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Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

```Preface	 xi
Section One REVIEW OF BASIC FUNDAMENTALS
Unit 1	Some Basic Rules for Mathematics	 1
Unit 2	Formulas	 9
Unit 3	Solving Formulas/Equations	 17
Unit 4	Square Root	 21
Unit 5	Review of Angle Measure	 26
Unit 6	Conversion of Length Measure	 30
Section Two PIPE LENGTH CALCULATIONS
Unit 7	Standard Weight Pipe	 35
Unit 8	Allowance for Threaded Fittings	 38
Unit 9	Copper Tubing	 42
Unit 10	Allowances for Copper Fittings	 44
Unit 11	Plastic Pipe	 46
Unit 12	Allowance for Plastic Fittings	 48
Unit 13	Welded Steel Pipe	 50
Unit 14	Allowing for Welded Fittings	 55
Unit 15	Equal Spacing	 59
Unit 16	Angles in Plumbing	 62
Unit 17	Offset, Diagonal, Rise, and Run	 64
Unit 18	Solving for 45¡ Constants	 66
Unit 19	45¡ Diagonal and Pipe Length	 68
Unit 20	Three-Pipe Diagrams with a 45¡ Offset	 70
Unit 21	Right Angle with a 45¡ Diagonal	 74
Unit 22	45¡ Offsets with a Wye Fitting	 77
Unit 23	Wye and Tee-Wye Assemblies	 83
Unit 24	The 0.707 Constant in 45¡ Pipe Assemblies	 91
Unit 25	Solving for Other Angles	 94
Unit 26	Pipe Bending	 100
Unit 27	Cast Iron Pipe	 105
Unit 28	Cast Iron Assemblies with Various Bends	 107
Unit 29	Bend Offsets	 112
Unit 30	Assemblies with Cast Iron Wyes and Tee-Wyes	 116
Unit 31	Single Loop Back-Venting	 119
Unit 33	Elevation and Grade	 126
Unit 34	Elevation in a Plan View Pipe Diagram	 129
Unit 35	Jumper Offsets	 133
Unit 36	45¡ Offsets in Parallel	 138
Unit 37	Special Case of 45¡ Offsets in Parallel	 142
Unit 38	Rolling Offsets	 145
Unit 39	Combination Offsets	 149
Unit 40	Pipe Length by Layout	 154
Unit 41	Cast Iron Flanged Fittings	 159
Unit 42	Miter Cuts-Welded Pipe	 161
Section Three SHEET METAL WORK
Unit 43	Shower Pan or Safe	 164
Unit 44	Rectangular Tank Liner	 166
Unit 45	Cylindrical Stretchouts	 168
Unit 46	Roof Pitch	 170
Section Four VOLUMES, PRESSURES, AND CAPACITIES
Unit 47	Water Measure	 173
Unit 48	Rectangular Solids	 175
Unit 49	Cylinders	 177
Unit 50	Spheres	 180
Unit 51	Segments	 182
Unit 52	Partially Filled Containers of Varying Shapes	 184
Unit 53	Water Pressure, Head, and Force	 189
Unit 54	Ratio of Pipe Capacities	 191
Unit 55	Pipe Sizing	 193
Section Five PHYSICS
Unit 57	The States of Matter and why 16 Matters 	 203
Unit 58	Properties of Gases	 208
Section Six HEATING
Unit 59	Heat Loss versus Radiator Size	 213
Unit 60	Radiation Sizing for Total Heat Loss of a Room	 216
Unit 61	Estimating Size of Piping	 219
Unit 62	Sizing Ventilation	 223
Unit 63	Heating Problems for a Two-Floor House	 229
Section Seven THE BUILDER'S LEVEL
Unit 64	Words Used in Leveling	 234
Unit 65	Math Aids in Leveling	 236
Appendix A
Table A	Square Root of Numbers 1.00-5.49	 239
Table B	Square Root of Numbers 5.50-9.99	 240
Table C	Square Root of Numbers 10.0-54.9	 241
Table D	Square Root of Numbers 55.0-99.9	 242
Table E	Powers and Roots of Numbers 1-100	 243
Table F	Standard Tables of English Measure	 244
Table G	Standard Tables of Metric Measure	 244
Data 1	Decimal Inch and Fractional Inch Equivalents	 245
Data 2	Standard Weight Pipe-Diameters and Threads	 246
Data 3	Standard Weight Pipe-Diameters and Capacities	 247
Data 4	Copper Tubes-Diameters	 248
Data 5	Elbows-90¡ and 45¡-Threaded STD, Copper, PVC, Drainage	 249
Data 6	Elbows-60¡, 221Ú2¡, and 111Ú4¡- Threaded, Copper, PVC	 250
Data 7	Tees-Threaded, Copper, PVC	 251
Data 8	Regular 45¡ Wye-Threaded, Copper, PVC	 252
Data 9	Reduced Branch 45¡ Wye-Threaded, Copper, PVC	 253
Data 10	Regular Tee Wye-Threaded, Copper, PVC	 255
Data 11	Reduced Branch Tee Wye-Threaded, Copper, PVC	 256
Data 12	Bends-1Ú4 and 1Ú8-Hub and No-Hub	 257
Data 13	Bends-1Ú5 and 1Ú6-Hub and No-Hub	 258
Data 14	Bends-1Ú16-Hub and No-Hub	 259
Data 15	Wye-Branches-Hub and No-Hub	 260
Data 16	Tee Wye-Branches-Hub and No-Hub	 261
Data 17	Tapped Tees, Hub and Tapped Tee Wyes, No-Hub	 262
Data 18	Slip and Caulk-Type Drainage Fittings	 263
Data 19	Flanged Fittings	 264
Data 20	Constants for 45¡ Fittings	 266
Data 21	Constants for 60¡ Fittings	 267
Data 22	Constants for 221Ú2¡ Fittings	 268
Data 23	Constants for 111Ú4¡ Fittings	 269
Data 24	Constants for 1Ú5 Bends	 270
Data 25	Constants for Parallel Offsets	 271
Data 26	Constants for Rolling Offsets	 272
Data 27	Trigonometric Functions	 273
Appendix B
Using the Calculator	 276
```

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Plumbing -- Mathematics.
Pipe fitting -- Mathematics.