Table of contents for Social problems : a down-to-earth approach / James M. Henslin.

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Brief Contents
PART I†The Sociology of Social Problems
Chapter
	1	How Sociologists View Social Problems: 
The Abortion Dilemma††	2
Chapter 
	2	Interpreting Social Problems: Aging††	24
PART II†Norm Violations in Social Context
Chapter 
Chapter
	3	Human Sexual Behavior††	48
Chapter 
	4	Alcohol and Other Drugs††	84
Chapter 
	5	Violence in Society: Rape and Murder ††	130
Chapter 
	6	Crime and Criminal Justice††	164
PART III	Problems of Social Inequality
Chapter 
Chapter
 	7	Economic Problems: Wealth and Poverty††	208
Chapter 
	8	Racial-Ethnic Relations††	224
Chapter 
	9	Sex Discrimination††	284
Chapter 
	10	Medical Care: Physical and Mental Illness††	318
PART IV	SOCIAL CHANGE AND MEGAPROBLEMS
Chapter 
Chapter 
	11	The Changing Family††	362
Chapter 
	12	Urban Problems††	398
Chapter 
	13	Population and Food ††	434
Chapter 
	14	The Environmental Crisis ††	472
Chapter 
	15	War, Terrorism, and the Balance of Power††	516
Contents
Boxes††xxi
Preface††xxi
PART I†The Sociology of Social Problems
Chapter 
	1	How Sociologists View Social Problems: 
The Abortion Dilemma ††	2
The Sociological Imagination††3
What is the Sociological Imagination?††3
What Is a Social Problem?††6
The Essential Elements of a Social Problem††6
u††A Global Glimpse: Only Females Eligible: Sex-Selection Abortion in India††7
u††Issues in Social Problems:†A Problem for Some is a Solution for Others: The Relativity of Social Problems††8
The Natural History of Social Problems: Four Stages††9
The First Stage: Defining the Problem, the Emergence of Leaders, and Beginning to Organize††9
The Second Stage: Crafting and Official Response††10
The Third Stage: Reacting to the Official Response††10
The Fourth Stage: Developing Alternative Strategies††10
The Role of Sociology in Social Problems††14
Sociology as a Tool for Breaking Through Emotions and Defenses††14
Sociology and Common Sense††16
Methods for Studying Social Problems††17
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Coping with Guilt After an Abortion††19
Should Sociologists Take Sides?††20
u††Spotlight on Social Research††21
Summary and Review††22
Chapter 
	2	Interpreting Social Problems: Aging ††	24
Sociological Theories and Social Problems ††26
Symbolic Interactionism and Social Problems††27
Introducing Symbolic Interactionism††27
The Development of Symbolic Interactionism††28
u††Spotlight on Research: Studying Young People Who Become Old††29
u††Issues in Social Problems: Making Sense of Suicide: The Social 
Construction of Reality††31
Applying Symbolic Interactionism to Social Problems††32
Symbolic Interactionism and Social Problems: A Summary††32
Functionalism and Social Problems††32
Introducing Functionalism††32
The Development of Functionalism††33
Applying Functionalism to Social Problems††34
Functionalism and Social Problems: A Summary††36
u††A Global Glimpse: The Coming Tidal Wave: Japanøs Elderly††37
Conflict Theory and Social Problems††38
Introducing Conflict Theory††38
The Development of Conflict Theory††38
Applying Conflict Theory to Social Problems††40
Conflict Theory and Social Problems: A Summary††41
The Future of the Problem: The Pendulum Swings††42
Changing Objective Conditions and Subjective Concerns††42
The Emerging Struggle††43
u††Issues in Social Problems: The Gray Panthers††45
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Applying the Theories: Understanding the Intergenerational Battle††46
Summary and Review††47
PART II	†Norm Violations in Social Context
Chapter 
Chapter 
	3	Human Sexual Behavior††	48
Objective Conditions and Subjective Concerns††49
Homosexuality††50
Background: Getting the Larger Picture††50
Homosexuality Viewed Theoretically: Applying Conflict Theory††54
Research on Homosexuality††54
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Should Homosexuals Be Declared a Minority Group?††55
u††Spotlight on Social Research : Studying Sex in America††57
Differences Between Male and Female Homosexuals††60
Prostitution††61
Background: Getting the Larger Picture††61
Prostitution Viewed Theoretically: Applying Functionalism††63
u††Issues in Social Problems: Me, a Prostitute?††64
u††A Global Glimpse: The Patriotic Prostitute††66
Research on Prostitution††66
Pornography††71
Background: Getting the Larger Picture††71
Pornography Viewed Theoretically: Applying Symbolic Interactionism††73
u††Technology and Social Problems: øNow Take Off Your . . .ø: Live Exhibitions by Children on Webcams††75
Controversy and Research on Pornography††75
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: The Pornifying of America: Crushing Resistance an Co-opting Feminists††78
Social Policy††78
The Question of Making Consensual Behavior Illegal††79
Alternatives to Making Consensual Behavior Illegal††79
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Should We Legalize Prostitution?††79
u††Issues in Social Problems: Applying Sociology: Taking Back Children from the Night††80
The Future of the Problem††81
Homosexuality and the Future††81
Prostitution and the Future††81
Pornography and the Future††82
u††Technology and Social Problems: Pornography on the Internet††82
Summary and Review††83
Chapter 
	4	Alcohol and Other Drugs††	††84
The Problem in Social Perspective††85
Background of the Problem††85
Attempts to Deal with the Problem††86
The Scope of the Problem††88
The Social Problems and the Pro-Drug Orientation of U.S. Society††88
Addiction and Dependence††89
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††90
Symbolic Interactionism††90
u††Issues in Social Problems: The Pilgrims, Beer, and Thanksgiving††91
Functionalism††92
u††Issues in Social Problems: Sociology and Common Sense: Legal and Illegal Drugs††93
Conflict Theory††93
u††Issues in Social Problems: Marijuana: Assassin of Youth††94
Research Findings: The Use and Abuse of Drugs††96
Medicalizing Human Problems††96
u††Spotlight on Social Research: The Miami Club Culture: Prescription Drug Abuse Among Ecstasy Users††98
Drug Use by Students††99
The Effects of Drugs††100
Research Findings: The Recreational Mood Elevators††101
Alcohol††101
u††A Global Glimpse: First Death, Then Shag: Targeting College Students††104
Nicotine††105
Marijuana††107
u††Issues in Social Problems: Targeting Kids and Minorities††108
Cocaine††110
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: On Pregnancy, Drugs, and Jail††112
Research Findings: The Hallucinogens††113
LSD††113
Peyote and Mescaline††114
Psilocybin††114
PCP††114
Ecstasy††115
Research Findings: The Amphetamines, Barbituates, and Heroin††115
The Amphetamines††115
The Barbituates††115
Heroin††116
u††A Global Glimpse: øWhatøs a Poor Farmer to Do?ø Heroin Supplies Forever††118
Research Findings: Narcotics, Crime, and the Law††119
Social Policy††120
The Dilemmas of Social Policy††120
u††Issues in Social Problems: Just What Can You Do? The Larry Mahoney Case††121
u††A Global Glimpse: Drugs and Drug Violence: What Shall We Do?††123
Deciding Social Policy††124
The Future of the Problem††127
Summary and Review††128
Chapter 
	5	Violence in Society: Rape and Murder††	130
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††131
The Sociological Perspective on Violence††132
The Scope of the Problem††132
What Makes Violence a Social Problem?††132
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††137
Nonsociological Theories††137
Symbolic Interactionism††138
Functionalism††139
u††Spotlight on Social Research: Studying Violence Among the øLionsø††140
Conflict Theory††141
Research Findings††143
Rape††143
The Natural History of Rape as a Social Problem††143
The Social Patterns of Rape††144
Profiling the Rapist††146
u††Issues in Social Problems: Date (or Acquaintance) Rape††148
Reactions to Rape††148
Murder††150
The Social Patterns of Murder††150
Social Bases of the Social Patterns††154
u††Spotlight on Social Research: Doing Research on a Serial Killer††159
Social Policy††160
Global Concerns: Preventing Violence††160
The Future of the Problem††161
Summary and Review††162
Chapter 
	6	Crime and Criminal Justice††	164
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††165
The Scope of the Problem††166
Crime as a Social Problem††166
The Criminal Justice System as a Social Problem††168
u††Issues in Social Problems: You Donøt Have to Be Poor to Go To JailøBut It Helps††169
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††172
Symbolic Interactionism††172
Functionalism††174
Conflict Theory††176
u††Spotlight on Social Research: My Personal Journey into Sociology††178
Research Findings††178
Juvenile Delinquency††178
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Lords of the Slums††182
White-Collar Crime††184
Professional Crime††187
u††Technology and Social Problems: Using Technology to Commit Crime††188
Organized Crime††189
Political Crime††191
The Criminal Justice System††192
Social Policy††198
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Public Shaming as Social Policy††199
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Squeeze You Like a Grape††201
u††Technology and Social Problems: Using Technology to Stop Crime††203
The Future of the Problem††206
Summary and Review††206
PART III†Problems of Social Inequality
Chapter 
	Chapter
	7	Economic Problems: Wealth and Poverty††	208
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††209
Economic Systems and Changes††209
Four Economic Problems Facing the United States††211
The Nature of Poverty††213
The Scope of the Problem††214
Subjective Concerns and Objective Conditions††214
The Situation Today††214
Social Inequality††215
Distribution of Income and Wealth††216
The Impact of Poverty††217
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††219
Symbolic Interactionism††219
Functionalism††220
Conflict Theory††220
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Why We Need the Poor: How Poverty Helps Society††221
u††Spotlight on Social Research: Demonizing the Poor††222
Research Findings††223
Who Are the Poor?††223
Is There a Culture of Poverty?††226
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Rules for Avoiding Poverty††227
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Being Homeless in the Land of the American Dream††228
Who Rules America?††229
Inequality and Global Power††233
u††A Global Glimpse: Killing Kids for Fun and Profit††234
Social Policy††235
Historical Changes in Social Policy††235
Progressive Taxation††236
Public Assistance Programs††237
u††Issues in Social Problems: Welfare: How to Ravage the Self-Concept††238
The Feminization of Poverty††239
Private Agencies and Volunteer Organizations††239
The Purpose of Helping the Poor††239
Providing Jobs††240
Education Accounts††240
Giving the Poor More Money††240
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: The Universal Guaranteed Income Plan to Eliminate Poverty††241
Summary and Review††242
Chapter 
	8	Racial-Ethnic Relations††	244
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††245
The Scope of the Problem††249
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Can a Plane Ride Change Your Race?††250
What Is the Problem?††252
u††Spotlight on Social Research: Being a øForeignø American††253
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: What Should We Do About Hate Speech††255
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††258
Symbolic Interactionism††258
Functionalism††260
u††Spotlight on Social Research: Studying Neo-Nazis and Klans††261
Conflict Theory††261
Research Findings††264
Native Americans††264
Latinos (Hispanics)††268
u††Issues in Social Problems: The Illegal Travel Guide††269
African Americans††271
Asian Americans††275
Social Policy††277
Encouraging Cultural Pluralism††277
Preventing Discrimination††278
The Dilemma of Affirmative Action††278
Principles for Improving Relations††279
The Future of the Problem††280
Summary and Review††282
Chapter 
	9	Sex Discrimination††	284
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††285
The Scope of the Problem††286
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††288
Symbolic Interactionism††288
Functionalism††289
u††A Global Glimpse: Female Circumcision††290
Conflict Theory††292
Research Findings††294
Are There Natural Differences Between The Sexes?††294
u††Issues in Social Problems: The Nature-Nurture Controversy: Biology Versus Culture††296
Everyday Life††298
Education††298
The Mass Media††300
The World of Politics††303
The World of Work††305
Why is Our Workforce Segregated by Sex?††308
Sexual Harassment††309
u††A Global Glimpse: Sexual Harassment in Japan††311
u††Spotlight on Research: Sexual Harassment at Two Magazines††312
Violence Against Women††313
Social Policy††314
Irreconcilable Ideologies††314
The Battle Lines††315
Ideology and Social Policy††316
The Future of the Problem††316
Summary and Review††317
Chapter 
	10	Medical Care: Physical and Mental Illness††	318
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††319
The Social Nature of Health and Illness††320
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: How Incompetent Are Doctors?††321
u††A Global Glimpse: A Medical Mystery: On Bats, Fruit Flies, and Asthma††322
The Social Organization of Medicine as a Source of Problems††323
The Scope of the Problem††326
Physical Illness as a Social Problem††326
Mental Illness as a Social Problem††329
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††331
Symbolic Interactionism††331
u††Issues in Social Problems: Suicide: The Making and Unmaking of a Social Problem††332
Functionalism††335
Conflict Theory††336
Research Findings††338
An Overview of Physical Health Problems††338
How Disease is Related to Behavior and Environment: The Case of HIV/AIDS††339
u††Technology and Social Problems: Superbugs in the Global Village††341
Social Inequalities in Physical Illness††342
Social Inequalities in Mental Illness††343
Social Policy††346
u††Technology and Social Problems: Cyberbabble, Cybershinks, and Cybershams††347
Being Paid to Stay Healthy††347
Prepaid Medical Care: The Example of HMOs††348
Physician Assistants††349
Training Physicians††349
Outreach Services††351
Preventive Medicine††351
Humanizing Health Care††353
Self-Care Groups††354
u††Spotlight on Social Research: Solving a Health Mystery††355
u††A Global Glimpse: Health Care in Sweden, Russia, and China††356
The Future of the Problem††358
Technology††358
Redirecting Medicine††358
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Should Doctors be Allowed to Kill Patients?††359
Summary and Review††360
PART IV†Social Change and Megaproblems
Chapter 
	11	The Changing Family††	362
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††363
Effects of the Industrial Revolution on the Family††364
The Scope of the Problem††366
Divorce††367
One-Parent Families††370
Other Problems††373
Looking at the Problem Theoretically: Why Is Divorce Common?††374
Symbolic Interactionism††374
Functionalism††376
Conflict Theory††378
Research Findings††379
Cohabitation and the Changing Age at First Marriage††379
Childlessness††381
Family Violence††381
u††Spotlight on Social Research: Intimate Partner Violence††383
u††Issues in Social Problems: øWhy Doesnøt She Just Leave?ø The Dilemma of Abused Women††385
Sexual Abuse in the Family††386
Old Age and Widowhood††388
The Death of the Family?††389
Social Policy††391
The Future of the Problem††394
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Child Rights††395
u††Issues in Social Problems: What Does Day Care Cost a Company?††396
Summary and Review††397
Chapter 
	12	Urban Problems††	398
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††399
The Scope of the Problem††402
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††403
Symbolic Interactionism††403
u††A Global Glimpse: Why City Slums Are Better Than the Country: The Rush to the Cities of the Least Industrialized Nations††404
u††Spotlight on Social Research: The Code of the Street††406
Functionalism††407
Conflict Theory††409
Research Findings††409
Alienation in the City††410
Community in the City††410
The Decline of the Central City††412
u††Issues in Social Problems: A Failed Experiment: Creating Alienation††413
Urban Violence: Youth Gangs††415
Urban Violence: Schools††418
Urban Violence: Riots††419
The City in Change††421
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Reclaiming the City: The New Harlem††422
The Megalopolis††424
Social Policy††426
Specific Programs††426
Educating the Poor††428
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Educating for Success: Reestablishing Community in the Learning Process††430
The Future of the Problem††431
Summary and Review††433
Chapter 
	13	Population and Food††	434
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††435
u††A Global Glimpse: øIød Like to Have Twenty Childrenø††439
u††Spotlight on Social Research: Experiencing the Demographic Transition††440
The Scope of the Problem††441
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††443
Symbolic Interactionism††443
Functionalism††445
Conflict Theory††448
Research Findings††450
The New Malthusians††450
The Anti-Malthusians††453
Has the Population Explosion Peaked?††455
Problems in Forecasting Population Growth††456
Does the United States Have a Population Problem?††458
Social Policy††459
Exporting Western Agriculture††459
Policy Implications of the Anti-Malthusians††460
Policy Implications of the New Malthusians††461
Restructuring Global Markets††463
Illegal Immigration††464
The Future of the Problem††464
The New Malthusian Viewpoint††464
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Going North: The Dream and the Reality††465
u††A Global Glimpse: Where Wall-to-Wall Means People††466
The Anti-Malthusian Viewpoint††466
The Long-Term Anti-Malthusian Viewpoint††467
u††A Global Glimpse: The Lopsided Society: Pronatalism in Sweden
Which Will It Be?††469
Summary and Review††470
Chapter 
	14	The Environmental Crisis††	472
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††473
Environmental Destruction in the Past: The Myth of the Noble Savage††473
The Tragedy of the Commons††475
The Scope of the Problem††475
øEverything Is Connected to Everything Elseø††475
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††477
Symbolic Interactionism††477
Functionalism††479
Conflict Theory††480
Research Findings††481
Air Pollution††481
u††Technology and Social Problems: How to Get Paid to Pollute: Corporate Welfare and Big Welfare Bucks††482
Land Pollution††485
Water Pollution††487
Toxic Chemicals††489
Nuclear Pollution††491
Food Pollution††492
u††Technology and Social Problems: øDo You Eat Plastic Food?ø Why Europeans Donøt Like U.S. Food††494
Pollution in the Industrializing Nations††496
u††A Global Glimpse: Where New Life Brings Death††497
Getting the Other Side††498
Of Special Concern: The Tropical Rain Forests††499
Energy and Resources††500
u††Thinking Critically About Social Problems: Put Your Money Where Your Mouth Is: The Simon-Ehrlich Bet††503
Reconciling the Positions††504
Social Policy††505
Oppositional Viewpoints and Overarching Solutions††505
Pollution††506
u††A Global Glimpse: The Circle of Poison††507
Energy††509
Moral Issues in a Global Age††510
The Future of the Problem††511
Energy††511
Pollution††511
u††Spotlight on Social Research: The Marriage of Community and Environment††512
Summary and Review††514
Chapter 
	15	War, Terrorism, and the Balance of Power††	516
The Problem in Sociological Perspective††517
Why Is War Common?††518
u††A Global Glimpse: Nourishing Agression: The Yanomam^††519
Why Do Some Groups Choose War?††519
The Scope of the Problem††520
War in the History of the West††520
Measuring War in Terms of Deaths††520
Looking at the Problem Theoretically††521
Symbolic Interactionism††522
Functionalism††523
Conflict Theory††525
The Military Machine Today††525
u††Spotlight on Social Research: Adventures in Military Sociology††527
Research Findings††526
What Reduces War?††526
The Costs of War††528
The Military-Industrial Complex††533
The Possibility of Accidental War††535
Biological and Chemical Warfare††539
Terrorism††540
u††A Global Glimpse: Al-Qaeda and the West: Power, Resources, and Lost Glory††544
Social Policy††547
Political Terrorism††547
u††Technology and Social Problems: Our Future: Biological Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century††548
Nuclear Warfare and the Elusive Path to Peace††549
The Future of the Problem††552
Summary and Review††554
Glossary††557
Bibliography††563
Photo Credits††000
Name Index††000
Subject Index††000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Social problems.
Deviant behavior.
Equality.
Social change.
Symbolic interactionism.
Functionalism (Social sciences).
United States -- Social conditions -- 1980-.