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Contents Preface Acid-Base Disorders Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Adrenal Cortical Insufficiency (Addison¿s Disease) Alzheimer¿s Disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig¿s Disease) Anaphylaxis Anemia Aneurysm Angina Pectoris Anthrax Appendicitis Asthma Bell¿s Palsy Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Bladder Cancer Bone Tumor, Primary Brain Tumor (Benign and Malignant) Breast Cancer Bronchiectasis Bronchitis, Acute Bronchitis, Chronic Calcium Imbalance Cancer Candidiasis (Moniliasis, Yeast Infection, Thrush) Cardiomyopathy Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Cataract Cervical Cancer Chlamydial Infection Cholecystitis Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Cirrhosis Colorectal Cancer Condyloma Acuminata (Genital Warts) Coronary Heart Disease Crohn¿s Disease Cushing¿s Syndrome Cystic Fibrosis Decubitus Ulcers (Pressure Ulcers, Bedsores) Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes Mellitus Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Diverticular Disease Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding Emphysema Empyema Encephalitis Endocarditis Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer Endometriosis Epilepsy (Seizure Disorder) Fibrocystic Breast Disease FibromyalgiaFlail Chest Fluid Volume Deficit (Dehydration) Fluid Volume Excess (Hypervolemia) Fracture Gastritis Gastroenteritis (Enteritis, Food Poisoning, Cholera, Traveler¿s Diarrhea) Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Glaucoma Glomerulonephritis Gonorrhea Gout (Gouty Arthritis) Guillain-Barré Syndrome Heart Failure (Congestive Heart Failure) Hemophilia Hemorrhoids Hepatitis Hernia Herniated Intervertebral Disk Herpes Simplex Virus¿Herpes Labialis, Herpes Genitalis, Herpetic Whitlow, HSV Keratitis Hiatal Hernia Hodgkin¿s Disease Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Hyperglycemia Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State Hyperparathyroidism Hypersensitivity Hypertension Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis) Hypoglycemia Hypoparathyroidism Hypothyroidism Increased Intracranial Pressure Influenza Intestinal Obstruction Irritable Bowel Syndrome (Spastic Colitis) Kaposi¿s Sarcoma Legionnaires¿ Disease Leukemia Lyme Disease Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin¿s Macular Degeneration Magnesium Imbalance Melanoma Ménière¿s Disease Meningitis (Bacterial, Viral, Fungal) Mononucleosis Multiple Myeloma Multiple Sclerosis Muscular Dystrophy Myasthenia Gravis Myocardial Infarction Myocarditis Near-Drowning Occupational Lung Disease Osteoarthritis Osteomalacia (Rickets) Osteomyelitis Osteoporosis Otitis, Otitis Externa (Swimmer¿s Ear), Otitis Media Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatitis Parkinson¿s Disease Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Peptic Ulcer Disease Pericarditis Peripheral Vascular Disease Peritonitis Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pheochromocytoma Phosphate Imbalance Pleural Effusion Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poliomyelitis, Postpolio Syndrome Polycystic Kidney Disease Polycythemia Potassium Imbalance Prostate Cancer Psoriasis Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Embolism Pyelonephritis Raynaud¿s Phenomenon Renal Calculi (Nephrolithiasis, Kidney Stones) Renal Failure Respiratory Failure Rheumatoid Arthritis Scoliosis Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Shock (Hypovolemic, Cardiogenic, Distributive, Septic) Sickle Cell Anemia Skin Cancer, Nonmelanoma (Basal Cell, Squamous Cell) Smallpox Sodium Imbalance Stroke (CVA, Brain Attack) Substance Abuse Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syphilis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Testicular Cancer Tetanus Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger¿s Disease) Thrombocytopenia Tonsillitis Trigeminal Neuralgia Tuberculosis Ulcerative Colitis Urinary Tract Infection Uterine Leiomyomata (Fibroids) Vaginitis Valvular Heart Disease Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Infection (Chickenpox, Herpes Zoster [Shingles]) Varicose Veins New Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Venous Insufficiency, Chronic Venous Thrombosis (Thrombophlebitis) Vitiligo West Nile Encephalitis Tables Index Preface The Clinical Handbook for Medical-Surgical Nursing: Critical Thinking in Client Care is a handy, pocket-sized reference for the care of clients with health problems often encountered in clinical situations. While primarily developed as a supplement to the fourth edition of Clinical Handbook for Medical-Surgical Nursing: Critical Thinking in Client Care to which it is cross-referenced by chapter, the Clinical Handbook may also be used as a stand-alone reference text. It provides nursing students essential information in an easy-to-follow format, allowing them to respond quickly when a client¿s condition changes or when they are assigned to a new client. Organization The Clinical Handbook covers the most common health problems nursing students are likely to encounter in medical-surgical nursing. The conditions appear in alphabetical order for quick retrieval of the most vital information. Key Features The Clinical Handbook presents varying amounts of information about each condition according to its prevalence and/or seriousness. Overview includes the definition of the condition, its classification within other categories, incidence, and basic pathophysiologic mechanisms. Causes lists actual causes, when known, or provides a risk-factor assessment when appropriate. Manifestations appear in order of those most characteristic of the condition to those less frequently encountered. Diagnostic Tests include the most frequently used laboratory tests, diagnostic imaging tests, and/or other testing methods, as well as the significance of abnormal results. Interdisciplinary Management lists the medications and treatments most commonly associated with each condition. Selected Nursing Diagnoses with Interventions lists the high priority nursing diagnoses with related nursing interventions. Community-Based Care provides teaching topics and referral sources, as appropriate, for clients who are being discharged from a healthcare facility or who provide self-care at home. Cross-references guide students to more detailed information available in Medical-Surgical Nursing: Critical Thinking in Client Care. Every effort has been made to ensure that the Clinical Handbook is as accurate, current, and practical as possible so that nursing students can find ready answers to clinical problems. Acknowledgments Our thanks to the editorial staff at Prentice Hall for their guidance in the revision of the fourth edition of the Clinical Handbook for Medical-Surgical Nursing: Critical Thinking in Client Care. We are grateful to the students who use the book to provide safe and knowledgeable client care, and to the faculty who have found it to be a useful teaching¿learning tool in the clinical setting. Priscilla LeMone, RN, DSN, FAAN Associate Professor Emeritus Sinclair School of Nursing University of Missouri¿Columbia Columbia, MO Karen M. Burke, RN, MS Education Consultant Oregon State Board of Nursing Portland, OR
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Nursing -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Surgical nursing -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Nursing Process -- Handbooks.
Nursing Care -- Handbooks.
Patient Care Planning -- Handbooks.
Perioperative Nursing -- Handbooks.