Table of contents for Spatial interpolation for climate data : the use of GIS in climatology and meterology / edited by Hartwig Dobesch, Pierre Dumolard, Izabela Dyras.

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Table of contents
Part 1	1
GIS to Manage and Distribute Climate Data	1
Chapter 1	4
GIS, Climatology and Meteorology	4
1.1. GIS technology and spatial data (working group 1)	4
1.1.1. Introduction	4
1.1.2. Weather and GIS	5
1.1.3. Geographical data, environmental data and weather data	5
1.1.4. A GIS approach to access weather data	7
1.2. Data and metadata	8
1.2.1. Introduction	8
1.2.2. Important datasets	8
Land use/land cover	8
Height	9
Environmental information systems	9
1.2.3. Metadata	10
1.2.4. Open Geospatial Consortium	11
1.2.5. EU strategies for data handling and standards	11
INSPIRE	11
DEMIS, the OpenGeospatial Web Map Server (WMS) protocol 
defines a simple interface for Web-based mapping applications. The 
WMS protocol is based on a simple query syntax for posting a request 
for the desired layers and zoom window to the server, which returns a 
map as a standard picture.	13
1.2.5. Meteorological datasets, important projects and programs	13
1.2.7. Projects using Earth Observations satellites	14
1.3. Interoperability	15
1.3.1. Introduction	15
1.3.2. Technology for service-oriented architectures	17
1.3.3. Interoperability in GIS	18
1.3.4. Open Geospatial Consortium foundation ideas	19
1.3.5. Standardized geospatial Web services	19
1.3.6. GIS and AS interoperability potential: data model and formats
	21
1.3.7. Atmospheric data model	22
1.3.8. Support from GIS for atmospheric data formats	23
1.4. Conclusions	24
1.5. Bibliography	24
Chapter 2.SIGMA: a Web-based GIS for Environmental Applications
	26
2.1. Introduction	26
2.2. CPTEC-INPE	27
2.3. SIGMA	28
2.3.1. Basic functions	30
2.4. Impacts of weather conditions on the economy	30
2.5. Severe Weather Observation System (SOS)	30
2.5.1. Tracking of convective clouds	31
2.5.2. Risk of lightning occurrence	31
2.6. SOS interface	32
2.7. Conclusions	34
2.8. Acknowledgements	35
2.9. Bibliography	35
Chapter 3.Web Mapping: Different Solutions UsingGIS	35
3.1. Introduction	36
3.2. Examples of Web mapping based on the usage of GIS technology 
in offline mode	36
3.3. Examples of Web mapping using GIS tools in online mode	39
3.4. Conclusion	44
3.5. Bibliography	45
Chapter 4.Comparison of Geostatistical and Meteorological 
Interpolation Methods (What is What?)	45
4.1. Introduction	46
4.2. Mathematical statistical model of spatial interpolation	46
4.2.1. Statistical parameters	47
4.2.2. Linear meteorological model for expected values	47
4.2.3. Linear regression formula	48
4.3. Geostatistical interpolation methods	48
4.3.1. Ordinary kriging formula	49
4.3.2. Universal kriging formula	49
4.3.3. Modeling of unknown statistical parameters in geostatistics	51
4.4. Meteorological interpolation	51
4.4.1. Meteorological interpolation formula	51
4.4.2. Possibility for the modeling of unknown statistical parameters 
in meteorology	52
4.4.3. Difference between geostatistics and meteorology	52
4.5. Software and connection of topics	53
4.6. Example of the MISH application	55
4.7. Bibliography	57
Chapter 5	57
Uncertainty from Spatial Sampling: a Case Study in the French Alps
	57
5.1. Introduction	57
5.2. The sample as a whole	58
5.2. Looking in detail where the sample is not representative	61
5.3. Summarizing the sampling uncertainty	64
5.3.1. 2D simplification	64
5.3.2. 3D generalization	65
5.3.3. Geographic homogenous sub-regions of the sample	68
5.3.4. Interpolation of a climate parameter	69
5.4. Conclusion	70
5.6. Some references	71
 Part 2.Spatial Interpolation of Climate Data
Chapter 6.The Developments in Spatialization of Meteorological and 
Climatological Elements
Chapter 7.The Spatial Analysis of the Selected Meteorological Fields 
on the Example of Poland
Chapter 8.Optimizing the Interpolation of Temperatures by GIS: a 
Space Analysis Approach
Chapter 9.Daily Winter Air Temperature Mapping 
in Mountainous Area
Chapter 10.Aspects Concerning the Spatialization 
of Radiation Balance Components
Part 3.Demo Projects
Chapter 11.The Use of GIS-Applications in Meteorology and 
Climatology: a Need for the Application of Regional Ecological 
Modeling Approaches
Chapter 12.GIS Application to Fire Risk Daily Mapping
Chapter 13.Application of GIS Technology on the Comparisons of 
Climatological Databases:an Overview of Winter Precipitation over 
Spain
Chapter 14.Drought Sensitivity Research in Hungary 
and Influence of Climate Change 
on Drought Sensitivity
Chapter 15.First Steps towards a New Temperature Climatology of the 
Greater Alpine Region (GAR)
Chapter 16.XRWIS: a New Gis Paradigm for 
Winter Road Maintenance
Part 4.Climate related Applications
Chapter 17.The Use of GIS in Climatology: Challenges in Fine Scales 
Applications: Examples in Agro-Meteorological and Urban Climate 
Studies
Chapter 18.Climate Impact on the Winter Land Use and Land Cover 
Management in Brittany
Chapter 19.A Tool for the Integrated Use of Remote Sensing with 
Ground Truth Data: DEMETER Project 
Chapter 20.Assessing Population Exposure to 
Odorous Pollution from a Landfill 
over Complex Terrain
Chapter 21.Disaggregated Estimation of N2o Fluxes from Agricultural 
Soils of the Italian Region by Modellization in GIS 
Environment

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Climatology -- Data processing.
Meteorology -- Data processing.
Geospatial data -- Mathematical models.
Geographic information systems.
Spatial data infrastructures.