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Contents Preface Abbreviations used in this book Greek letters used in this book Diagrams 1 Viruses and their importance Viruses and their importance at a glance 1.1 Viruses are ubiquitous on Earth 1.2 Reasons for studying viruses 1.3 The nature of viruses 1.4 The remainder of the book 1.5 Learning outcomes 1.6 Sources of further information 2 Methods used in virology Methods used in virology at a glance 2.1 Introduction to methods used in virology 2.2 Cultivation of viruses 2.3 Isolation of viruses 2.4 Centrifugation 2.5 Structural investigations of cells and virions 2.6 Electrophoretic techniques 2.7 Detection of viruses and virus components 2.8 Infectivity assays 2.9 Virus genetics 2.10 Learning outcomes 2.11 Sources of further information 3 Virus structure Virus structure at a glance 3.1 Introduction to virus structure 3.2 Virus genomes 3.3 Virus proteins 3.4 Capsids 3.5 Virion membranes 3.6 Occlusion bodies 3.7 Other virion components 3.8 Learning outcomes 3.9 Sources of further information 4 Virus transmission Virus transmission at a glance 4.1 Introduction to virus transmission 4.2 Transmission of plant viruses 4.3 Transmission of vertebrate viruses 4.4 Transmission of invertebrate viruses 4.5 Permissive cells 4.6 Learning outcomes 4.7 Sources of further information 5 Attachment and entry of viruses into cells Attachment and entry of viruses into cells at a glance 5.1 Overview of virus replication 5.2 Animal viruses 5.3 Bacteriophages 5.4 Learning outcomes 5.5 Sources of further information 6 Transcription, translation and transport Transcription, translation and transport at a glance 6.1 Introduction to transcription, translation and transport 6.2 Transcription of virus genomes 6.3 Transcription in eukaryotes 6.4 Translation in eukaryotes 6.5 Transport in eukaryotic cells 6.6 Transcription and translation in bacteria 6.7 Learning objectives 6.8 Sources of further information 7 Virus genome replication Virus genome replication at a glance 7.1 Overview of virus genome replication 7.2 Locations of virus genome replication in eukaryotic cells 7.3 Initiation of genome replication 7.4 Polymerases 7.5 DNA replication 7.6 Double-stranded RNA replication 7.7 Single-stranded RNA replication 7.8 Reverse transcription 7.9 Learning outcomes 7.10 Sources of further information 8 Assembly and exit of virions from cells Assembly and exit of virions from cells at a glance 8.1 Introduction to assembly and exit of virions from cells 8.2 Nucleocapsid assembly 8.3 Formation of virion membranes 8.4 Virion exit from the infected cell 8.5 Learning outcomes 8.6 Sources of further information 9 Outcomes of infection for the host Outcomes of infection for the host at a glance 9.1 Introduction to outcomes of infection for the host 9.2 Factors affecting outcomes of infection 9.3 Non-productive infections 9.4 Productive infections 9.5 Learning outcomes 9.6 Sources of further information 10 Classification and nomenclature of viruses Classification and nomenclature of viruses at a glance 10.1 History of virus classification and nomenclature 10.2 Modern virus classification and nomenclature 10.3 Baltimore classification of viruses 10.4 Learning outcomes 10.5 Sources of further information 11 Herpesviruses (and other dsDNA viruses) Herpesviruses at a glance 11.1 Introduction to herpesviruses 11.2 The human herpesviruses 11.3 The herpesvirus virion 11.4 HSV-1 genome organization 11.5 HSV-1 replication 11.6 Latent herpesvirus infection 11.7 Other dsDNA viruses 11.8 Learning outcomes 11.9 Sources of further information 12 Parvoviruses (and other ssDNA viruses) Parvoviruses at a glance 12.1 Introduction to parvoviruses 12.2 Examples of parvoviruses 12.3 Parvovirus virion 12.4 Parvovirus replication 12.5 Other ssDNA viruses 12.6 Learning outcomes 12.7 Sources of further information 13 Reoviruses (and other dsRNA viruses) Reoviruses at a glance 13.1 Introduction to reoviruses 13.2 Rotavirus virion 13.3 Rotavirus replication 13.4 Other dsRNA viruses 13.5 Learning outcomes 13.6 Sources of further information 14 Picornaviruses (and other plus-strand RNA viruses) Picornaviruses at a glance 14.1 Introduction to picornaviruses 14.2 Some important picornaviruses 14.3 The picornavirus virion 14.4 Picornavirus replication 14.5 Picornavirus recombination 14.6 Picornavirus experimental systems 14.7 Other plus-strand RNA viruses 14.8 Learning outcomes 14.9 Sources of further information 15 Rhabdoviruses (and other minus-strand RNA viruses) Rhabdoviruses at a glance 15.1 Introduction to rhabdoviruses 15.2 Some important rhabdoviruses 15.3 The rhabdovirus virion and genome organization 15.4 Rhabdovirus replication 15.5 Other minus-strand RNA viruses 15.6 Viruses with ambisense genomes 15.7 Reverse genetics 15.8 Learning outcomes 15.9 Sources of further information 16 Retroviruses Retroviruses at a glance 16.1 Introduction to retroviruses 16.2 Retrovirus virion 16.3 Retrovirus replication 16.4 Examples of retroviruses 16.5 Retroviruses as gene vectors 16.6 Endogenous retroviruses 16.7 Learning outcomes 16.8 Sources of further information 17 Human immunodeficiency viruses Human immunodeficiency viruses at a glance 17.1 Introduction to HIV 17.2 HIV virion 17.3 HIV genome 17.4 HIV-1 replication 17.5 HIV-1 variability 17.6 Progression of HIV infection 17.7 Prevention of HIV transmission 17.8 Learning outcomes 17.9 Sources of further information 18 Hepadnaviruses (and other reverse-transcribing DNA viruses) Hepadnaviruses at a glance 18.1 Introduction to hepadnaviruses 18.2 Importance of HBV 18.3 HBV virion 18.4 Non-infectious particles 18.5 Soluble virus protein 18.6 HBV genome 18.7 HBV genetic groups 18.8 HBV replication cycle 18.9 Prevention and treatment of HBV infection 18.10 Other reverse-transcribing DNA viruses 18.11 Learning objectives 18.12 Sources of further information 19 Bacterial viruses Bacterial viruses at a glance 19.1 Introduction to bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) RNA PHAGES 19.2 Single-stranded RNA phages 19.3 Double-stranded RNA phages DNA PHAGES 19.4 Single-stranded DNA phages 19.5 Double-stranded DNA phages 19.6 Learning outcomes 19.7 Sources of further information 20 Origins and evolution of viruses Origins and evolution of viruses at a glance 21.1 Introduction to origins and evolution of viruses 20.2 Origins of viruses 20.3 Evolution of viruses 20.4 Learning outcomes 20.5 Sources of further information 21 Emerging viruses Emerging viruses at a glance 21.1 Introduction to emerging viruses 21.2 Viruses in new host species 21.3 Viruses in new areas 21.4 Viruses in new host species and in new areas 21.5 New viruses 21.6 Recently discovered virus 21.7 Re-emerging viruses 21.8 Virus surveillance 21.9 Dealing with outbreaks 21.10 Learning outcomes 21.11 Sources of further information 22 Viruses and cancer Viruses and cancer at a glance 22.1 Introduction to viruses and cancer 22.2 Papillomavirus-linked cancers 22.3 Polyomavirus-linked cancers 22.4 Epstein-Barr virus-linked cancers 22.5 Kaposi?s sarcoma 22.6 Adult T cell leukaemia 22.7 Hepatocellular carcinoma 22.8 Virus-associated cancers in animals 22.9 Cell lines derived from virus-associated cancers 22.10 How do viruses cause cancer? 22.11 Prevention of virus-induced cancers 22.12 Learning outcomes 22.13 Sources of further information 23 Survival of infectivity Survival of infectivity at a glance 23.1 Preservation of virus infectivity 23.2 Destruction of virus infectivity 23.3 Inactivation targets in virions 23.4 Inactivation kinetics 23.5 Agents that inactivate virus infectivity 23.6 Learning outcomes 23.7 Sources of further information 24 Virus vaccines Virus vaccines at a glance 24.1 Introduction to virus vaccines 24.2 Live attenuated virus vaccines 24.3 Inactivated virus vaccines 24.4 Virion subunit vaccines 24.5 Live recombinant virus vaccines 24.6 Mass production of viruses for vaccines 24.7 Virus-like particles 24.8 Synthetic peptide vaccines 24.9 DNA vaccines 24.10 Storage and transport of vaccines 24.11 Learning outcomes 24.12 Sources of further information 25 Anti-viral drugs Anti-viral drugs at a glance 25.1 Introduction to anti-viral drugs 25.2 Development of anti-viral drugs 25.3 Examples of anti-viral drugs 25.4 Drug resistance 25.5 Anti-viral drug research 25.6 Learning outcomes 25.7 Sources of further information 26 Prions Prions at a glance 26.1 Introduction to prions 26.2 Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies 26.3 The nature of prions 26.4 Prion diseases 26.5 Prion strains 26.6 Prion transmission 26.7 The protein-only hypothesis 26.8 Learning outcomes 26.9 Sources of further information Virologists? vocabulary Index
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