, or Consequences for Not Performing 163 ¿ Connection 
Power¿The Perceived Association of the Leader with Influential Persons or 
Organizations 164 ¿ Reward Power¿The Perceived Ability to Provide 
Things That People Would Like to Have 164 ¿ Legitimate Power¿The 
Perception That It Is Appropriate for the Leader to Make Decisions because of 
Title, Role, or Position in the Organization 165 ¿ Referent Power¿The 
Perceived Attractiveness of Interacting with the Leader 165 ¿ Information 
Power¿The Perceived Access to, or Possession of, Useful Information 165 
¿ Expert Power¿The Perception That the Leader Has Relevant Education, 
Experience, and Expertise 166 
Is There a Best Type of Power? 166 
Power Bases and Performance Readiness Level 168 
Integrating Power Bases, Performance Readiness Level, and Leadership 
Style through Situational Leadership 168 
The Situational Use of Power 169 ¿ Developing Sources of Power 171 
¿ Sources of Power 171 ¿ Eroding Sources of Power 173 
¿ Willingness to Take a Power Role 174 ¿ Do You Want Power? 174 
Other Views on Differences between Men and Women Managers 175 
What about Empowerment? 175 
The Power Perception Profile 177 
Development of the Power Perception Profile 177 ¿ Uses of the Power 
Perception Profile 178 
CHAPTER 9 Situational Leadership: Training and Development 181 
Increasing Effectiveness 182 
Breaking the Ineffective Cycle 184 
Developmental Cycle 184 
What¿s in It for the Manager? 184 
What Do We Want to Influence? 185 ¿ How Is the Person Doing Now? 
186 ¿ Determining Performance Readiness 186 ¿ Increasing 
Performance Readiness 187 ¿ Successive Approximations 188 
¿ Time and the Developmental Cycle 192 
Changing Performance Readiness through Behavior Modification 193 
Positive Reinforcement 194 ¿ Individualizing Reinforcement 195 
¿ Schedule of Reinforcement 195 ¿ Consistency in Reinforcement 196 
CHAPTER 10 The Situational Leader and Constructive Discipline 197 
The Regressive Cycle 197 
Relationship between Ability and Willingness in the Developmental and 
Regressive Cycles 200 
Some Things to Remember When Disciplining an Individual 202 
Making the Intervention Timely 202 ¿ Varying the Emotional 
Level 203 ¿ Focusing on Performance 203 ¿ Be Specific; Do Your 
Homework 203 ¿ Keep It Private 204 ¿ Punishment and 
Negative Reinforcement 204 ¿ Extinction 206 ¿ When to Use 
Punishment or Extinction 207 ¿ An Example of Using Behavior 
Modification 207 
Problems and Their Ownership¿Who¿s Got the Problem? 208 
Problem Ownership and Situational Leadership 209 
Positive Discipline 211 
CHAPTER 11 Building Effective Relationships 213 
LEAD Instrumentation 213 
Leadership Style 214 ¿ Style Range, or Flexibility 214 ¿ Style 
Adaptability 215 ¿ Flexibility: A Question of Willingness 215 
¿ Is There Only One Appropriate Style? 216 ¿ Use of LEAD 
Instrumentation 217 
Johari Window 217 
Feedback 218 ¿ Disclosure 219 ¿ Self-Perception versus Style 219 
¿ Is It Too Late? 221 
LEAD Profiles 223 
Sample 223 ¿ Two-Style Profile 223 ¿ Wide Flexibility 224 
¿ Reference to Situational Leadership 224 ¿ Style Profile 1-2 224 
¿ Style Profile 1-3 225 ¿ Style Profile 1-4 227 ¿ Style Profile 2-3 229 
¿ Style Profile 2-4 230 ¿ Style Profile 3-4 231 ¿ Implications for 
Growth and Development 232 ¿ Team Building 233 ¿ Determining 
the Leadership Style of a Manager 234 
Contracting for Leadership Style 234 
Adding the Contracting Process 235 ¿ An Example¿Contracting for 
Leadership Styles in a School 235 ¿ Using the Performance Readiness 
Style Match 236 
CHAPTER 12 Effective Communication 241 
How Important Is Effective Communication? 241
Communication Models 243
The Linear Model 243 ¿ The Interactional Model of Communication 245 
¿ The Transactional Communication Model 246 ¿ Active Listening 250 
¿ Pacing . . . Then Leading 251 ¿ How to Test for Rapport 252 
Organizational Communication 253
Patterns of Communication 254
Is There a ¿Best¿ Pattern of Communication? 255
International Business Communication 257
CHAPTER 13 Leading Effective Teams 261 
Important Definitions 261 
Teams as a Competitive Strategy 264 
Obstacles to Effective Team Performance 265
Individuals and Teams 267
Leadership in a Team Environment 267
Team Problem-Solving Modes 271
Helping and Hindering Roles 272
S1 (HT/LR) Competency 274
Helping Role Category: Establishing 274 ¿ Establishing Indicators 274 
¿ Hindering Role Category: Aggressive 274 ¿ Aggressive Indicators 275 
¿ Games Played by Aggressive People 275 
S2 (HT/HR) Competency 275 
Helping Role Category: Persuading 275 ¿ Persuading Indicators 275 
¿ Hindering Role Category: Manipulative 276 ¿ Manipulative 
Indicators 276 ¿ Games Played by Manipulative People 276 
S3 (HR/LT) Competency 277 
Helping Role Category: Committing 277 ¿ Committing 
Indicators 277 ¿ Hindering Role Category: Dependent 277 
¿ Dependent Indicators 277 ¿ Games Played by Dependent People 278 
S4 (LR/LT) Competency 278 
Helping Role Category: Attending 278 ¿ Attending Indicators 278 
¿ Hindering Role Category: Avoidance 279 ¿ Avoidance 
Indicators 279 ¿ Games Played by Avoidance People 279 
Chapter 14 Implementing Situational Leadership: Managing People to Perform 282 
Organizational Performance 282 
Goals 285 ¿ Standards 285 ¿ Feedback 286 ¿ Means 286 
¿ Competence 286 ¿ Motive 286 ¿ Opportunity 286 
Improving Productivity (and Quality) 286 
360-Degree Assessment Process 288 
Pros 288 ¿ Cons 288 
The ACHIEVE Model 289 
Recap 289 
Performance Management 290 
Performance Planning 290 ¿ Coaching 291 ¿ Performance 
Review 291 
CHAPTER 15 Implementing Situational Leadership: Building 
Commitments 294 
Making Effective Decisions 294 
Decision Style 295 
Decision Making and Leader Latitude 297 
Building Commitments 298 
Commitment to the Customer 300 ¿ Commitment to the Organization 302 
¿ Commitment to Self 303 ¿ Commitment to People 304 
¿ Commitment to the Task 305 ¿ Managerial Excellence 305 
CHAPTER 16 Synthesizing Management Theory: Integrating Situational 
Leadership with the Classics 311 
Managerial Grid 311 
Likert¿s Causal, Intervening, and Output Variables, and Skinner¿s 
Theory 314 
Theories of McGregor, Likert, McClelland, Schein, and Argyris 316 
Maslow¿s Hierarchy of Needs 319 
Herzberg¿s Theory of Motivation 320 
Situational Leadership and Power Bases 321 
Parent Effectiveness Training (P.E.T.) 322 
Personality Theories 323 
Reflections and Conclusions 327 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Organizational behavior.
Management.
Leadership.