Table of contents for LNG : a nontechnical guide / Michael D. Tusiani and Gordon Shearer.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
Contents
List of Illustrations
Acknowledgments
Introduction
1 The LNG Industry
	Introduction
	The Global Natural Gas Industry
		The age of the gas turbine
		Competing against other fuels
	Natural Gas Resource Development
		Natural gas supply
		Natural gas resources
		Pipelines
	LNG Industry Development
		Historical background
		The essential ingredients of an LNG project
		Alternative methods of monetizing natural gas resources
	Notes
2 The Evolution of the Global Gas and LNG Markets
	Introduction
	The U.S. Natural Gas and LNG Markets
		Deregulation of the natural gas industry
		Natural gas prices
		Outlook for supply and demand
	LNG Import Terminals
		LNG importation: The experience of the 1970s
		Existing LNG import terminals in the United States
		New LNG terminals in the United States
		LNG developments in Canada
		Natural gas and LNG markets in Mexico
		Other terminals in North America
	Natural Gas and LNG Markets in the Caribbean
		Puerto Rico
		Dominican Republic
	Natural Gas and LNG Markets in Western Europe
		The United Kingdom
		Iberia
		France
		Italy
		Other European countries
	Natural Gas and LNG Markets in Asia
		Japan
		South Korea
		Taiwan
	New Asian Natural Gas and LNG Markets
		India
		China
	Niche Markets for LNG
		Chile
		New Zealand
		Pakistan
		Singapore
		Thailand
	Notes
3 The LNG Chain: The Project Nature of the LNG Business
	Introduction
	The Physical Chain
		Upstream exploration and production
		Liquefaction
		Shipping
		Regasification terminals
		Markets
	The Ownership Chain
		Main ownership structures
		Shipping
	The Commercial and Financial Chain
		Cost and cost reduction along the LNG chain
		Exploration and production
		Liquefaction
		Shipping
		Regasification terminals
		Value generation along the value chain
	
4 Upstream Natural Gas
	Introduction
	Physical and Chemical Properties of Natural Gas
	Natural Gas Reserves
		Geology of natural gas
		Natural gas exploration
		Natural gas production
		Natural gas field processing
		Natural gas pipelines
	Notes
5 The Liquefaction Plant
	Introduction 
	Siting Considerations
	Liquefaction Process: Technology Overview
		Feedgas purification and treatment
		Liquefaction processes
		Driver technology
		Utilities
	LNG Storage Tanks
		Single-containment tanks
		Double-containment tanks
		Full-containment tanks
		Membrane tanks
	LNG Loading Jetty
	Project Development and Execution
	Recent Trends
Larger trains
		Reversal of cost reduction trends
		Standardization and use of off-site fabricated models
		Offshore liquefaction facilities
	Notes
6 LNG Tankers
	Introduction
	The Prototype LNG Ships
	The First Purpose-Built Commercial Ships
	LNG Ship Containment and Handling Systems
		Self-supporting, independent tanks
		Membrane tanks
		Cargo-handling systems
	LNG Shipbuilding
		Evolution of LNG shipbuilding
		Patents and licenses
	Typical LNG Shipbuilding Project
		Before contract signing
		Project scheduling
		Standards of construction
	Typical Parameters of LNG Ships
	The LNG Fleet
		Drivers of growth
		LNG tanker ownership
	Ship Operations
		Cooldown
		Boil-off
		Cargo loading/discharge
	LNG Safety and Accident Records
	Maintenance and Life Extension (Ship Longevity)
	LNG Maritime Industry Trends
	Technology Developments
		Engines and propulsion
		Larger LNG ship sizes
	Notes
7 LNG Import Terminals
	Introduction
	Storage and Sendout Capacity
	Design and Construction
	Cost
	Main Components of LNG Import Terminals
		Marine facilities
		Storage tanks
		Design
		Safety
		Capacity
		Quality concerns
		Vaporizers
		Boil-off gas facilities
		Gas quality and treatment
		Metering and pressure regulation station
	Safety and Security
	Peakshaving LNG Plants
	Future Trends
		Shipboard regasification
		FSRUs
		The HiLoad offshore LNG-unloading solution
		Adaptation of existing infrastructure
		GBS systems
		The Bishop Process
		Offshore facilities; not the way forward after all?
	Notes
8 The Evolution of the LNG Industry
	Introduction
	Who Imports LNG?
		Europe
		Asia
		The Americas
	The Evolution of the LNG Business Model
		The traditional LNG business
		Barriers to flexibility in traditional contracts
		Historical attempts to change the model
	Transformation of the Industry
		Gas and power market liberalization in the United States and Europe
		Decreases in capital costs
		Lower-cost financing
		Expansion of the LNG club
		Changing upstream strategies
		Critical and diversified mass
	New Business Strategies
		Uncommitted liquefaction
		Integration along the LNG chain
		Shipping
		Effect of the transformation of the industry
	The Short-Term and Spot LNG Market
		The rise of short-term trades
		Potential sources of surplus capacity
		Spot trades in the United States and Europe; driven by price
		Asian spot markets; still driven largely by relationships
		Challenges of spot transactions
	Future Possibilities
	Notes
9 Orchestration and Financing of an LNG Project
	Introduction
	Monopoly Utilities and the Project-Chain Business Model
	The Emergence of LNG Merchants
	Supply Project Structure and Formation
		Requirements for an LNG project
		Project formation
	LNG SPAs
		LNG pricing
		LNG off-take
	Shipping
	Funding
	Evolving Project Venture Structures
		Types of project ventures
		The Atlantic Basin market and project development
		The Asia-Pacific market and project development
	LNG Industry Trends: The Emergence of Commercial LNG
	Project Finance
		History and motivation
		Advantages of project finance
		Risk mitigation
		Structure and participants
	Performance
	Notes
10 LNG Projects
	Introduction
	The Atlantic/Mediterranean Region
		Algeria
		Egypt
		Equatorial Guinea
		Libya
		Nigeria
		Norway
		Russia (including the Pacific Basin project)
		Trinidad and Tobago
	The Middle East
		Oman
		Qatar
		United Arab Emirates (UAE)
		Yemen
	The Asia-Pacific Region
		Australia
		Brunei
		Indonesia
		Malaysia
		The United States
	Notes
11 The Economics of an LNG Project
	Introduction
	Project Capital Costs
		Upstream capital costs
	Liquefaction capital costs
	Pipeline Capital Costs
	Operating Costs
	Liquids Production
	Fiscal Terms
	Business Structure
	Shipping Costs
	Import Terminals
	Notes
12 Upstream Gas Supply Agreements
	Introduction
	LNG Business Structures
		Separate upstream and downstream ventures
		Fully integrated LNG ventures
		Natural gas tolling ventures
	Typical Terms in a GSA
		Quantity
		Quality
		Delivery point
		Measurement and delivery conditions
		Natural gas sales price
		Allocation of the value of by-products
		Liabilities
		Force majeure
	Conclusion
	
13 Sale and Purchase Contracts
	Introduction
	Historical Context
	Long-Term Contracts
		Quantities
		Prices
		Alternative pricing mechanisms
		Generic price provisions
		Contract duration
	Other Terms and Conditions
		Gas quality
		Transportation
		Scheduling
		Invoicing and payment
		Measurement
		Title transfer
		Force majeure
		Choice of law
		Dispute resolution
		Allocation of liabilities, liquidated damages, and termination
		Spot contracts
	
14 LNG Tanker Contracts
	Introduction
	Charterparty Overview
	Evolution of LNG Charterparties
		LNG charterparties in the traditional shipping model
		LNG transportation contracts in the new era
	Conrolling LNG Tankers: Adaptation to an Emerging Model
		Owning LNG tankers
		Chartering LNG tankers
	Bibliography
	Notes
15 Shipping Conventions and Regulations
	Introduction
	The Rise of Modern Shipping Regulation
Establishment and structure of the IMO
Major IMO conventions and codes applicable to LNG tankers
Flag state regulation
Port state regulation
	Industry Self-regulation
	Classification Societies
16 Import-Related Project Siting and Regulatory Issues
	Introduction
	LNG Import Terminal Design Basis
Codes and regulations
Location, location, location
	Regulatory Issues
		Terminal-licensing procedures
		Terminal access
		Offshore terminals
	Notes
	
17 LNG Import Terminal Use Agreements
	Introduction
	Regulated Access
	Proprietary Access
18 Conclusion: The Future of LNG
	Introduction
	Global Demand and Supply
	Technical Outlook
	Commercial Trends
	Regulatory Trends
	Conclusions
Appendix A: Units of Measurement
Glossary
Bibliography

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Liquefied natural gas industry.