Table of contents for Educational psychology : developing learners / Jeanne Ellis Ormrod.

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BRIEF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Educational Psychology and Teacher Decision Making	3
PART I DEVELOPMENT AND DIVERSITY
Chapter 2 Cognitive and Linguistic Development	21
Chapter 3 Personal and Social Development	63
Chapter 4 Group Differences	109
Chapter 5 Individual Differences and Special Educational Needs	147
PART II LEARNING AND MOTIVATION
Chapter 6 Learning and Cognitive Processes	191
Chapter 7 Knowledge Construction	231
Chapter 8 Higher-Level Cognitive Processes	265
Chapter 9 Behaviorist Views of Learning	305
Chapter 10 Social Cognitive Views of Learning	343
Chapter 11 Motivation and Affect	383
Chapter 12 Cognitive Factors in Motivation	415
PART III CLASSROOM STRATEGIES
Chapter 13 Instructional Strategies	451
Chapter 14 Creating a Productive Learning Environment	499
Chapter 15 Classroom Assessment Strategies	543
Chapter 16 Summarizing Student Achievement	593
Appendix A Describing Associations with Correlation Coefficients	A-1
Appendix B Answers to ¿Practice for Your Licensure Exam¿ Exercises	B-1
Appendix C Matching the Book to the Praxis Exam	C-1
Glossary	G-1
References	R-1
Name Index	N-1
Subject Index	S-1
CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Educational Psychology and Teacher Decision Making	3
Case Study: Starting High School 	4 
Teaching as Decision Making	5
Using Research in Classroom Decision Making	6
Drawing Conclusions from Research	8
Applying Psychological Theories in Classroom Decision Making	11
Importance of Regular Assessments in Classroom Decision Making	12
Accommodating Diversity in the Classroom	13
Developing as a Teacher	13
Strategies for Studying and Learning Effectively	16
The Big Picture	17
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: New Software	18
PART I DEVELOPMENT AND DIVERSITY
Chapter 2 Cognitive and Linguistic Development	21
Case Study: Economic Activities	21	
Basic Principles of Human Development	23	
Role of the Brain in Learning and Development	25	
Piaget¿s Theory of Cognitive Development	28	
Piaget¿s Basic Assumptions	29	
Piaget¿s Stages of Cognitive Development	31	
Current Perspectives on Piaget¿s Theory	36	
Vygotsky¿s Theory of Cognitive Development	38	
Vygotsky¿s Basic Assumptions	39	
Current Perspectives on Vygotsky¿s Theory	43	
Linguistic Development	49	
Theoretical Issues Regarding Linguistic Development	49
Trends in Linguistic Development	50	
Learning a Second Language	54	
Diversity in Cognitive and Linguistic Development	55	
Cultural and Ethnic Differences	56
Addressing the Unique Needs of English Language Learners	56
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	57		
The Big Picture	58
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: Stones Lesson	59
Chapter 3 Personal and Social Development	63
Case Study: Hidden Treasure	63
Personality Development	64
Temperament	64
Parents¿ Influences	66
Cultural Expectations and Socialization	68
Development of a Sense of Self	69
Factors Influencing Sense of Self	70
Developmental Changes in Sense of Self	72
Development of Peer Relationships and Interpersonal Understandings	76
Roles of Peers in Children¿s Development	77
Characteristics of Peer Relationships	79
Social Cognition	82
Aggression	87
Fostering Social Skills	89
Promoting Social Interaction Among Diverse Groups	90
Moral and Prosocial Development	92
Developmental Trends in Morality and Prosocial Behavior	92
Factors Affecting Moral Development	97
Encouraging Moral Behavior and Development in the Classroom	98
Diversity in Personal and Social Development	100
Cultural and Ethnic Differences	100
Gender Differences	101
Socioeconomic Differences	103
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	103
The Big Picture	103
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: The Scarlet Letter	104
Chapter 4 Group Differences	109
Case Study: Why Jack Wasn¿t in School	109
Keeping Group Differences in Perspective	110
Cultural and Ethnic Differences	111
Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School	112
Examples of Cultural and Ethnic Diversity	113
Creating a More Multicultural Classroom Environment	120
Gender Differences	124
Origins of Gender Differences	127
Socioeconomic Differences	132
Risk Factors Associated with Poverty	133
Fostering Resilience	136
Working with Homeless Students	137
Students at Risk	137
Characteristics of Students at Risk	138
Why Students Drop Out	139
Supporting Students at Risk	139
Remembering Within-Group Diversity	142
Group Differences and Special Needs	142
The Big Picture	142
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: The Active and the Passive	144
Chapter 5 Individual Differences and Special Educational Needs	147
Case Study: Tim	147
Keeping Individual Differences in Perspective	148
Intelligence	149
Theoretical Perspectives of Intelligence	149
Measuring Intelligence	154
Nature, Nurture, and Group Differences in Intelligence	159
Being ¿Smart¿ about Intelligence and IQ Scores	158
Cognitive Styles and Dispositions	159
Educating Students with Special Needs in General Education Classrooms	161
Public Law 94-142: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)	161
Is Inclusion in the Best Interest of Students?	163
Is Classifying Students Helpful?	164
Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties	165
Learning Disabilities	165
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)	169
Speech and Communication Disorders	170
General Recommendations	171
Students with Social or Behavioral Problems	172
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders	172
Autism Spectrum Disorders	174
General Recommendations	176
Students with General Delays in Cognitive and Social Functioning	177
Mental Retardation	177
Students with Physical and Sensory Challenges	178
Physical and Health Impairments	178
Visual Impairments	179
Hearing Loss	180
Severe and Multiple Disabilities	181
General Recommendations	182
Students with Advanced Cognitive Development	182
Giftedness	183
Considering Diversity When Identifying and Addressing Special Needs	185
The Big Picture	186
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: Quiet Amy	187
PART II LEARNING AND MOTIVATION
Chapter 6 Learning and Cognitive Processes	191
Case Study: Darren¿s Day at School	191
Looking at Learning from Different Perspectives	192
Basic Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology	193
Key Terms in Cognitive Psychology	196
A Model of Human Memory	198
The Nature of the Sensory Register	198
Moving Information to Working Memory: The Role of Attention	198
The Nature of Working (Short-Term) Memory	199
Moving Information to Long-Term Memory: Connecting New Information with Prior Knowledge 	201
The Nature of Long-Term Memory	202
Critiquing the Three-Component Model	202
Long-Term Memory Storage	203
How Declarative Knowledge Is Learned	204
How Procedural Knowledge Is Learned	214
Roles of Prior Knowledge in Long-Term Memory Storage	214
Using Mnemonics in the Absence of Relevant Prior Knowledge	216
Long-Term Memory Retrieval	217
Factors Affecting Retrieval	218
Why Learners Sometimes Forget	221
Giving Students Time to Process: Effects of Increasing Wait Time	222
Accommodating Diversity in Cognitive Processes	224
Facilitating Cognitive Processing in Students with Special Needs	226
The Big Picture	226
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: How Time Flies	227
Chapter 7 Knowledge Construction	231
Case Study: The New World	231
Constructive Processes in Learning and Memory	232
Construction in Storage	323
Construction in Retrieval	234
Knowledge Construction as a Social Process	235
Organizing Knowledge	237
Concepts	237
Schemas and Scripts	241
Theories	243
Worldviews	244
When Knowledge Construction Goes Awry: Origins and Effects of Misconceptions	245
Promoting Effective Knowledge Construction	247
Providing Opportunities for Experimentation	247
Presenting Experts¿ Perspectives	248
Emphasizing Conceptual Understanding	249
Promoting Classroom Dialogue	250
Assigning Authentic Activities	251
Scaffolding Theory Construction	253
Creating a Community of Learners	255	
The Challenge of Conceptual Change	257
Promoting Conceptual Change 	258
Diversity in Constructive Processes	260
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	261
The Big Picture	262
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: Vision Unit	262
Chapter 8 Higher-Level Cognitive Processes	265
Case Study: Taking Over	265
Metacognition and Learning Strategies	266
Effective Learning Strategies	268
Factors Affecting Strategy Use	274
Transfer	278
Factors Affecting Transfer	279
Problem Solving	283
Problem-Solving Strategies: Algorithms and Heuristics	285
Cognitive Factors Affecting Problem Solving	287
Using Computer Technology to Promote Problem Solving	290
Creativity	292
Fostering Creativity	293
Critical Thinking	295
Fostering Critical Thinking	297
Diversity in Higher-Level Cognitive Processes	297
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	298
The Big Picture	300
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: Interview with Emily	301
Chapter 9 Behaviorist Views of Learning	305
Case Study: The Attention Getter	305
Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism	306
Classical Conditioning	308
Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses	309
Common Phenomena in Classical Conditioning	311
Operant Conditioning	311
Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning	312
Reinforcement in the Classroom	313
Using Reinforcement Effectively	318
Shaping New Behaviors	322
Effects of Antecedent Stimuli and Responses	323
Reducing and Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors	326
Extinction	326
Cueing Inappropriate Behaviors	326
Reinforcing Incompatible Behaviors	327
Punishment	328
Addressing Especially Difficult Classroom Behaviors	332
Applied Behavior Analysis	332
Functional Analysis and Positive Behavioral Support	334
Diversity in Student Behaviors and Reactions to Consequences	336
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	336
Strengths and Potential Limitations of Behavioral Approaches	336
The Big Picture	338
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: Hostile Helen	339
Chapter 10 Social Cognitive Views of Learning	343
Case Study: Parlez-Vous Français?	343
Basic Assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory	344
The Social Cognitive View of Reinforcement and Punishment	346
Modeling	349
Behaviors That Can Be Learned Through Modeling	349
How Modeling Affects Behavior	351
Characteristics of Effective Models	352
Helping Students Learn from Models	353
Self-Efficacy	356
How Self-Efficacy Affects Behavior and Cognition	356
Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy	358
Teacher Self-Efficacy	361
Self-Regulation	362
Self-Regulated Behavior	364
Self-Regulated Learning	368
Self-Regulated Problem Solving	371
Revisiting Reciprocal Causation	373
Diversity from a Social Cognitive Perspective	375
Using Diverse Models to Promote Success and Self-Efficacy	375
Promoting Self-Regulation in Students at Risk	376
Supporting Students with Special Needs	377
The Big Picture	377
Comparing the Three Perspectives of Learning	378
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: Teacher¿s Lament	379
Chapter 11 Motivation and Affect	383
Case Study: Quick Draw	383
The Nature of Motivation	384
How Motivation Affects Learning and Behavior	384
Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation	385
Theoretical Perspectives of Motivation	386
Basic Human Needs	386
Arousal	386
Maslow¿s Hierarchy of Needs	388
Competence and Self-Worth	389
Self-Determination	391
Relatedness	395
Affect and Its Effects	398
How Affect Is Related to Learning and Cognition	398
Anxiety in the Classroom	400
Diversity in Motivation and Affect	406
Cultural and Ethnic Differences	407
Gender Differences	408
Socioeconomic Differences	408
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	408
The Big Picture	409
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: When ¿Perfect¿ Isn¿t Good Enough	411
Chapter 12 Cognitive Factors in Motivation	415
Case Study: Passing Algebra	415
The Interplay of Cognition and Motivation	416
Interest		417
Situational Versus Personal Interest	418
Promoting Interest in Classroom Subject Matter	419
Expectancies and Values	420
Internalizing the Values of Others	421
Fostering Expectancies and Values in the Classroom	421
Goals		422
Achievement Goals	422
Work-Avoidance Goals	426
Social Goals	427
Career Goals	427
Coordinating Multiple Goals	428
Attributions	430
How Attributions Influence Affect, Cognition, and Behavior	432
Developmental Trends in Attributions	433
Factors Influencing the Development of Attributions	434
Mastery Orientation Versus Learned Helplessness	436
Teacher Expectations and Attributions	437
How Teacher Expectations and Attributions Affect Students¿ Achievement	438
Forming Productive Expectations and Attributions for Student Performance	439
Diversity in the Cognitive Aspects of Motivation	442
Cultural and Ethnic Differences	442
Gender Differences	443
Socioeconomic Differences	444
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	446
The Big Picture	446
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: Writer¿s Block	447
PART III CLASSROOM STRATEGIES	
Chapter 13 Instructional Strategies	451
Case Study: Oregon Trail	451
Overview of Instructional Strategies	453
Planning for Instruction	454
Identifying the Goals of Instruction	454
Conducting a Task Analysis	457
Developing a Lesson Plan	460
Expository Approaches	461
Lectures and Textbooks	461
Mastery Learning	462
Direct Instruction	465
Computer-Based Instruction	466
Online Research	467
Hands-On and Practice Activities	468
Discovery Learning	468
In-Class Activities	470
Computer Simulations and Applications	472
Homework	473
Interactive and Collaborative Approaches	474
Teacher Questions	475
Class Discussions	476
Reciprocal Teaching	478
Cooperative Learning	480
Peer Tutoring	485
Technology-Based Collaborative Learning	488
Taking Student Diversity into Account	490
Considering Group Differences	490
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	491
The Big Picture	493
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: Cooperative Learning Project	493
Chapter 14 Creating a Productive Learning Environment	499
Case Study: A Contagious Situation	499
Creating a Setting Conducive to Learning	500
Arranging the Classroom	501
Establishing and Maintaining Productive Teacher-Student Relationships	502
Creating an Effective Psychological Climate	504
Setting Limits	507
Planning Activities That Keep Students on Task	510
Monitoring What Students Are Doing	513
Modifying Instructional Strategies	513
Taking Individual and Developmental Differences into Account	514
Dealing with Misbehaviors	515
Ignoring Behavior	515
Cueing a Student	517
Discussing a Problem Privately with a Student	518
Teaching Self-Regulation Strategies	519
Conferring with Parents	521
Conducting a Planned, Systematic Intervention	521
Addressing Aggression and Violence at School	523
A Three-Level Approach 	524
Gang-Related Problems	525
Taking Student Diversity into Account	527
Creating a Supportive Climate	527
Defining and Responding to Misbehaviors	528
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	529
Coordinating Efforts with Others	529
Working with Other Faculty Members	529
Working with the Community at Large	531
Working with Parents	531
The Big Picture	539
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: The Good Buddy	540
Chapter 15 Classroom Assessment Strategies	543
Case Study: The Math Test	543
Assessments as Tools	544
The Various Forms of Educational Assessment	545
Using Assessment for Different Purposes	546
Promoting Learning	547
Guiding Instructional Decision Making	548
Diagnosing Learning and Performance Problems	549
Promoting Self-Regulation	549
Determining What Students Have Learned	549
Important Qualities of Good Assessment	550
Reliability	550
Standardization	553
Validity	554	
Practicality	558
Informal Assessment	558
RSVP Characteristics of Informal Assessment	560
Paper-Pencil Assessment	561
Constructing the Assessment Instrument	562
Administering the Assessment	569
Scoring Students¿ Responses	570
RSVP Characteristics of Paper-Pencil Assessment	572
Performance Assessment	573
Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks	573
Planning and Administering the Assessment	575
Scoring Students¿ Responses	576
RSVP Characteristics of Performance Assessment	577
Including Students in the Assessment Process	580
Encouraging Risk Taking	583
Evaluating an Assessment Tool Through Item Analysis	583
Taking Student Diversity into Account in Classroom Assessments	584
Test Anxiety	585
Testwiseness	585
Accommodating Group Differences	586
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	588
The Big Picture	588
General Guidelines for Classroom Assessment	589
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: Pick and Choose	589
Chapter 16 Summarizing Student Achievement	593
Case Study: B in History	593
Revisiting Self-Regulation and the RSVP Characteristics	594
Summarizing the Results of a Single Assessment	594
Raw Scores	595
Criterion-Referenced Scores	595
Norm-Referenced Scores	596
Using Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Scores in the Classroom	599
Determining Final Class Grades	600
Considering Improvement, Effort, and Extra Credit	602
Choosing Criterion-Referenced or Norm-Referenced Grades	603
Including Students in the Grading Process	604
Using Portfolios	605
Standardized Tests	607
Types of Standardized Tests	608
Technology and Assessment	609
Guidelines for Choosing and Using Standardized Tests	610
Interpreting Standardized Test Scores	613
High-Stakes Testing and Accountability	614
The U.S. No Child Left Behind Act	615
Problems with High-Stakes Testing	616
Potential Solutions to the Problems	617
Taking Student Diversity into Account	618
Cultural Bias	619
Language Differences	620
Accommodating Students with Special Needs	620
Confidentiality and Communication About Assessment Results	621
Communicating Assessment Results to Students and Parents	623
The Big Picture	625
Practice for Your Licensure Exam: Can Johnny Read?	626
Appendix A Describing Associations with Correlation Coefficients		A-1
Appendix B Answers to ¿Practice for Your Licensure Exam¿ Exercises		B-1
Appendix C Matching Book and Ancillary Content to the Praxis® Principles of Learning and Teaching Tests 
 	C-1
Glossary	G-1
References	R-1
Name Index	N-1
Subject Index	S-1
SPECIAL TOPICS
Child and Adolescent Development
Case Study: Economic Activities 21
Basic Principles of Human Development 23
Role of the Brain in Learning and Development 25
Piaget¿s Theory of Cognitive Development 28
Piaget¿s Basic Assumptions 29
Piaget¿s Stages of Cognitive Development 31
Table 2.1: Compare/Contrast: Preoperational Versus Concrete Operational Thought 33
Table 2.2: Compare/Contrast: Concrete Operational Versus Formal Operational Thought 34
Current Perspectives on Piaget¿s Theory 36
Into the Classroom: Applying Piaget¿s Theory 39
Vygotsky¿s Theory of Cognitive Development 39
Vygotsky¿s Basic Assumptions 39
Current Perspectives on Vygotsky¿s Theory 43
Into the Classroom: Applying Vygotsky¿s Theory 43
Linguistic Development 49
Theoretical Issues Regarding Language Development 49
Trends in Language Development 49
Table 2.3: Developmental Trends: Examples of Linguistic Characteristics and Abilities at Different Grade Levels 
51
Learning a Second Language 54
Diversity in Cognitive and Linguistic Development 55
Accommodating Students with Special Needs 57
Table 2.4: Students in Inclusive Settings: Cognitive and Linguistic Development in Students with Special 
Educational Needs 58
The Big Picture 58
Accommodating Students¿ Diverse Temperaments 65
Parent¿s Influences 66
Cultural Expectations and Socialization 68
Development of a Sense of Self 69
Factors Influencing Sense of Self 70
Developmental Changes in Sense of Self 72
Erikson¿s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development 73
Table 3.1: Developmental Trends: Sense of Self at Different Grade Levels 77
Roles of Peers in Children¿s Development 77
Characteristics of Peer Relationships 79
Social Cognition 83
Table 3.2: Developmental Trends: Perspective Taking and Theory of Mind at Different Grade Levels 84
Fostering Social Skills 89
Promoting Social Interaction Among Diverse Groups 90
Moral and Prosocial Development 92
Developmental Trends in Morality and Prosocial Behavior 92
Table 3.4: Developmental Trends: Moral Reasoning and Prosocial Behavior at Different Grade Levels 93
Table 3.4: Compare/Contrast: Kohlberg¿s Three Levels and Six Stages of Moral Reasoning 96
Factors Affecting Moral Development 97
Encouraging Moral Behavior and Development in the Classroom 98
Into the Classroom: Promoting Moral and Prosocial Development 99
Diversity in Personal and Social Development 100
Cultural and Ethnic Differences 100
Gender Differences 101
Socioeconomic Differences 103
Table 3.6: Students in Inclusive Settings: Personal and Social Development in Students with Special Educational 
Needs 102
Accommodating Students with Special Needs 103
The Big Picture 103
Case Study: The Scarlet Letter 104
Origins of Gender Differences 127
Table 4.1: Developmental Trends: Gender-Related Characteristics at Different Grade Levels 128
Table 5.1: Developmental Trends: Intelligence and Its Measurement at Different Grade Levels 156
Table 7.1: Developmental Trends: Common Misunderstandings at Different Grade Levels 246
Table 8.1: Developmental Trends: Metacognition at Different Grade Levels 268
Table 9.2: Developmental Trends: Effective Reinforcers at Different Grade Levels 316
Factors in the Development of Self-Efficacy 359
Table 10.2: Developmental Trends: Self-Regulation at Different Grade Levels 363
Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation 385 
Relatedness 395
Making the Transition from Elementary School to Middle School or High School: A Multiple Whammy 402
Table 11.2: Developmental Trends: Affect at Different Grade Levels 403
Into the Classroom: Easing the Transition to Middle and Secondary School 405
Expectancies and Values 420
Situational Versus Personal Interest 418
Internalizing the Values of Others 421
Developmental Trends in Achievement Goals 425
Developmental Trends in Attributions 433
Factors Influencing the Development of Attributions 434
Table 12.2: Developmental Trends: Motivation at Different Grade Levels 435
Mastery Orientation Versus Learned Helplessness 436
Table 13.1: Developmental Trends: Examples of Indiana¿s State Standards for Reading Comprehension at Different 
Grade Levels 456
Taking Student Diversity into Account 490
Taking Individual and Developmental Differences into Account 514
Table 14.1: Developmental Trends: Effective Classroom Management at Different Grade Levels 516 
Table 15.1: Developmental Trends: Matching Assessment Tasks to the Indiana State Standards for Reading 
Comprehension at Different Grade Levels 555 
Guidelines for Choosing and Using Standardized Tests 610
Table 16.3: Developmental Trends: Characteristics Affecting Standardized Test Performance at Different Grade 
Levels 612
Classroom Management and Teacher-Student Relationships
Case Study: Hidden Treasure 63
Aggression 87
Fostering Social Skills 89
Creating a Productive Classroom Environment: Facilitating Productive Peer Relationships 89
Promoting Social Interaction Among Diverse Groups 90
Moral and Prosocial Development 98
Case Study: Why Jack Wasn¿t in School 109
Keeping Group Differences in Perspective 110
Creating a Multicultural Classroom 120
Fostering Resilience 136
Creating a Productive Classroom Environment: Encouraging and Supporting Students at Risk 140
General Recommendations for Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties 171
Students with Social or Behavioral Problems 172
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 172
Autism 174
General Recommendations for Students with Social or Behavioral Problems 176
Creating a Productive Classroom Environment: Encouraging Appropriate Behavior in Students with Social or 
Behavioral Problems 176 
Creating a Community of Learners 255
Case Study: The Attention Getter 305
Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses 309
Reinforcement in the Classroom 313
Table 9.2: Developmental Trends: Effective Reinforcers at Different Grade Levels 316 
Using Reinforcement Effectively 318
Shaping New Behaviors 322
Effects of Antecedent Stimuli and Responses 323
Creating a Productive Classroom Environment: Encouraging Productive Behaviors 325
Reducing and Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors 326
Extinction 326
Cuing Inappropriate Behaviors 326
Reinforcing Incompatible Behaviors 327
Punishment 328
Addressing Especially Difficult Classroom Behaviors 332
Creating a Productive Classroom Environment: Decreasing and Eliminating Undesirable Behaviors 333
Applied Behavior Analysis 332
Functional Analysis and Positive Behavioral Support 334
Diversity in Student Behaviors and Reactions to Consequences 336
Accommodating Students with Special Needs 336
Strengths and Potential Limitations of Behavioral Approaches 336
Table 9.4: Students in Inclusive Settings: Encouraging Appropriate Behaviors in Students with Special Educational 
Needs 337 
The Big Picture 338
Case Study: Hostile Helen 339
Nonoccurrence of Expected Consequences 348
Creating a Productive Classroom Environment: Administering Consequences from a Social Cognitive Perspective 
349
Self-Regulated Behavior 364
Self-Regulated Problem Solving 371
Relatedness 395
Creating a Productive Classroom Environment: Addressing Students¿ Social Needs 397
Keeping Students¿ Anxiety at a Facilitative Level 404
Table 11.3: Students in Inclusive Settings: Enhancing Motivation in Students with Special Educational Needs 410
Case Study: When ¿Perfect¿ Isn¿t Good Enough 411
Creating a Productive Classroom Environment: Promoting Intrinsic Motivation 429
Teacher Expectations and Attributions 437
How Teacher Expectations and Attributions Affect Student Achievement and Performance 438
Forming Productive Expectations and Attributions for Student Performance 439
Case Study: Writers Block 447
Class Discussions 476
Cooperative Learning 480
Case Study: Cooperative Learning Project 493
Case Study: A Contagious Situation 499
Creating an Environment Conducive to Learning 500
Arranging the Classroom 501
Establishing and Maintaining Productive Teacher-Student Relationships 502
Creating an Effective Psychological Climate 504
Setting Limits 507
Planning Activities That Keep Students on Task 510
Monitoring What Students Are Doing 513
Modifying Instructional Strategies 513
Creating a Productive Classroom Environment: Creating Conditions in Which Students Can Effectively Learn 514
Taking Individual and Developmental Differences into Account 514
Dealing with Misbehaviors 515
Ignoring Behavior 515
Table 14.1: Developmental Trends: Effective Classroom Management at Different Grade Levels 516
Cuing a Student 517
Discussing a Problem Privately with a Student 518
Teaching Self-Regulation Strategies 519
Conferring with Parents 521
Addressing Aggression and Violence in Schools 523
Table 14.2: Principles/Assumptions: Strategies for Dealing with Student Misbehavior 523
Taking Student Diversity into Account 527
Creating a Supportive Climate 527 
Defining and Responding to Misbehaviors 528
Accommodating Students with Special Needs 529
Coordinating Efforts with Others 529
Working with Other Faculty Members 529
Table 14.3: Students in Inclusive Settings: Maintaining a Productive Classroom Environment for Students with 
Special Educational Needs 530 
Working with the Community at Large 531
Working with Parents 531
Into the Classroom: Working Effectively with Parents 539
The Big Picture 539
Case Study: The Good Buddy 540
Case Study: The Math Test 543
Paper-Pencil Assessment 561
Planning and Administering the [Performance] Assessment 575
Table 15.4: Compare/Contrast: Keeping Students¿ Anxiety at a Facilitative Level During Classroom Assessments 
586
Cultural and Ethnic Differences
Learning a Second Language 54
Diversity in Cognitive and Linguistic Development 55 
Table 3.1: Compare/Contrast: Common Parenting Styles 67
Cultural Expectations and Socialization 68
Promoting Social Interaction Among Diverse Groups 90
Cultural and Ethnic Differences 100
Diversity in Personal and Social Development 100
Table 3.6: Students in Inclusive Settings: Personal and Social Development in Students with Special Educational 
Needs 102
Case Study: Why Jack Wasn¿t in School 109
Keeping Group Differences in Perspective 110
Cultural and Ethnic Differences 111
Navigating Different Cultures at Home and at School 112
Examples of Cultural and Ethnic Diversity 113
Creating a More Multicultural Classroom Environment 120
Group Differences and Special Needs 142
The Big Picture 142
Table 4.2: Students in Inclusive Settings: Considering Group Differences in Students with Special Education Needs 
 143
Case Study: The Active and the Passive 144
Considering Diversity When Identifying and Addressing Special Needs 185
Accommodating Diversity in Cognitive Process 224
Schemas and Scripts 241
Diversity in Constructive Processes 260
Considering Diversity in Higher-Level Cognitive Processes 297
Diversity in Student Behaviors and Reactions to Consequences 336 
Using Diverse Models to Promote Success and Self-Efficacy 375
Cultural and Ethnic Differences 407
Cultural and Ethnic Differences 442
Considering Group Differences 490
Creating a Supportive Climate 527
Defining and Responding to Misbehaviors 528
Getting Parents Involved in School Activities 534
Considering Group Differences When Working With Parents 539
Test Anxiety 584
Taking Student Diversity into Account in Classroom Assessment 584
Testwiseness 585
Table 15.6: Students in Inclusive Settings: Using Classroom Assessments with Students Who Have Special 
Educational Needs 587
Accommodating Group Differences 586
Cultural Bias 619
Language Differences 620
Low Socioeconomic Status and Students at Risk
Case Study: Hidden Treasure 63
Larger Social Groups 79
Aggression 87
Fostering Social Skills 89
Socioeconomic Differences 103
Risk Factors Associated with Poverty 133
Fostering Resilience 136
Working with Homeless Students 137
Students at Risk 137
Characteristics of Students at Risk 138
Why Students Drop Out 139
Supporting Students at Risk 139
Creating a Productive Classroom Environment: Encouraging and Supporting Students at Risk 140
Table 4.2: Students in Inclusive Settings: Considering Group Differences in Students with Special Educational 
Needs 143
Learning Disabilities 165
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 169
General Recommendations for Students with Specific Cognitive or Academic Difficulties 171
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 172
Autism Spectrum Disorders 174
Considering Diversity When Identifying and Addressing Special Needs 185
Case Study: The Attention Getter 305
Addressing Especially Difficult Classroom Behaviors 332
Applied Behavior Analysis 332
Functional Analysis and Positive Behavioral Support 334
Case Study: Hostile Helen 339
Reciprocal Causation 373
Promoting Self-Regulation in Students at Risk 376
Socioeconomic Differences 408
Socioeconomic Differences 444
Addressing Aggression and Violence at School 523
Taking Student Diversity into Account 527
Creating a Supportive Climate 527
Working with Other Faculty Members 529
Encouraging Reluctant Parents 535
Discussing Problem Behaviors with Parents 536
Test Anxiety 584
Accommodating Group Differences 586

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Educational psychology.
Teaching.
Learning.
Classroom management.