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Contents Preface Acknowledgments Introduction Historical Claims Puzzles and Cautions The Priority of Public Monitoring Variations among States Variations within States National Styles of Stealth Torture Torture and Democracy Does Torture Work? Who Cares? Part I Torture and Democracy Chapter 1. Modern Torture and Its Observers Defining Torture Monitoring Torture Chapter 2. Torture and Democracy The National Security Model The Juridical Model The Civic Discipline Model Hell Is in the Details Part II Remembering Stalinism and Nazism Introduction Chapter 3 Lights, Heat, and Sweat Sweating and Stealth in America British Psychological Techniques Interrogation Elsewhere in Europe Sweating and Stealth in Russia The Spread of the Russian Style Remembering Pavlov Chapter 4 Whips and Water Labussiere's List Documenting Nazi Torture Torture in Germany Torture in Nazi-Occupied Europe Remembering the War Chapter 5 Bathtubs Masuy's Bathtub Marty's Magneto The French Gestapo and Electric Torture The Decline of Sweating and Stealth The German Gestapo and Modern Torture Remembering Nuremberg The Search for Electric Torture Part III A History of Electric Stealth Chapter 6 Shock The AC/DC Controversy and the Electric Chair The Mystery of Electric Death Early Police Devices The Mystery of Shock Early Medical Devices Transmitting Shock Later Medical Devices Remembering the Animals Chapter 7 Magnetos What Is a Magneto? Indochina, 1931 Out of Indochina Korea, 1931 Out of Korea The Lost History of the Magneto French and British Electrotorture after World War II The Colonial Police and Wuillaume's List The Triumph of the Gegene Algeria, 1960 Remembering the Gestapo Chapter 8 Currents South Vietnamese Torture Vietnam, 1968 Bell Telephone Hour Out of Vietnam Again Variation within the French Style Cattle Prods The Electric Cornucopia Remembering Vietnam Chapter 9 Singing the World Electric When Electrotorture Was New Explaining Clean Electrotorture Crafting Electrotorture Surging Forward The Americas Middle East and North Africa Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Europe and Central Asia Explaining the Surge Remembering the Cold War Chapter 10 Prods, Tasers, and Stun Guns Electric Utopia Electric-Free Protest Stun Technology Covering America Remembering Eutopia Chapter 11 Stun City Magneto Torture in Chicago Stun and Torture Tasers and Torture Burning Issues Stun and Democracy But No One Died Civic Shock Welcome to Stun City Part IV Other Stealth Traditions Introduction Chapter 12 Sticks and Bones Clean Whipping Paddles Beating Feet Remembering Slaves and Sailors Chapter 13 Water, Sleep, and Spice Pumping Choking Showers and Ice Salt and Spice Deprivation of Sleep Remembering the Inquisition Chapter 14 Stress and Duress Great and Lesser Stress Traditions British Stress Tortures French Stress Tortures American Stress Tortures Authoritarian Adaptations Remembering the Eighteenth Century Chapter 15 Forced Standing and Other Positions Old Users after the War Positional Tortures in the Communist World Positional Tortures in the Non-Communist World The Universal Distributor Hypothesis Revisited Remembering the Hooded Men Chapter 16 Fists and Exercises Clean Beating Adapting "the Necktie" Exhaustion Exercises Remembering the Grunts and the Cops Chapter 17 Old and New Restraints Bucking (the Parrot's Perch) The Crapaudine Standing Handcuffs Sweatboxes Adapting Old Restraints The Shabeh Remembering the Allied POWs Chapter 18 Noise Low-Technology Noise High-Technology Noise The CIA and Sensory Deprivation Boxes Beyond the Laboratory Principles and Guinea pigs Remembering Evil Chapter 19 Drugs and Doctors Police and Drugs The CIA and Drugs The Decline of Pharmacological Torture Soviet Pharmacological Torture Communist Pyschoprisons Lines of Defense Remembering the Prison Doctors Part V Politics and Memory Chapter 20 Supply and Demand for Clean Torture Historical Claims The Priority of Public Monitoring Variations among and within States National Styles of Stealth Torture The Strength of Low Technology The Power of Whispers Why Styles Change Disciplinary Interventions The Demand for Torture Chapter 21 Does Torture Work? Can Torture Be Scientific? Can Torture Be Restrained? Does Technology Help? Can Torture Be Professionally Conducted? Works Better Than What? Is Anything Better Than Nothing? How Well Do Interrogators Spot the Truth? How Well Do Cooperative Prisoners Remember? How Good Is the Intelligence Overall? Even When Time Is Short? Remembering the Questions Chapter 22 What the Apologists Say Remembering the Battle of Algiers Information in the Battle of Algiers French Interrogation Units Coerced Information in the Algerian War Saving Innocents, Losing Wars Gestapo Stories Stories from the Resistance CIA Stories The Interrogation of Al Qaeda Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Afghanistan Testimonial Literature from Other Conflicts Remembering Abu Ghraib Chapter 23 Why Governments Don't Learn How Knowledge Does Not Accumulate How Knowledge Is Not Analyzed How Torture Warrants Might Help Regulating Torture Variations in Regulative Failure Stealth and the Regulation of Torture How Knowledge Does Not Matter Remembering the Soldiers Chapter 24 The Great Age of Torture in Modern Memory The Great Rift The Architecture of Amnesia The Designs of Genius Demons in the City Algerian Souvenirs Caring for the Memories Appendix A A List of Clean Tortures Appendix B Issues of Method Appendix C Organization and Explanations Appendix D A Note on Sources for American Torture during the Vietnam War Selected Bibliography Notes Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Torture -- Government policy.