Table of contents for Engaging privacy and information technology in a digital age / James Waldo, Herbert S. Lin, and Lynette I. Millett, editors.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Contents
 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 
Part I
1	THINKING ABOUT PRIVACY	 
 1.1	Introduction	 
 1.2	What Is Privacy?	 
 1.3	An Illustrative Case	 
 1.4	 The Dynamics of Privacy 
 1.4.1	The Information Age	 
 1.4.2	Information Transformed and the Role of Technology	 
 1.4.3	Societal Shifts and Changes in Institutional Practice	 
 1.4.4	Discontinuities in Circumstance and Current Events	 
 1.4.4.1 	National Security and Law Enforcement	 
 1.4.4.2	Disease and Pandemic Outbreak	 
 1.5	Important Concepts and Ideas Related to Privacy	 
 1.5.1	 Personal Information, Sensitive Information, and 
	 Personally Identifiable Information	 
 1.5.2	False Positives, False Negatives, and Data Quality	 
 1.5.3	Privacy and Anonymity	 
 1.5.4	Fair Information Practices	 
 1.5.5	Reasonable Expectations of Privacy	 
 1.6	Lessons from History	 
 1.7	Scope and Map of This Report	 
 
Part II
The Backdrop for Privacy
 2	INTELLECTUAL APPROACHES AND CONCEPTUAL UNDERPINNINGS 
 2.1	Philosophical Theories of Privacy	 
 2.1.1	A Philosophical Perspective	 
 2.1.2	Privacy as Control Versus Privacy as Restricted Access	 
 2.1.3	Coherence in the Concept of Privacy	 
 2.1.4	Normative Theories of Privacy	 
 2.2	Economic Perspectives on Privacy	 
 2.2.1	The Rationale for an Economic Perspective on Privacy	 
 2.2.2	Privacy as Fraud	 
 2.2.3	Privacy and the Assignment of Property Rights to Individuals	 
 2.2.4	The Economic Impact of Privacy Regulation	 
 2.2.5	Privacy and Behavioral Economics	 
 2.3	Sociological Approaches	 
 2.4	An Integrating Perspective	 
 
 3	TECHNOLOGICAL DRIVERS	 
 3.1	The Impact of Technology on Privacy	 
 3.2	Hardware Advances	 
 3.3	Software Advances	 
 3.4	Increased Connectivity and Ubiquity	 
 3.5	Technologies Combined into a Data gathering System	 
 3.6	Data Search Companies	 
 3.7	Biological and Other Sensing Technologies	 
 3.8	Privacy-enhancing Technologies	 
 3.8.1	Privacy-enhancing Technologies for Use by Individuals	 
 3.8.2	Privacy-enhancing Technologies for Use by Information Collectors	 
 3.8.2.1	Query Control	 
 3.8.2.2	Statistical Disclosure Limitation Techniques	 
 3.8.2.3	Cryptographic Techniques	 
 3.8.2.4	User Notification	 
 3.8.2.5	Information Flow Analysis	 
 3.8.2.6	Privacy-Sensitive System Design	 
 3.8.2.7	Information Security Tools	 
 3.9	Unsolved Problems as Privacy Enhancers	 
 3.10	Observations	 
 
 4	THE LEGAL LANDSCAPE IN THE UNITED STATES	 
 4.1	Constitutional Foundations	 
 4.1.1	The Fourth Amendment	 
 4.1.2	The First Amendment	 
 4.1.3	The Ninth Amendment	 
 4.2	Common Law and Privacy Torts	 
 4.3	Freedom of Information/Open Government	 
 4.3.1	Federal Laws Relevant to Individual Privacy	 
 4.3.2	Federal Laws Relevant to Confidentiality	 
 4.3.3 Regulation 
 4.4 Executive Orders and Presidential Directives
 4.5	State Perspectives	 
 4.6	International Perspectives on Privacy Policy	 
 4.7	The Impact of Non-U.S. Law on Privacy	 
 
 5	THE POLITICS OF PRIVACY POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES	 
 5.1	The Formulation of Public Policy	 
 5.2	Public Opinion and the Role of Privacy Advocates	 
 5.3	The Role of Reports	 
 5.4	Judicial Decisions	 
 5.5	The Formulation of Corporate Policy	 
 
Part III
Privacy in Context
 6	PRIVACY AND ORGANIZATIONS	 
 6.1	Institutional Use of Information	 
 6.2 Education and Academic Research Institutions
 6.2.1	 Student Information Collected for Administrative Purposes
 6.2.2	 Personal Information Collected for Research Purposes
 6.3	Financial Institutions	 
 6.4	Retail Businesses	 
 6.5	Data Aggregation Organizations	 
 6.6	Nonprofits and Charities	 
 6.7	Mass Media and Content Distribution Industries	 
 6.8	Statistical and Research Agencies	 
 6.9	Conclusion	 
 
 7	HEALTH AND MEDICAL PRIVACY	 
 7.1	Information and the Practice of Health Care	 
 7.2	Privacy in Medicine	 
 7.3 	Addressing Issues in Access to and Use of Health Data	 
 7.3.1	Industry Self-regulation	 
 7.3.2	Legislation¿HIPAA and Privacy	 
 7.3.3	Patient Perspectives on Privacy	 
 7.3.3.1	Notifications of Privacy Policy	 
 7.3.3.2	Privacy Implications of Greater Patient Involvement in Health Care	 
 7.3.3.3	Improper Interpretation and Unintended Consequences of HIPAA Privacy
 Regulations	 
 7.3.3.4	Spillover Privacy Implications of Receiving Health Care Services	 
 7.3.4	Institutional Advocacy	 
 7.4	Open Issues	 
 
 8	LIBRARIES AND PRIVACY	 
 8.1	The Mission of Libraries	 
 8.2	Libraries and Privacy	 
 8.3	Libraries and Technology	 
 8.4	Libraries and Privacy Since 9/11	 
 8.5	Emerging Technologies, Privacy, and Libraries	 
 8.6	Conclusion	 
 
 9	PRIVACY, LAW ENFORCEMENT, AND NATIONAL SECURITY	 
 9.1	Information Technology, Privacy, and Law Enforcement	 
 9.1.1	Background	 
 9.1.2	Technology and Physical Observation	 
 9.1.3	Communications and Data Storage	 
 9.1.4	Technology and Identification	 
 9.1.5	Aggregation and Data Mining	 
 9.1.6	Privacy Concerns and Law Enforcement	 
 9.2	Information Technology, Privacy, and National Security	 
 9.2.1	Background	 
 9.2.2	National Security and Technology Development	 
 9.2.3	Legal Limitations on National Security Data Gathering	 
 9.2.4	Recent Trends	 
 9.2.5	Tensions Between Privacy and National Security	 
 9.3	Law Enforcement, National Security, and Individual Privacy	 
 
Part IV
 10	FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS	 
 10.1	Coming to Terms	 
 10.2	The Value of Privacy	 
 10.3	Pressures on Privacy	 
 10.4	Making Tradeoffs	 
 10.5	Approaches to Privacy in the Information Age	 
 10.5.1	Principles	 
 10.5.2	Individual Actions	 
 10.5.3	Organization-based Actions	 
 10.5.4	Public Policy Actions	 
 10.5.4.1	Managing the Privacy Patchwork	 
 10.5.4.2	Reviewing Existing Privacy Law and Regulations	 
 10.5.4.3	Respecting the Spirit of the Law	 
 10.5.4.4	The Relevance of Fair Information Practices Today	 
 10.5.4.5	Public Advocates for Privacy	 
 10.5.4.6	Establishing the Means for Recourse	 
 
APPENDIXES
A A Short History of Surveillance and Privacy in the United States	 
B International Perspectives on Privacy	 
C Biographies	 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Data protection.
Privacy, Right of -- United States.