Table of contents for Microelectronic applications of chemical mechanical planarization / edited by Yuzhuo Li.

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Microelectronic Applications of Chemical Mechanical Planarization
Yuzhuo Li
Chapter1. Why CMP?
Yuzhuo Li
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Preparation of Planar Surface
1.2.1 Multi-level Metallization and the need for planarization
1.2.2 Degrees of Planarization
1.2.3 Methods of Planarization
1.2.4 Chemical and Mechanical Planarization of Dielectric Films
1.2.5 Preparation of planar thin films for non-IC applications using CMP
1.3 Formation of Functional Microstructures
1.3.1 RC Delay and New Interconnect Materials
1.3.2 Damascene and Dual Damascene
1.3.3 Tungsten CMP
1.3.4 STI
1.4 CMP to correct defects
1.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of CMP
1.6 Conclusion
Chapter 2 Existing and Future Challenges in CMP Materials
Mansour Moinpour
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Historic prospective and future trends
2.3 CMP Materials Characterizations
2.3.1 Thermal Effects
2.3.2 Slurry Rheology Studies
2.3.3 Slurry-Pad Intersctions
2.3.4. Pad Groove Effects
2.3.5 Dynamic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (DNMR)
2.4 Conclusions
Chapter 3 Processing tools for manufacturing
Manabu Tsujimura
3.1 CMP Operation and Characteristics
3.2 Description of the CMP Process
3.3 Overview of polishers 
3.3.1 CMP System3.3.2 Brief History of CMP Systems
3.3.2 Brief History of CMP Systems
3.3.3 Diversity in CMP Tools
3.3.4 Polisher
3.3.5 Cleaning module in a dry-in dry-out system
3.4 Carriers and dressers 
3.4.1 Functions of carriers and dressers
3.4.2 Carrier
3.4.3 Profile control by carriers
3.4.4 Dressers
3.5 In-situ and ex-situ metrologies
3.5.1 Application
3.5.2 Representative monitors
3.5.3 Other applications for the monitors
3.5.4 Communication
3.6 Conclusions
Chapter 4 Tribo-Metrology of CMP Process 
Raghu Mudhivarthi and Norm Gitis
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Tribometrology of CMP
4.3 Factors influencing the Tribology during CMP
4.4 Optimizing Pad Conditioning Process
4.5 Conditioner Design 
4.6 CMP Consumable Testing
4.7 Defect Analysis
4.8 Summary
Chapter 5 Pads for IC CMP
Changxue Wang , Ed Paul, Toshihiro Kobayashi and Yuzhuo Li
5.1 Introduction 
5.2 Physical properties of CMP pads and their effects on polishing performance
5.2.1 Pad Types
5.2.2 Pad Microstructures and Macrostructures
5.2.3 Polyurethane Pad Properties and Control
5.2.4 Pad Property Effects on Polishing Performance
5.3 Chemical properties of CMP pads and their effects on polishing performances
5.3.1 Polyurethane pad components
5.3.2 Polyurethane property control by chemical components
5.3.3 Chemical Effects on Polishing Performance
5.4 Pad Conditioning and its effect on CMP performance
5.5 Modeling of Pad Effects on Polishing Performance
5.5.1 Review of modeling of pad effects on polishing performance
5.5.2 Modeling of pad effects on polishing performance (By Ed Paul)
5.6 Novel Designs of CMP Pads
5.6.1 Particle Containing Pads
5.6.2 Surface Treated Pads
5.6.3 Reactive pad
Chapter 6 Modeling
Leonard Borucki and Ara Philipossian
6.1 Introduction
6.2 A Two-Step Chemical-Mechanical Material Removal Model
6.3 Pad Surfaces and Pad Surface Contact Modeling
6.4 Reaction Temperature
6.5 A Polishing Example
6.6 Topography Planarization 
Chapter 7 Key Chemical Components in Metal CMP Slurries
Krishnayya Cheemalapati, Jason Keleher and Yuzhuo Li
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Oxidizers
7.2.1 Nitric Acid 
7.2.2 Hydrogen Peroxide
7.2.3 Ferric Nitrate 
7.2.4. Potassium Permanganate, Dichromates, and Iodate
7.3. Chelating Agents
7.3.1. Ammonia
7.3.2. Amino Acids
7.3.3. Organic Acids
7.3.4 Thermodynamic consideration and quantitative description
7.4 Surfactants	
7.4.1 Structures and Physical Properties of Surfactants
7.4.2. Dispersion of Particles
7.4.3. Surface modification of wafer surface
7.5 Abrasive Particles
7.5.1 Hardness
7.5.2 Bulk Particle Density
7.5.3 Particle Crystallinity and Shapes
7.5.4 Particle Size and oversized particle count
7.5.5 Particle Preparation
7.5.6 Surface Properties
7.6 Particle Surface Modification 
7.7 Soft Particles
7.8 Case study: Organic particles as abrasives in Cu CMP
7.8.1 Particle characterization
7.8.2 Materials Removal Rate and Selectivity
7.8.3 Step height reduction efficiency and over polishing window
7.8.4 Summary on the organic particles
7.9 Conclusions
Chapter 8 Corrosion Inhibitor for Cu CMP Slurry
Suresh kumar Govindaswamy and Yuzhuo Li 
8.1 Thermodynamic Considerations of Copper Surface
8.2 Types of Passivating Films on Copper Surface Under Oxdizing Conditions 
8.3 Effect of pH on BTA in Glycine-Hydrogen peroxide Based Cu CMP Slurry
8.4 Evaluation of Potential BTA Alternatives for Acidic Cu CMP Slurry
8.5 Electrochemical Polarization Study of Corrosion Inhibitors in Cu CMP Slurry
8.6 Hydrophobicity of the Surface Passivation Film
8.7 Competitive Surface Adsorption Behavior of Corrosion Inhibitors
8.8 Summary
Chapter 9 Tungsten CMP Applications
Jeff Visser
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Basic tungsten application, requirements, and process
9.2.1 Basic applications of tungsten CMP
9.2.2 Basic W CMP requirements and procedures
9.3 W CMP Defects
9.4 Various W CMP Processing Options
9.4.1 Basic considerations
9.4.2 Barrier Polish
9.4.3 Oxide Buff
9.4.4 Post WCMP Cleaning
9.5 Overall tungsten process (Various processing design options and suggestion) 
9.5.1 W CMP Process Controls
9.5.2 Platen Temperature Control
9.5.3 Slurry Selectivity
9.6	 Conclusions
Chapter 10 Electrochemistry in ECMP
Jinshan (Jason) Huo
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Physical and Chemical Processes in Electrochemical Planarization
10.2.1 Electrode/Electrolyte Interface
10.2.2 Electrochemical Reaction 
10.2.3 Mass transport
10.2.4 Anodic Polarization Curve and Conditions for Electrochemical Planarization
10.3 Mechanisms and Limitation of Electrochemical Planarization 
10.3.1 Ohmic Leveling
10.3.2 Diffusion Leveling
10.3.3 Migration Leveling
10.4 In Situ Analysis of Anodic/Passivation Films
10.4.1 Impedance Measurement
10.4.2 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
10.4.3 Ellipsometry 
10.5 Modified Electrochemical Polishing Approaches 
Chapter 11 Planarization Technologies Involving Electrochemical Reactions
Laertis Economikos
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Chemical Mechanical Planarization - CMP
11.3 Copper Electropolish (ECP)
11.4 Electrochemical Mechanical Planarization (ECMP)
11.5 Full Sequence Electrochemical Mechanical Planarization
11.6 Conclusions
Chapter 12 Shallow Trench Isolation Chemical Mechanical Planarization
M.Sc. Yordan Stefanov and Prof. Dr. Udo Schwalke
12.1 Introduction
12.2 LOCOS to STI
12.3 Shallow Trench Isolation
12.4 The Planarization Step in Detail
12.5 Optimization Techniques
12.6 Outlook
Chapter 13 Consumables for Advanced Shallow Trench Isolation (STI)
Craig Burkhard
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Representative Testing Wafers for STI Process and Consumable Evaluations
13.3 Effects of Abrasive Types on STI Slurry Performance
13.4 Effects of Chemical Additives to Oxide: Nitride Selectivity
13.5 Effect of Slurry pH
13.6 Effect of Abrasive Particle Size on Removal Rate and Defectivity
13.7 Conclusion
Chapter 14 Fabrication of Microdevices Using CMP
Gerfried Zwicker
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Microfabrication Processes
14.3 Microfabrication Products
14.4 CMP Requirements in Comparison with IC Fabrication
14.5 Examples of CMP applications for Microfabrication
14.5.1 Case Study I: Integrated Pressure Sensor
14.5.2 Case Study II: Poly-Si Surface Micromachining and Angular Rate Sensor
14.5.3 Case study III: Infra-red Digital Micro-mirror Array 
14.5.4 More Representative Applications
14.6 Outlook
Chapter 15 Three Dimensional (3D) Integration
J. Jay McMahon, James Jian-Qiang Lu and Ronald J. Gutmann
15.1 Overview of 3D Technology
15.2 Factors Motivating Research in 3D
15.2.1 Small form factor
15.2.2 Heterogeneous integration
15.2.3 Performance enhancement
15.3 Approaches to 3D
15.3.1 Singulated die 3D
15.3.2 Wafer-level 3D
15.4. Wafer-Level 3D Unit Processes
15.4.1 Wafer-to-wafer alignment
15.4.2 Wafer-to-wafer bonding
15.4.3 Wafer Thinning for 3D
15.4.4 Through Silicon Vias (TSVs)
15.5 Planarity Issues in 3D Integration
15.5.1 CMP planarity capabilities
15.5.2 Planarity issues for various 3D approaches
15.6 Conclusions
Chapter 16 Post CMP Cleanings
Jin-Goo Park, Yi-Koan Hong and Ahmed A. Busnaina 
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Post CMP Cleaning Process in Semiconductor Manufacturing Process
16.2.1 Wet bath type cleaning
16.2.2. Single wafer cleanings
16.2.2.1. Immersion type single wafer post CMP cleaning system
16.2.2.2. Single wafer spin cleaner
16.2.2.3. Brush cleaning
16.2.2.4. Drying
16.3. Contaminants Removal and Its Chemistry after CMP
16.3.1. Conventional wet cleanings
16.3.2. Chemicals used in post CMP cleanings and their roles
16.3.2.1. NH4OH 
16.3.2.2 HF
16.3.2.3 Organic Acids 
16.3.2.4 Surfactants
16.4 Post CMP Cleanings 
16.4.1 Post oxide CMP cleaning
16.4.2 Post W CMP cleaning
16.4.3 Post STI CMP cleaning
16.4.4 Post Poly Si CMP Cleaning
16.4.5 Post Cu/Low-k CMP Surface Cleaning
16.4.5.1 Corrosion
16.4.5.2 Organic Residue
16.4.5.3 Low-k Materials
16.4.5.4 Effect of Addition on Cleaning
16.5 Adhesion Force, Friction Force and Defects during Cu CMP
16.5.1 Adhesion Force of silica and alumina on Cu
16.5.2 Friction Force in Cu CMP Process
16.5.3 Removal Rates of Cu Surface in Cu CMP 
16.5.4 Surface Quality of Cu after Cu CMP Process
16.5.5 Co-relationship among Friction, Adhesion Force, Removal Rate, and Surface Quality in Cu CMP
16.6 Megasonic Post-CMP Cleaning of Thermal Oxide Wafers
16.6.1 Experimental Procedure
16.6.2 Polishing Conditions
16.6.3 Cleaning Procedure
16.7 Results and Discussion 
16.7.1 The Effect of Megasonic Input Power
16.7.2 The Effect of Temperature
16.7.3 The Effect of Etching on Cleaning
16.8 Summary
Chapter 17 Defects observed on the wafer after the CMP process
Paul Lefevre
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Defects after Oxide CMP
17.2.1 Introduction
17.2.2 Scratches
17.2.3 Color variation ? Oxide Thickness Variation
17.2.4 Slurry Residues and Organic Residues
17.2.5 Other Particles 
17.2.6 Crystal Formation
17.2.7 Traces Elements
17.2.8 Radio-active Contamination
17.2.9 Defects Existing Before Oxide CMP
17.2.10 Source of Defect Causing Large Particles
17.3 Defects after Poly Silicon CMP
17.3.1 Introduction
17.3.2 Scratches
17.3.3 Poly Silicon Residues
17.3.4 Particles
17.3.5 Residues
17.3.6 Traces Elements
17.3.7 Poly Silicon Pitting and Voids
17.3.8 Discoloration at the Edge of the Structure or Edge of the Arrays
17.3.9 Defects Existing Before and Revealed after Poly Silicon CMP
17.3.10 Influence of Processing Temperature
17.4 Defects after Tungsten CMP
17.4.1 Introduction
17.4.2 Corrosion, Pitting and Void
17.4.3 Tungsten Recess and Rough Tungsten surface
17.4.4 Scratches
17.4.5 Discoloration ? Edge Over Erosion (EOE)
17.4.6 Tungsten and Metal Liner Residues
17.4.7 Particles, Slurry Residues and Trace Metal
17.4.8 Delamination
17.4.9 Pre-existing Defects Revealed after Tungsten CMP
17.5 Defects after Copper CMP
17.5.1 Copper Corrosion
17.5.2 Copper pitting
17.5.3 Trenching at the Copper Line Edge
17.5.4 Rough Copper and Copper Recess
17.5.5 Discoloration ? Metals Thickness Variations and/or Dielectric Thickness Variation
17.5.6 Copper Electro-migration
17.5.7 Scratches
17.5.8 Metal Residues
17.5.9 Particles, Residues and Trace Metals
17.5.10 Delamination
17.6 Defect Observation and Characterization Techniques
17.6.1 Optical Microscope
17.6.2 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
17.6.3 Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX)
17.6.4 Scanning Auger Microscope (SAM)
17.6.5 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
17.7 Ensemble Defect detection and inspection techniques
17.7.1 Optical Scan of Flat Film Blanket Wafers
17.7.2 Optical Scan of Patterned Wafers
17.7.3 Defect Classification
17.8 Consideration for the Future
Chapter 18 CMP Slurry Metrology, Distribution and Filtration
Rakesh K. Singh
18.1 Introduction
18.2 CMP Slurry Metrology and Characterization 
18.2.1 Slurry Health Monitoring and Control 
18.2.2 CMp Slurry Blend Control 
18.2.2.1 Two-component Blend Control 
18.2.2.2 Three-Component Blend Control 
18.2.3 CMP Slurry Characterization 
18.2.4 Summary
18.3 CMP Slurry Blending and Distribution 
18.3.1 Slurry Delivery Technologies 
18.3.2 Continuous (On-Demand) Slurry Dispense and Metrology 
18.3.3 Slurry Turnovers in Fab Distribution 
18.3.4 Slurry Abrasive Settling and Dispersion 
18.3.4.1 Slurry Settling Rate Quantification 
18.3.4.2 Settling Behavior of Different Abrasive CMP Slurries 
18.3.4.3 Required Minimum Flow Velocity for CMP slurries 
18.3.5 Summary
18.4 CMP Slurry Filtration 
18.4.1 Slurry Filtration Methodology 
18.4.2 Filter Design Consideration 
18.4.3 Slurry Filter Characterization 
18.4.4 CMP Process and Consumable Trends and Challenges 
18.4.5 Slurry Filtration-Case Studies 
18.4.5.1 Silica Dispersion Single-Pass High-Retention Filtration 
18.4.5.2 Silica Slurry POU and Recirculation 
18.4.5.3 Silica, Ceria, and Alumina Slurry Tighter Filtration 
18.4.5.4 Polystyrene Latex (PSL) Bead Solution Filtration 
18.4.6 Summary 
18.5 Pump Handling Effects on CMP Slurry Filtration-Case Studies 
18.5.1 Pump Technologies and Applications 
18.5.2 Pump Shearing Effects on Slurry Abrasives 
18.5.3 Pump Handling and Filtration Data 
18.5.4 Test Cases 
18.5.5 Summary 
Chapter 19 The Facilities Side of CMP
John H. Rydzewski
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Characterization of the CMP Waste Stream
19.3 Materials of Compatibility
19.4 Collection System Methodologies
19.5 Treatment System Components
19.6 Integration of Components ? Putting It All Together
19.7 Conclusions
Chapter 20 CMP ? The Next Fifteen Years
Joseph M. Steigerwald
20.1 The Past Fifteen Years
20.2 Challenges to Silicon IC Manufacturing
20.3 New CMP Processes
20.3.1 The Two Year Development Cycle
20.3.2 FINFET Transistors
20.3.3 High K Gate Oxides
20.3.4 Other Examples
20.4 CMP Challenges 
20.4.1 Development time of new CMP materials
20.4.2 CMP Defect Reduction
20.4.3 CMP Process Control
20.4.3.1 CMP Film Thickness Control
20.4.3.2 Process Control Systems, Consumables Material Control, and Excursion Prevention
20.4.4 Cost of CMP
20.5 Summary
Chapter 21 Utilitarian Information for CMP Scientists and Engineers
Yongqing Lan and Yuzhuo Li
21.1 Physical and chemical properties of abrasive particles
21.2 Physical and chemical properties on oxidizers
21.3 Physical and chemical properties on relevant surfactants
21.3.1 Classification of Surfactants
21.3.2 Critical Micellar Concentration
21.3.3 Ternary phase diagrams involving surfactants
21.4 Relevant Pourbaix Diagram
21.5 Commonly used buffering systems
21.6 Useful websites

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Integrated circuits -- Design and construction.
Chemical mechanical planarization.
Microelectronics -- Materials.