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Brief Contents PART IThe Sociology of Social Problems Chapter 1 How Sociologists View Social Problems: The Abortion Dilemma 2 Chapter 2 Interpreting Social Problems: Aging 24 PART IINorm Violations in Social Context Chapter Chapter 3 Human Sexual Behavior 48 Chapter 4 Alcohol and Other Drugs 84 Chapter 5 Violence in Society: Rape and Murder 130 Chapter 6 Crime and Criminal Justice 164 PART III Problems of Social Inequality Chapter Chapter 7 Economic Problems: Wealth and Poverty 208 Chapter 8 Racial-Ethnic Relations 224 Chapter 9 Sex Discrimination 284 Chapter 10 Medical Care: Physical and Mental Illness 318 PART IV SOCIAL CHANGE AND MEGAPROBLEMS Chapter Chapter 11 The Changing Family 362 Chapter 12 Urban Problems 398 Chapter 13 Population and Food 434 Chapter 14 The Environmental Crisis 472 Chapter 15 War, Terrorism, and the Balance of Power 516 Contents Boxesxxi Prefacexxi PART IThe Sociology of Social Problems Chapter 1 How Sociologists View Social Problems: The Abortion Dilemma 2 The Sociological Imagination3 What is the Sociological Imagination?3 What Is a Social Problem?6 The Essential Elements of a Social Problem6 uA Global Glimpse: Only Females Eligible: Sex-Selection Abortion in India7 uIssues in Social Problems:A Problem for Some is a Solution for Others: The Relativity of Social Problems8 The Natural History of Social Problems: Four Stages9 The First Stage: Defining the Problem, the Emergence of Leaders, and Beginning to Organize9 The Second Stage: Crafting and Official Response10 The Third Stage: Reacting to the Official Response10 The Fourth Stage: Developing Alternative Strategies10 The Role of Sociology in Social Problems14 Sociology as a Tool for Breaking Through Emotions and Defenses14 Sociology and Common Sense16 Methods for Studying Social Problems17 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Coping with Guilt After an Abortion19 Should Sociologists Take Sides?20 uSpotlight on Social Research21 Summary and Review22 Chapter 2 Interpreting Social Problems: Aging 24 Sociological Theories and Social Problems 26 Symbolic Interactionism and Social Problems27 Introducing Symbolic Interactionism27 The Development of Symbolic Interactionism28 uSpotlight on Research: Studying Young People Who Become Old29 uIssues in Social Problems: Making Sense of Suicide: The Social Construction of Reality31 Applying Symbolic Interactionism to Social Problems32 Symbolic Interactionism and Social Problems: A Summary32 Functionalism and Social Problems32 Introducing Functionalism32 The Development of Functionalism33 Applying Functionalism to Social Problems34 Functionalism and Social Problems: A Summary36 uA Global Glimpse: The Coming Tidal Wave: Japanøs Elderly37 Conflict Theory and Social Problems38 Introducing Conflict Theory38 The Development of Conflict Theory38 Applying Conflict Theory to Social Problems40 Conflict Theory and Social Problems: A Summary41 The Future of the Problem: The Pendulum Swings42 Changing Objective Conditions and Subjective Concerns42 The Emerging Struggle43 uIssues in Social Problems: The Gray Panthers45 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Applying the Theories: Understanding the Intergenerational Battle46 Summary and Review47 PART II Norm Violations in Social Context Chapter Chapter 3 Human Sexual Behavior 48 Objective Conditions and Subjective Concerns49 Homosexuality50 Background: Getting the Larger Picture50 Homosexuality Viewed Theoretically: Applying Conflict Theory54 Research on Homosexuality54 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Should Homosexuals Be Declared a Minority Group?55 uSpotlight on Social Research : Studying Sex in America57 Differences Between Male and Female Homosexuals60 Prostitution61 Background: Getting the Larger Picture61 Prostitution Viewed Theoretically: Applying Functionalism63 uIssues in Social Problems: Me, a Prostitute?64 uA Global Glimpse: The Patriotic Prostitute66 Research on Prostitution66 Pornography71 Background: Getting the Larger Picture71 Pornography Viewed Theoretically: Applying Symbolic Interactionism73 uTechnology and Social Problems: øNow Take Off Your . . .ø: Live Exhibitions by Children on Webcams75 Controversy and Research on Pornography75 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: The Pornifying of America: Crushing Resistance an Co-opting Feminists78 Social Policy78 The Question of Making Consensual Behavior Illegal79 Alternatives to Making Consensual Behavior Illegal79 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Should We Legalize Prostitution?79 uIssues in Social Problems: Applying Sociology: Taking Back Children from the Night80 The Future of the Problem81 Homosexuality and the Future81 Prostitution and the Future81 Pornography and the Future82 uTechnology and Social Problems: Pornography on the Internet82 Summary and Review83 Chapter 4 Alcohol and Other Drugs 84 The Problem in Social Perspective85 Background of the Problem85 Attempts to Deal with the Problem86 The Scope of the Problem88 The Social Problems and the Pro-Drug Orientation of U.S. Society88 Addiction and Dependence89 Looking at the Problem Theoretically90 Symbolic Interactionism90 uIssues in Social Problems: The Pilgrims, Beer, and Thanksgiving91 Functionalism92 uIssues in Social Problems: Sociology and Common Sense: Legal and Illegal Drugs93 Conflict Theory93 uIssues in Social Problems: Marijuana: Assassin of Youth94 Research Findings: The Use and Abuse of Drugs96 Medicalizing Human Problems96 uSpotlight on Social Research: The Miami Club Culture: Prescription Drug Abuse Among Ecstasy Users98 Drug Use by Students99 The Effects of Drugs100 Research Findings: The Recreational Mood Elevators101 Alcohol101 uA Global Glimpse: First Death, Then Shag: Targeting College Students104 Nicotine105 Marijuana107 uIssues in Social Problems: Targeting Kids and Minorities108 Cocaine110 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: On Pregnancy, Drugs, and Jail112 Research Findings: The Hallucinogens113 LSD113 Peyote and Mescaline114 Psilocybin114 PCP114 Ecstasy115 Research Findings: The Amphetamines, Barbituates, and Heroin115 The Amphetamines115 The Barbituates115 Heroin116 uA Global Glimpse: øWhatøs a Poor Farmer to Do?ø Heroin Supplies Forever118 Research Findings: Narcotics, Crime, and the Law119 Social Policy120 The Dilemmas of Social Policy120 uIssues in Social Problems: Just What Can You Do? The Larry Mahoney Case121 uA Global Glimpse: Drugs and Drug Violence: What Shall We Do?123 Deciding Social Policy124 The Future of the Problem127 Summary and Review128 Chapter 5 Violence in Society: Rape and Murder 130 The Problem in Sociological Perspective131 The Sociological Perspective on Violence132 The Scope of the Problem132 What Makes Violence a Social Problem?132 Looking at the Problem Theoretically137 Nonsociological Theories137 Symbolic Interactionism138 Functionalism139 uSpotlight on Social Research: Studying Violence Among the øLionsø140 Conflict Theory141 Research Findings143 Rape143 The Natural History of Rape as a Social Problem143 The Social Patterns of Rape144 Profiling the Rapist146 uIssues in Social Problems: Date (or Acquaintance) Rape148 Reactions to Rape148 Murder150 The Social Patterns of Murder150 Social Bases of the Social Patterns154 uSpotlight on Social Research: Doing Research on a Serial Killer159 Social Policy160 Global Concerns: Preventing Violence160 The Future of the Problem161 Summary and Review162 Chapter 6 Crime and Criminal Justice 164 The Problem in Sociological Perspective165 The Scope of the Problem166 Crime as a Social Problem166 The Criminal Justice System as a Social Problem168 uIssues in Social Problems: You Donøt Have to Be Poor to Go To JailøBut It Helps169 Looking at the Problem Theoretically172 Symbolic Interactionism172 Functionalism174 Conflict Theory176 uSpotlight on Social Research: My Personal Journey into Sociology178 Research Findings178 Juvenile Delinquency178 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Lords of the Slums182 White-Collar Crime184 Professional Crime187 uTechnology and Social Problems: Using Technology to Commit Crime188 Organized Crime189 Political Crime191 The Criminal Justice System192 Social Policy198 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Public Shaming as Social Policy199 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Squeeze You Like a Grape201 uTechnology and Social Problems: Using Technology to Stop Crime203 The Future of the Problem206 Summary and Review206 PART IIIProblems of Social Inequality Chapter Chapter 7 Economic Problems: Wealth and Poverty 208 The Problem in Sociological Perspective209 Economic Systems and Changes209 Four Economic Problems Facing the United States211 The Nature of Poverty213 The Scope of the Problem214 Subjective Concerns and Objective Conditions214 The Situation Today214 Social Inequality215 Distribution of Income and Wealth216 The Impact of Poverty217 Looking at the Problem Theoretically219 Symbolic Interactionism219 Functionalism220 Conflict Theory220 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Why We Need the Poor: How Poverty Helps Society221 uSpotlight on Social Research: Demonizing the Poor222 Research Findings223 Who Are the Poor?223 Is There a Culture of Poverty?226 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Rules for Avoiding Poverty227 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Being Homeless in the Land of the American Dream228 Who Rules America?229 Inequality and Global Power233 uA Global Glimpse: Killing Kids for Fun and Profit234 Social Policy235 Historical Changes in Social Policy235 Progressive Taxation236 Public Assistance Programs237 uIssues in Social Problems: Welfare: How to Ravage the Self-Concept238 The Feminization of Poverty239 Private Agencies and Volunteer Organizations239 The Purpose of Helping the Poor239 Providing Jobs240 Education Accounts240 Giving the Poor More Money240 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: The Universal Guaranteed Income Plan to Eliminate Poverty241 Summary and Review242 Chapter 8 Racial-Ethnic Relations 244 The Problem in Sociological Perspective245 The Scope of the Problem249 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Can a Plane Ride Change Your Race?250 What Is the Problem?252 uSpotlight on Social Research: Being a øForeignø American253 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: What Should We Do About Hate Speech255 Looking at the Problem Theoretically258 Symbolic Interactionism258 Functionalism260 uSpotlight on Social Research: Studying Neo-Nazis and Klans261 Conflict Theory261 Research Findings264 Native Americans264 Latinos (Hispanics)268 uIssues in Social Problems: The Illegal Travel Guide269 African Americans271 Asian Americans275 Social Policy277 Encouraging Cultural Pluralism277 Preventing Discrimination278 The Dilemma of Affirmative Action278 Principles for Improving Relations279 The Future of the Problem280 Summary and Review282 Chapter 9 Sex Discrimination 284 The Problem in Sociological Perspective285 The Scope of the Problem286 Looking at the Problem Theoretically288 Symbolic Interactionism288 Functionalism289 uA Global Glimpse: Female Circumcision290 Conflict Theory292 Research Findings294 Are There Natural Differences Between The Sexes?294 uIssues in Social Problems: The Nature-Nurture Controversy: Biology Versus Culture296 Everyday Life298 Education298 The Mass Media300 The World of Politics303 The World of Work305 Why is Our Workforce Segregated by Sex?308 Sexual Harassment309 uA Global Glimpse: Sexual Harassment in Japan311 uSpotlight on Research: Sexual Harassment at Two Magazines312 Violence Against Women313 Social Policy314 Irreconcilable Ideologies314 The Battle Lines315 Ideology and Social Policy316 The Future of the Problem316 Summary and Review317 Chapter 10 Medical Care: Physical and Mental Illness 318 The Problem in Sociological Perspective319 The Social Nature of Health and Illness320 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: How Incompetent Are Doctors?321 uA Global Glimpse: A Medical Mystery: On Bats, Fruit Flies, and Asthma322 The Social Organization of Medicine as a Source of Problems323 The Scope of the Problem326 Physical Illness as a Social Problem326 Mental Illness as a Social Problem329 Looking at the Problem Theoretically331 Symbolic Interactionism331 uIssues in Social Problems: Suicide: The Making and Unmaking of a Social Problem332 Functionalism335 Conflict Theory336 Research Findings338 An Overview of Physical Health Problems338 How Disease is Related to Behavior and Environment: The Case of HIV/AIDS339 uTechnology and Social Problems: Superbugs in the Global Village341 Social Inequalities in Physical Illness342 Social Inequalities in Mental Illness343 Social Policy346 uTechnology and Social Problems: Cyberbabble, Cybershinks, and Cybershams347 Being Paid to Stay Healthy347 Prepaid Medical Care: The Example of HMOs348 Physician Assistants349 Training Physicians349 Outreach Services351 Preventive Medicine351 Humanizing Health Care353 Self-Care Groups354 uSpotlight on Social Research: Solving a Health Mystery355 uA Global Glimpse: Health Care in Sweden, Russia, and China356 The Future of the Problem358 Technology358 Redirecting Medicine358 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Should Doctors be Allowed to Kill Patients?359 Summary and Review360 PART IVSocial Change and Megaproblems Chapter 11 The Changing Family 362 The Problem in Sociological Perspective363 Effects of the Industrial Revolution on the Family364 The Scope of the Problem366 Divorce367 One-Parent Families370 Other Problems373 Looking at the Problem Theoretically: Why Is Divorce Common?374 Symbolic Interactionism374 Functionalism376 Conflict Theory378 Research Findings379 Cohabitation and the Changing Age at First Marriage379 Childlessness381 Family Violence381 uSpotlight on Social Research: Intimate Partner Violence383 uIssues in Social Problems: øWhy Doesnøt She Just Leave?ø The Dilemma of Abused Women385 Sexual Abuse in the Family386 Old Age and Widowhood388 The Death of the Family?389 Social Policy391 The Future of the Problem394 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Child Rights395 uIssues in Social Problems: What Does Day Care Cost a Company?396 Summary and Review397 Chapter 12 Urban Problems 398 The Problem in Sociological Perspective399 The Scope of the Problem402 Looking at the Problem Theoretically403 Symbolic Interactionism403 uA Global Glimpse: Why City Slums Are Better Than the Country: The Rush to the Cities of the Least Industrialized Nations404 uSpotlight on Social Research: The Code of the Street406 Functionalism407 Conflict Theory409 Research Findings409 Alienation in the City410 Community in the City410 The Decline of the Central City412 uIssues in Social Problems: A Failed Experiment: Creating Alienation413 Urban Violence: Youth Gangs415 Urban Violence: Schools418 Urban Violence: Riots419 The City in Change421 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Reclaiming the City: The New Harlem422 The Megalopolis424 Social Policy426 Specific Programs426 Educating the Poor428 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Educating for Success: Reestablishing Community in the Learning Process430 The Future of the Problem431 Summary and Review433 Chapter 13 Population and Food 434 The Problem in Sociological Perspective435 uA Global Glimpse: øIød Like to Have Twenty Childrenø439 uSpotlight on Social Research: Experiencing the Demographic Transition440 The Scope of the Problem441 Looking at the Problem Theoretically443 Symbolic Interactionism443 Functionalism445 Conflict Theory448 Research Findings450 The New Malthusians450 The Anti-Malthusians453 Has the Population Explosion Peaked?455 Problems in Forecasting Population Growth456 Does the United States Have a Population Problem?458 Social Policy459 Exporting Western Agriculture459 Policy Implications of the Anti-Malthusians460 Policy Implications of the New Malthusians461 Restructuring Global Markets463 Illegal Immigration464 The Future of the Problem464 The New Malthusian Viewpoint464 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Going North: The Dream and the Reality465 uA Global Glimpse: Where Wall-to-Wall Means People466 The Anti-Malthusian Viewpoint466 The Long-Term Anti-Malthusian Viewpoint467 uA Global Glimpse: The Lopsided Society: Pronatalism in Sweden Which Will It Be?469 Summary and Review470 Chapter 14 The Environmental Crisis 472 The Problem in Sociological Perspective473 Environmental Destruction in the Past: The Myth of the Noble Savage473 The Tragedy of the Commons475 The Scope of the Problem475 øEverything Is Connected to Everything Elseø475 Looking at the Problem Theoretically477 Symbolic Interactionism477 Functionalism479 Conflict Theory480 Research Findings481 Air Pollution481 uTechnology and Social Problems: How to Get Paid to Pollute: Corporate Welfare and Big Welfare Bucks482 Land Pollution485 Water Pollution487 Toxic Chemicals489 Nuclear Pollution491 Food Pollution492 uTechnology and Social Problems: øDo You Eat Plastic Food?ø Why Europeans Donøt Like U.S. Food494 Pollution in the Industrializing Nations496 uA Global Glimpse: Where New Life Brings Death497 Getting the Other Side498 Of Special Concern: The Tropical Rain Forests499 Energy and Resources500 uThinking Critically About Social Problems: Put Your Money Where Your Mouth Is: The Simon-Ehrlich Bet503 Reconciling the Positions504 Social Policy505 Oppositional Viewpoints and Overarching Solutions505 Pollution506 uA Global Glimpse: The Circle of Poison507 Energy509 Moral Issues in a Global Age510 The Future of the Problem511 Energy511 Pollution511 uSpotlight on Social Research: The Marriage of Community and Environment512 Summary and Review514 Chapter 15 War, Terrorism, and the Balance of Power 516 The Problem in Sociological Perspective517 Why Is War Common?518 uA Global Glimpse: Nourishing Agression: The Yanomam^519 Why Do Some Groups Choose War?519 The Scope of the Problem520 War in the History of the West520 Measuring War in Terms of Deaths520 Looking at the Problem Theoretically521 Symbolic Interactionism522 Functionalism523 Conflict Theory525 The Military Machine Today525 uSpotlight on Social Research: Adventures in Military Sociology527 Research Findings526 What Reduces War?526 The Costs of War528 The Military-Industrial Complex533 The Possibility of Accidental War535 Biological and Chemical Warfare539 Terrorism540 uA Global Glimpse: Al-Qaeda and the West: Power, Resources, and Lost Glory544 Social Policy547 Political Terrorism547 uTechnology and Social Problems: Our Future: Biological Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century548 Nuclear Warfare and the Elusive Path to Peace549 The Future of the Problem552 Summary and Review554 Glossary557 Bibliography563 Photo Credits000 Name Index000 Subject Index000
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Functionalism (Social sciences).
United States -- Social conditions -- 1980-.