Table of contents for Product design and development / Karl T. Ulrich, Steven D. Eppinger.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction 1
Characteristics of Successful Product
Development 2
Who Designs and Develops Products? 3
Duration and Cost of Product
Development 5
The Challenges of Product Development 6
Approach of This Book 6
Structured Methods 7
Industrial Examples 7
Organizational Realities 7
Road Map of the Book 8
References and Bibliography 10
Exercises 10
Thought Question 10
Chapter 2
Development Processes
and Organizations 11
A Generic Development Process 12
Concept Development: The Front-End
Process 16
Adapting the Generic Product Development
Process 18
Technology-Push Products 18
Platform Products 20
Process-Intensive Products 20
Customized Products 20
High-Risk Products 20
Quick-Build Products 21
Complex Systems 21
Product Development Process Flows 22
The AMF Development Process 22
Product Development Organizations 23
Organizations Are Formed by Establishing Links
among Individuals 23
Organizational Links May Be Aligned with
Functions, Projects, or Both 25
Choosing an Organizational Structure 26
The AMF Organization 28
Summary 30
References and Bibliography 30
Exercises 31
Thought Questions 32
Chapter 3
Product Planning 33
The Product Planning Process 34
Four Types of Product Development Projects 35
The Process 36
Step 1: Identify Opportunities 37
Step 2: Evaluate and Prioritize Projects 38
Competitive Strategy 38
Market Segmentation 39
Technological Trajectories 40
Product Platform Planning 40
Evaluating Fundamentally New Product
Opportunities 42
Balancing the Portfolio 43
Step 3: Allocate Resources and Plan Timing 43
Resource Allocation 44
Project Timing 45
The Product Plan 45
Step 4: Complete Pre-Project Planning 45
Mission Statements 47
Assumptions and Constraints 48
Staffing and Other Pre-Project Planning
Activities 49
Step 5: Reflect on the Results
and the Process 49
Summary 50
References and Bibliography 50
Exercises 52
Thought Questions 52
Chapter 4
Identifying Customer Needs 53
Step 1: Gather Raw Data from Customers 56
Choosing Customers 58
The Art of Eliciting Customer Needs Data 59
Documenting Interactions with Customers 60
Step 2: Interpret Raw Data in Terms of Customer
Needs 61
Step 3: Organize the Needs into a Hierarchy 63
Step 4: Establish the Relative Importance
of the Needs 66
Step 5: Reflect on the Results
and the Process 67
Summary 68
References and Bibliography 68
Exercises 69
Thought Questions 70
Chapter 5
Product Specifications 71
What Are Specifications? 72
When Are Specifications Established? 73
Establishing Target Specifications 74
Step 1: Prepare the List of Metrics 75
Step 2: Collect Competitive Benchmarking
Information 79
Step 3: Set Ideal and Marginally Acceptable
Target Values 79
Step 4: Reflect on the Results and the Process 83
Setting the Final Specifications 83
Step 1: Develop Technical Models
of the Product 85
Step 2: Develop a Cost Model of the Product 86
Step 3: Refine the Specifications, Making Trade-Offs
Where Necessary 88
Step 4: Flow Down the Specifications
as Appropriate 89
Step 5: Reflect on the Results and the Process 91
Summary 91
References and Bibliography 92
Exercises 93
Thought Questions 93
Appendix
Target Costing 94
Chapter 6
Concept Generation 97
The Activity of Concept Generation 98
Structured Approaches Reduce the Likelihood
of Costly Problems 99
A Five-Step Method 99
Step 1: Clarify the Problem 100
Decompose a Complex Problem into Simpler
Subproblems 101
Focus Initial Efforts on the Critical
Subproblems 103
Step 2: Search Externally 104
Interview Lead Users 104
Consult Experts 105
Search Patents 105
Search Published Literature 106
Benchmark Related Products 107
Step 3: Search Internally 107
Both Individual and Group Sessions Can
Be Useful 108
Hints for Generating Solution Concepts 109
Step 4: Explore Systematically 110
Concept Classification Tree 112
Concept Combination Table 114
Managing the Exploration Process 117
Step 5: Reflect on the Results and the Process 119
Summary 120
References and Bibliography 121
Exercises 122
Thought Questions 122
Chapter 7
Concept Selection 123
Concept Selection Is an Integral Part of the Product
Development Process 124
All Teams Use Some Method for Choosing
a Concept 125
A Structured Method Offers Several Benefits 128
Overview of Methodology 129
Concept Screening 130
Step 1: Prepare the Selection Matrix 130
Step 2: Rate the Concepts 131
Step 3: Rank the Concepts 132
Step 4: Combine and Improve the Concepts 132
Step 5: Select One or More Concepts 132
Step 6: Reflect on the Results and the Process 133
Concept Scoring 134
Step 1: Prepare the Selection Matrix 134
Step 2: Rate the Concepts 135
Step 3: Rank the Concepts 136
Step 4: Combine and Improve the Concepts 136
Step 5: Select One or More Concepts 136
Step 6: Reflect on the Results and the Process 137
Caveats 137
Summary 139
References and Bibliography 139
Exercises 140
Thought Questions 141
Appendix A Concept-Screening Matrix
Example 142
Appendix B
Concept-Scoring Matrix Example 143
Chapter 8
Concept Testing 145
Step 1: Define the Purpose
of the Concept Test 147
Step 2: Choose a Survey Population 147
Step 3: Choose a Survey Format 148
Step 4: Communicate the Concept 149
Matching the Survey Format with the Means
of Communicating the Concept 153
Issues in Communicating the Concept 153
Step 5: Measure Customer Response 155
Step 6: Interpret the Results 155
Step 7: Reflect on the Results and the Process 158
Summary 159
References and Bibliography 159
Exercises 160
Thought Questions 160
Appendix
Estimating Market Sizes 161
Chapter 9
Product Architecture 163
What Is Product Architecture? 164
Types of Modularity 166
When Is the Product Architecture Defined? 167
Implications of the Architecture 167
Product Change 167
Product Variety 168
Component Standardization 169
Product Performance 169
Manufacturability 170
Product Development Management 171
Establishing the Architecture 171
Step 1: Create a Schematic of the Product 172
Step 2: Cluster the Elements
of the Schematic 173
Step 3: Create a Rough Geometric Layout 175
Step 4: Identify the Fundamental and Incidental
Interactions 176
Delayed Differentiation 177
Platform Planning 180
Differentiation Plan 180
Commonality Plan 181
Managing the Trade-Off between Differentiation
and Commonality 181
Related System-Level Design Issues 182
Defining Secondary Systems 182
Establishing the Architecture of the Chunks 183
Creating Detached Interface Specifications 183
Summary 184
References and Bibliography 184
Exercises 186
Thought Questions 186
Chapter 10
Industrial Design 187
What Is Industrial Design? 189
Assessing the Need for Industrial Design 191
Expenditures for Industrial Design 191
How Important Is Industrial Design
to a Product? 191
Ergonomic Needs 192
Aesthetic Needs 193
The Impact of Industrial Design 193
Is Industrial Design Worth the Investment? 193
How Does Industrial Design Establish
a Corporate Identity? 196
The Industrial Design Process 196
Investigation of Customer Needs 197
Conceptualization 197
Preliminary Refinement 198
Further Refinement and Final Concept Selection 198
Control Drawings 199
Coordination with Engineering, Manufacturing,
and External Vendors 199
The Impact of Computer-Based Tools
on the ID Process 200
Management of the Industrial Design
Process 201
Timing of Industrial Design Involvement 202
Assessing the Quality of Industrial Design 203
1. Quality of the User Interfaces 204
2. Emotional Appeal 205
3. Ability to Maintain and Repair the Product 205
4. Appropriate Use of Resources 205
5. Product Differentiation 206
Summary 206
References and Bibliography 206
Exercises 208
Thought Questions 208
Chapter 11
Design for Manufacturing 209
Design for Manufacturing Defined 211
DFM Requires a Cross-Functional Team 211
DFM Is Performed throughout the Development
Process 211
Overview of the DFM Process 212
Step 1: Estimate the Manufacturing Costs 212
Fixed Costs versus Variable Costs 215
The Bill of Materials 215
Estimating the Costs of Standard Components 216
Estimating the Costs of Custom Components 217
Estimating the Cost of Assembly 218
Estimating the Overhead Costs 219
Step 2: Reduce the Costs of Components 220
Understand the Process Constraints
and Cost Drivers 220
Redesign Components to Eliminate Processing
Steps 221
Choose the Appropriate Economic Scale
for the Part Process 221
Standardize Components and Processes 222
Adhere to ?Black Box? Component Procurement 223
Step 3: Reduce the Costs of Assembly 223
Keeping Score 224
Integrate Parts 224
Maximize Ease of Assembly 225
Consider Customer Assembly 226
Step 4: Reduce the Costs of Supporting
Production 226
Minimize Systemic Complexity 227
Error Proofing 227
Step 5: Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions
on Other Factors 228
The Impact of DFM on Development Time 228
The Impact of DFM on Development Cost 228
The Impact of DFM on Product Quality 229
The Impact of DFM on External Factors 229
Results 229
Summary 231
References and Bibliography 232
Exercises 233
Thought Questions 233
Appendix A
Materials Costs 235
Appendix B
Component Manufacturing Costs 236
Appendix C
Assembly Costs 242
Appendix D
Cost Structures 243
Chapter 12
Prototyping 245
Prototype Basics 246
What Is a Prototype? 246
Types of Prototypes 247
What Are Prototypes Used For? 249
Principles of Prototyping 252
Analytical Prototypes Are Generally More Flexible
than Physical Prototypes 252
Physical Prototypes Are Required to Detect
Unanticipated Phenomena 252
A Prototype May Reduce the Risk
of Costly Iterations 252
A Prototype May Expedite Other Development
Steps 253
A Prototype May Restructure Task
Dependencies 255
Prototyping Technologies 255
3D Computer Modeling 255
Free-Form Fabrication 256
Planning for Prototypes 257
Step 1: Define the Purpose of the Prototype 257
Step 2: Establish the Level of Approximation
of the Prototype 258
Step 3: Outline an Experimental Plan 259
Step 4: Create a Schedule for Procurement,
Construction, and Testing 259
Planning Milestone Prototypes 259
Summary 261
References and Bibliography 261
Exercises 262
Thought Questions 263
Chapter 13
Robust Design 265
What Is Robust Design? 266
Design of Experiments 268
The Robust Design Process 269
Step 1: Identify Control Factors, Noise Factors,
and Performance Metrics 269
Step 2: Formulate an Objective Function 270
Step 3: Develop the Experimental Plan 271
Experimental Designs 271
Testing Noise Factors 273
Step 4: Run the Experiment 275
Step 5: Conduct the Analysis 275
Computing the Objective Function 275
Computing Factor Effects by Analysis
of Means 276
Step 6: Select and Confirm Factor
Setpoints 277
Step 7: Reflect and Repeat 277
Caveats 278
Summary 278
References and Bibliography 279
Exercises 280
Thought Questions 280
Appendix
Orthogonal Arrays 281
Chapter 14
Patents and Intellectual Property 285
What Is Intellectual Property? 286
Overview of Patents 287
Utility Patents 288
Preparing a Disclosure 288
Step 1: Formulate a Strategy and Plan 290
Timing of Patent Applications 290
Type of Application 291
Scope of Application 292
Step 2: Study Prior Inventions 292
Step 3: Outline Claims 293
Step 4: Write the Description of the Invention 294
Figures 295
Writing the Detailed Description 295
Defensive Disclosure 296
Step 5: Refine Claims 297
Writing the Claims 297
Guidelines for Crafting Claims 300
Step 6: Pursue Application 300
Step 7: Reflect on the Results and the Process 302
Summary 302
References and Bibliography 303
Exercises 303
Thought Questions 303
Appendix A
Trademarks 304
Appendix B
Advice to Individual Inventors 304
Chapter 15
Product Development Economics 307
Elements of Economic Analysis 308
Quantitative Analysis 308
Qualitative Analysis 308
When Should Economic Analysis Be
Performed? 309
Economic Analysis Process 310
Step 1: Build a Base-Case Financial Model 310
Estimate the Timing and Magnitude of Future Cash
Inflows and Outflows 310
Compute the Net Present Value
of the Cash Flows 312
The Base-Case Financial Model Can Support
Go/No-Go Decisions and Major Investment
Decisions 313
Step 2: Perform Sensitivity Analysis 313
Development Cost Example 314
Development Time Example 315
Step 3: Use Sensitivity Analysis to Understand
Project Trade-Offs 316
Six Potential Interactions 316
Trade-Off Rules 318
Limitations of Quantitative Analysis 319
Step 4: Consider the Influence of the Qualitative
Factors on Project Success 320
Projects Interact with the Firm, the Market, and the
Macro Environment 320
Carrying Out Qualitative Analysis 322
Summary 323
References and Bibliography 324
Exercises 325
Thought Questions 325
Appendix A
Time Value of Money and the Net Present
Value Technique 325
Appendix B
Modeling Uncertain Cash Flows Using Net
Present Value Analysis 328
Chapter 16
Managing Projects 331
Understanding and Representing Tasks 332
Sequential, Parallel, and Coupled Tasks 332
The Design Structure Matrix 334
Gantt Charts 335
PERT Charts 336
The Critical Path 336
Baseline Project Planning 337
The Contract Book 337
Project Task List 337
Team Staffing and Organization 339
Project Schedule 340
Project Budget 341
Project Risk Plan 341
Modifying the Baseline Plan 342
Accelerating Projects 343
Project Execution 346
Coordination Mechanisms 346
Assessing Project Status 349
Corrective Actions 349
Postmortem Project Evaluation 350
Summary 351
References and Bibliography 352
Exercises 354
Thought Questions 354
Appendix
Design Structure Matrix Example 354
Index 357

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Industrial management.
Production management.
Industrial engineering.
New products -- Management.