Table of contents for Electric power distribution system engineering / EDITOR, Turan Gáeonen.

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CONTENTS
PREFACE	
1	DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING AND AUTOMATION
1-1 	INTRODUCTION
1-2 	DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING
1-3 	FACTORS AFFECTING SYSTEM PLANNING
1-3-1 	Load Forecasting
1-3-2 	Substation Expansion
1-3-3 	Substation Site Selection
1-3-4	 Other Factors
1-4 	PRESENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING TECHNIQUES
1-5 	DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING MODELS
1-5-1 	Computer Applications
1-5-2 	New Expansion Planning
1-5-3 	Augmentation and Upgrades
1-5-4 	Operational Planning
1-5-5 	Benefits of Optimization Applications
1-6 	DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING IN THE FUTURE
1-6-1 	Economic Factors
1-6-2 	Demographic Factors
1-6-3 	Technological Factors
1-7 	FUTURE NATURE OF DISTRIBUTION PLANNING
1-7-1 	Increasing Importance of Good Planning
1-7-2 	Impacts of Load Management
1-7-3	Cost/Benefit Ratio for Innovation
1-7-4 	New Planning Tools
1-8 	THE CENTRAL ROLE OF THE COMPUTER IN DISTRIBUTION PLANNING
1-8-1 	The System Approach
1-8-2 	The Data-Base Concept
1-8-3 	New Automated Tools
1-9 	IMPACT OF DISPERSED STORAGE AND GENERATION
1-10 	DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AUTOMATION
1-10-1 	Distribution Automation and Control Functions
1-10-2 	The Level of Penetration of Distribution Automation
1-10-3 	Alternatives of Communication Systems
1-11 	SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
2	LOAD CHARACTERISTICS	
2-1 	BASIC DEFINITIONS
2-2 	THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LO D AND LOSS FACTORS
2-3	 MAXIMUM DIVERSIFIED DEMAND
2-4 	LOAD FORECASTING
2-5-1	Box-Jenkins Methodology
2-5-2 	Small-Area Load Forecasting
2-5-3 	Spatial Load Forecasting
2-6 	LOAD MANAGEMENT
2-7 	RATE STRUCTURE
2-7-1 	Customer Billing
2-7-2 	Fuel Cost Adjustment
2-8 	ELECTRIC METER TYPES
2-8-1 	Electronic Meters
2-8-2 	Reading Electric Meters
2-8-3 	Instantaneous Load Measurements Using Watthour Meters
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
3	APPLICATION OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS
3-1 	INTRODUCTION
3-2 	TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS
3-3 	REGULATION
3-4 	TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY
3-5 	TERMINAL OR LEAD MARKINGS
3-6 	TRANSFORMER POLARITY
3-7 	DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER LOADING GUIDES
3-8 	EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS OF A TRANSFORMER
3-9 	SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS 
3-9-1 	General
3-9-2 	Single-phase Transformer Paralleling
3-10 	THREE-PHASE CONNECTIONS
3-10-1 	The ?-? Transformer Connection
3-10-2 	The Open-? Open-? Transformer Connection
3-10-3 	The Y-Y Transformer Connection
3-10-4 	The Y-? Transformer Connection
3-10-5 	The Open-V Open-? Transformer Connection
3-10-6 	The ?-Y Transformer Connection
3-11 	THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS
3-12 	THE T OR SCOTT CONNECTION
3-13 	THE AUTOTRANSFORMER
3-14 	THE BOOSTER TRANSFORMERS
3-15 	AMORPHOUS METAL DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
4	DESIGN OF SUBTRANSMISSION LINES AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS
4-1 	INTRODUCTION
4-2 	SUBTRANSMISSION
4-2-1	 Subtransmission Line Costs
4-3 	DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS
4-3-1 	Substation Costs
4-4 	SUBSTATION BUS SCHEMES
4-5 	SUBSTATION LOCATION
4-6 	THE RATING OF A DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION
4-7 	GENERAL CASE: SUBSTATION SERVICE AREA WITH n PRIMARY FEEDERS
4-8 	COMPARISON OF THE FOUR- AND SIX-FEEDER PATTERNS
4-9 	DERIVATION OF THE K CONSTANT
4-10 	SUBSTATION APPLICATION CURVES
4-11 	INTERPRETATION OF THE PERCENT-VOLTAGE-DROP FORMULA
4-12 	SUPERVISORY DATA AND DATA ACQUISITION
4-13 	ADVANCED SCADA CONCEPTS
4-13-1 	Substation Controllers
4-14 	ADVANCED DEVELOPMENTS FOR INTEGRATED SUBSTATION AUTOMATION
4-15 	CAPABILITY OF FACILITIES
4-16 	SUBSTATION GROUNDING
4-16-1 	Electric Shock and Its Effects on Humans
4-16-2 	Ground Resistance
4-16-3 	Substation Grounding
4-17 	TRANSFORMER CLASSIFICATIONS
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
5	DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF PRIMARY SYSTEMS
5-1 	INTRODUCTION
5-2 	RADIAL-TYPE PRIMARY FEEDER
5-3 	LOOP-TYPE PRIMARY FEEDER
5-4 	PRIMARY NETWORK
5-5 	PRIMARY-FEEDER VOLTAGE LEVELS
5-6 	PRIMARY-FEEDER LOADING
5-7 	TIE LINES
5-8	DISTRIBUTION FEEDER EXIT: RECTANGULAR-TYPE DEVELOPMENT
5-9 	RADIAL-TYPE DEVELOPMENT
5-10 	RADIAL FEEDERS WITH UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD
5-11 	RADIAL FEEDERS WITH NONUNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD
5-12 	APPLICATION OF THE A, B, C, D GENERAL CIRCUIT CONSTANTS TO RADIAL FEEDERS
5-13 	THE DESIGN OF RADIAL PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
5-13-1 	Overhead Primaries
5-13-2 	Underground Residential Distribution
5-14 	PRIMARY SYSTEM COSTS
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
6	DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF SECONDARY SYSTEMS
6-1 	INTRODUCTION
6-2 	SECONDARY VOLTAGE LEVELS
6-3 	THE PRESENT DESIGN PRACTICE
6-4 	SECONDARY BANKING
6-5 	THE SECONDARY NETWORKS
6-5-1 	Secondary Mains
6-5-2 	Limiters
6-5-3 	Network Protectors
6-5-4 	High-Voltage Switch
6-5-5 	Network Transformers
6-5-6 	Transformer Application Factor
6-6 	SPOT NETWORKS
6-7 	ECONOMIC DESIGN OF SECONDARIES
6-7-1 	The Patterns and Some of the Variables
6-7-2 	Further Assumptions
6-7-3 	The General TAC Equation
6-7-4 	Illustrating the Assembly of Cost Data
6-7-5 	Illustrating the Estimation of Circuit Loading
6-7-6 	The Developed Total Annual Cost Equation
6-7-7 	Minimization of the Total Annual Costs
6-7-8 	Other Constraints
6-8 	UNBALANCED LOAD AND VOLTAGES
6-9 	SECONDARY SYSTEM COSTS
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
7	VOLTAGE-DROP AND POWER-LOSS CALCULATIONS
7-1 	THREE-PHASE BALANCED PRIMARY LINES
7-2 	NON-THREE-PHASE PRIMARY LINES
7-2-1 	Single-Phase Two-Wire Laterals with Ungrounded Neutral
7-2-2 	Single-Phase Two-Wire Unigrounded Laterals
7-2-3 	Single-Phase Two-Wire Laterals with Multigrounded Common Neutrals
7-2-4 	Two-Phase Plus Neutral (Open-Wye) Laterals
7-3 	FOUR-WIRE MULTIOROUNDED COMMON-NEUTRAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
7-4 	PERCENT POWER (OR COPPER) LOSS
7-5 	A METHOD TO ANALYZE DISTRIBUTION COSTS
7-5-1 	Annual Equivalent of Investment Cost
7-5-2 	Annual Equivalent of Energy Cost
7-5-3 	Annual Equivalent of Demand Cost
7-5-4 	Levelized Annual Cost
7-6 	ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF EQUIPMENT LOSSES
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
8	APPLICATION OF CAPACITORS TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
8-1 	BASIC DEFINITIONS
8-2 	POWER CAPACITORS
8-3 	EFFECTS OF SERIES AND SHUNT CAPACITORS
8-3-1 	Series Capacitors
8-3-2 	Shunt Capacitors
8-4 	POWER-FACTOR CORRECTION 
8-4-1 	General
8-4-2 	A Computerized Method to Determine the Economic Power Factor
8-5 	APPLICATION OF CAPACITORS
8-5-1 	Capacitor Installation Types
8-5-2 	Types of Controls for Switched Shunt Capacitors
8-5-3 	Types of Three-Phase Capacitor-Bank Connections
8-6 	ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION FOR CAPACITORS
8-6-1 	Benefits Due to Released Generation Capacity
8-6-2 	Benefits Due to Released Transmission Capacity
8-6-3 	Benefits Due to Released Distribution Substation Capacity
8-6-4 	Benefits Due to Reduced Energy Losses
8-6-5 	Benefits Due to Reduced Voltage Drops
8-6-6 	Benefits Due to Released Feeder Capacity
8-6-7	Financial Benefits Due to Voltage Improvement
8-6-8 	Total Financial Benefits Due to Capacitor Installations
8-7 	A PRACTICAL PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE E BEST CAPACITOR LOCATION
8-8	A MATHEMATICAL PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMUM CAPACITOR ALLOCATION
8-8-1 	Loss Reduction Due to Capacitor Allocation
8-8-2 	Optimum Location of a Capacitor Bank
8-8-3 	Energy Loss Reduction Due to Capacitors
8-8-4 	Relative Ratings of Multiple Fixed Capacitors
8-8-5 	General Savings Equation for Any Number of Fixed Capacitors
8-9 	CAPACITOR TANK-RUPTURE CONSIDERATIONS
8-10	DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
8-10-1 	Ferroresonance
8-10-2 	Harmonics on Distribution Systems
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
9	DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM VOLTAGE REGULATION
9-1 	BASIC DEFINITIONS
9-2 	QUALITY OF SERVICE AND VOLTAGE STANDARDS
9-3 	VOLTAGE CONTROL
9-4 	FEEDER VOLTAGE REGULATORS
9-5 	LINE-DROP COMPENSATION
9-6 	DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR AUTOMATION
9-6 	VOLTAGE FLUCTUATIONS
9-6-1 	A Shortcut Method to Calculate the Voltage Dips due to a Single-Phase Motor Start
9-6-2 	A Shortcut Method to Calculate the Voltage Dips due to a Three-Phase Motor Start
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
10	DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PROTECTION
10-1 	BASIC DEFINITIONS
10-2 	OVERCURRENT PROTECTION DEVICES
10-2-1 	Fuses
10-2-2 	Automatic Circuit Reclosers
10-2-3 	Automatic Line Sectionalizers
10-2-4 	Automatic Circuit Breakers
10-3 	OBJECTIVE OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PROTECTION
10-4 	COORDINATION OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES
10-5 	FUSE-TO-FUSE COORDINATION
10-6 	RECLOSER-TO-RECLOSER COORDINATION
10-7 	RECLOSER-TO-FUSE COORDINATION
10-8 	RECLOSER-TO-SUBSTATION TRANSFORMER HIGH-SIDE FUSE COORDINATION
10-9 	FUSE-TO-CIRCUIT-BREAKER COORDINATION
10-10 	RECLOSER-TO-CIRCUIT-BREAKER COORDINATION
10-11 	FAULT-CURRENT CALCULATIONS 
10-11-1 	Three-Phase Faults
10-11-2 	Line-to-Line Faults
10-11-3 	Single Line-to-Ground Faults
10-11-4 	Components of the Associated Impedance to the Fault
10-11-5 	Sequence-Impedance Tables for the Application of Symmetrical Components
10-12 	FAULT-CURRENT CALCULATIONS IN PER UNITS
10-13 	SECONDARY-SYSTEM FAULT-CURRENT CALCULATIONS
10-13-1 	Single-Phase 120/240-V Three-Wire Secondary Service
10-13-2 	Three-Phase 240/120- or 480/240-V Wye-Delta or Delta-Delta Four-Wire
 Secondary Service
10-13-3 	Three-Phase 240/120- or 480/240-V Open Wye Primary and Four-Wire Open-
Delta Secondary Service
10-13-4 	Three-Phase 208Y/120-V, 480Y/277-V, or 832Y/480-V Four-Wire Wye-Wye 
Secondary Service
10-14 	HIGH-IMPEDANCE FAULTS
10-15 	LIGHTNING PROTECTION
10-15-1 	A Brief Review of Lightning Phenomenon
10-15-2 	Lightning Surges
10-15-3	 Lightning Protection
10-15-4 	Basic Lightning Impulse Level (BIL)
10-16 	INSULATORS
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
11	DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RELIABILITY
11-1 	BASIC DEFINITIONS
11-2 	NATIONAL ELECTRIC RELIABILITY COUNCIL
11-3 	APPROPRIATE LEVELS OF DISTRIBUTION RELIABILITY
11-4 	BASIC RELIABILITY CONCEPTS AND MATHEMATICS
11-4-1 	The General Reliability Function
11-4-2 	Basic Single-Component Concepts
11-5 	SERIES SYSTEMS
11-5-1 	Unrepairable Components in Series
11-5-2 	Repairable Components in Series
11-6 	PARALLEL SYSTEMS
11-6-1 	Unrepairable Components in Parallel
11-6-2 	Repairable Components in Parallel 
11-7 	SERIES AND PARALLEL COMBINATIONS
11-8 	MARKOV PROCESSES 
11-8-1 	Chapman-Kolmogorov Equations
11-8-2 	Classification of States in Markov Chains
11-9 	DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE-TRANSITION MODEL TO DETERMINE THE STEADY-STATE PROBABILITIES
11-10 	DISTRIBUTION RELIABILITY INDICES
11-11 	SUSTAINED INTERRUPTION INDICES
11-11-1 	SAIFI
11-11-2 	SAIDI
11-11-3 	CAIDI
11-11-4 	CTAIDI
11-11-5 	CAIFI
11-11-6 	ASAI
11-11-7 	ASIFI
11-11-8 	ASIDI
11-11-9 	CEMIn
11-12 	OTHER INDICES (MOMENTARY)
11-12-1 	MAIFI
11-12-2 	MAIFIE 
11-12-3 	CEMSMIn 
11-13 	LOAD- AND ENERGY-BASED INDICES
11-13-1 	ENS
11-13-2 	AENS
11-13-3 	ACCI
11-14 	USAGE OF RELIABILITY INDICES
11-15 	BENEFITS OF RELIABILITY MODELING IN SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
11-15 	ECONOMICS OF RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
12	ELECTRIC POWER QUALITY
12-1 	BASIC DEFINITIONS
12-2 	DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC POWER QUALITY
12-3 	CLASSIFICATION OF POWER QUALITY
12-4 	TYPES OF DISTURBANCES
12-4-1 	HARMONIC DISTORTION
12-4-2 	CBEMA AND ITI CURVES
12-5 	MEASUREMENTS OF ELECTRIC POWER QUALITY
12-5-1 	RMS Voltage and Current
12-5-2 	Distribution Factors
12-5-3 	Active (Real) and Reactive Power
12-5-4 	Apparent Power
12-5-5 	Power Factor
12-5-6 	Current and Voltage Crest Factors
12-5-7 	Telephone Interference and the I·T Product
12-6 	POWER IN PASSIVE ELEMENTS
12-6-1 	Power in a Pure Resistance
12-6-2 	Power in a Pure Inductance
12-6-3 	Power in a Pure Capacitance
12-7 	HARMONIC DISTORTION LIMITS
12-7-1 	Voltage Distortion Limits
12-7-2 	Current Distortion Limits
12-8 	EFFECTS OF HARMONICS
12-9 	SOURCES OF HARMONICS
12-10 	DERATING TRANSFORMERS
12-10-1 	The K-Factor
12-10-2 	Transformer Derating
12-11 	NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR OVERLOADING
12-12 	CAPACITOR BANKS AND POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
12-13 	SHORT-CIRCUIT CAPACITY OR MVA
12-14 	SYSTEM RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS
12-14-1 	System Impedance
12-14-2 	Capacitor Impedance
12-15 	BUS VOLTAGE RISE AND RESONANCE
12.16 	HARMONIC AMPLIFICATION
12-17 	RESONANCE
12-17-1 	Series Resonance
12-17-2 	Parallel Resonance
12-17-3 	Effects of Harmonics on the Resonance
12-17-4 	Practical Examples of Resonance Circuits
12-18 	HARMONIC CONTOL SOLUTIONS
12-18-1 	Passive Filters 
12-18-2 	Active Filters
12-19 	HARMONIC FILTER DESIGN
12-19-1 	Series-Tuned Filters
12-19-2 	Second-Order Damped Filters
12-20 	LOAD MODELLING IN THE PRESENCE OF HARMONICS 
12-20-1 	Impedance in the Presence of Harmonics
12-20-2 	Skin Effect
12-20-3 	Load Models
PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
APPENDIX A	IMPEDANCE TABLES FOR LINES, TRANSFORMERS, AND UNDERGROUND CABLES
APPENDIX B	GRAPHIC SYMBOLS USED IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 
APPENDIX C	DESIGN THE PER-UNIT SYSTEM
APPENDIX D	GLOSSARY FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY
NOTATION
ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS
INDEX

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Electric power distribution.