Table of contents for Lippincott's textbook for nursing assistants : a humanistic approach to caregiving / Pamela J. Carter.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Unit 1Introduction to Health Care	1
Chapter 1. The Health Care System 	3
Health Care Delivery, Past And Present 	4
Health Care Organizations 	6
Types Of Health Care Organizations 	7
Structure Of Health Care Organizations 	9
Government Regulation Of The Health Care System 	11
Paying For Health Care 	11
Private And Group Insurance 	11
Medicare 	12
Medicaid 	12
Chapter 2
The Nursing Assistant	17
Nursing, Past 
And Present 	18
Education Of The Nursing Assistant 	19
Registry 	20
Continuing Education 	20
Responsibilities Of 
The Nursing Assistant 	20
The Nursing Team 	20
Delegation 	24
Chapter 3
Professionalism And 
Job-Seeking Skills	29
What Is A Professional? 	30
What Is A Work Ethic? 	31
Punctuality 	31
Reliability 	32
Accountability 	32
Conscientiousness 	32
Courtesy And Respectfulness 	32
Honesty 	33
Cooperativeness 	33
Empathy 	33
A Desire To Learn 	33
Personal Health 
And Hygiene 	33
Maintaining Your Physical Health 	33
Maintaining Your Emotional Health 	35
Personal Hygiene 
And Appearance 	35
Job-Seeking Skills 	36
Defining The Ideal Job 	36
Finding Job Openings 	39
Preparing R¿sum¿s, 
Cover Letters, And Reference Lists 	39
Putting In Applications 	40
Going On Interviews 	42
Leaving A Job 	46
Chapter 4
Legal And Ethical Issues	49
Patients' And 
Residents' Rights 	50
Residents' Rights 	51
Laws: A Way Of Preserving Patients' And Residents' Rights 	52
Violations Of Civil Law 	52
Violations Of Criminal Law-Abuse 	55
Ethics: Guidelines 
For Behavior 	57
Professional Ethics 	57
Personal Ethics 	58
Chapter 5
Communication Skills	61
What Is Communication? 	62
Communicating Effectively 	63
Tactics That Enhance Communication 	65
Blocks To Effective Communication 	68
Conflict Resolution 	68
Telephone Communication 	70
Communication Among Members Of The Health Care Team 	70
Reporting 	72
Recording 	73
The Nursing Process 	79
Chapter 6
Those We Care For	84
Patients, Residents, 
And Clients 	85
Growth And Development 	87
Infancy (Birth To 1 Year) 	89
Toddlerhood 
(1 To 3 Years) 	89
Preschool (3 To 5 Years) 	90
School-Age (5 To 12 Years) 	90
Adolescence 
(12 To 20 Years) 	90
Young Adulthood 
(20 To 40 Years) 	92
Middle Adulthood 
(40 To 65 Years) 	92
Later Adulthood 
(65 To 75 Years) 	93
Older Adulthood 
(75 Years And Beyond) 	93
Basic Human Needs 	93
Maslow's Hierarchy 
Of Human Needs 	93
Human Sexuality 
And Intimacy 	96
Culture And Religion 	98
Quality Of Life 	100
Chapter 7
Unit 2 Safety	105
Communicable Disease 
And Infection Control	107
What Is A Microbe? 	108
Bacteria 	109
Viruses 	109
Fungi 	111
Parasites 	111
Defenses Against Communicable Disease 	111
Antibiotics 	113
Communicable Disease And The Chain 
Of Infection 	113
Infection Control 
In The Health 
Care Setting 	116
Medical Asepsis 	116
Surgical Asepsis 	120
Barrier Methods 	120
Isolation Precautions 	122
Standard Precautions 	122
Transmission-Based Precautions 	122
Chapter 8
Bloodborne And 
Airborne Pathogens	134
Bloodborne Diseases 	135
Hepatitis And Hiv/Aids 	136
Protecting Yourself From Bloodborne Diseases 	138
Airborne Diseases 	141
Tuberculosis (Tb) 	141
Protecting Yourself From Airborne Diseases 	142
Chapter 9
Workplace Safety	145
Protecting Your Body 	146
The "Abcs" Of Good Body Mechanics 	146
Lifting And Back Safety 	147
Following Procedures 	149
Preventing Falls 	152
Preventing Chemical Injuries 	153
Preventing Electrical Shocks 	153
Fire Safety 	156
Preventing Fires 	157
Reacting To 
A Fire Emergency 	157
Disaster Preparedness 	161
Chapter 10
Patient And Resident 
Safety And Restraints	165
Accidents 	166
Avoiding Accidents 	168
Reporting Accidents 	171
Restraints 	171
Use Of Restraints 	171
Complications Associated With Restraint Use 	174
Restraint Alternatives 	176
Applying Restraints 	178
Chapter 11
Positioning, Lifting, And Transferring Patients And Residents
Positioning Patients And Residents 
Basic Positions 
Repositioning A Person 
Transferring Patients And Residents 
Transferring A Person 
To And From A Wheelchair Or Chair 
Transferring A Person 
To And From A Stretcher 
Transferring A Person Using A Mechanical Lift 
Assisting A Person With Walking (Ambulating) 
Chapter 12
Basic First Aid And Emergency Care	221
Responding To 
An Emergency 	222
Basic Life Support 
(Bls) Measures 	224
Emergency Situations 	225
"Heart Attacks" 
And Strokes 	225
Fainting (Syncope) 	226
Seizures 	227
Hemorrhage 	228
Shock 	228
Airway Obstructions ("Choking") 	229
The Chain Of Survival 	231
Chapter 13
Basic Patient And Resident Care 	243
The Patient Or Resident Environment	245
The Patient Or 
Resident Unit 	246
Hospitals 	246
Long-Term Care Facilities 	247
Assisted-Living Facilities 	248
Home Health Care 	248
Ensuring Comfort 	249
Cleanliness 	249
Odor Control 	250
Ventilation 	250
Room Temperature 	250
Lighting 	251
Noise Control 	251
Furniture And Equipment 	251
Beds 	252
Chairs 	254
Over-Bed Tables 	254
Storage Units 	255
Call Light And Intercom Systems 	256
Privacy Curtains 
And Room Dividers 	257
Other Equipment 	257
Personal Items 	257
Chapter 14
Admissions, Transfers, 
And Discharges
Admissions 
The Admissions Process 
Tactics For Making A New Patient Or Resident Feel Welcome 
Transfers 
Discharges 
Chapter 15
Linens And Other Supplies For Bedmaking 	275
Linens 	275
Other Bedmaking Supplies 	277
Handling Of Linens 	277
Standard Bedmaking Techniques 	280
Closed (Unoccupied) Beds 	281
Occupied Beds 	283
Chapter 16
Vital Signs, Height, and Weight	290
What Do Vital Signs 
Tell Us? 	292
Measuring And Recording Vital Signs 	292
Body Temperature 	293
Factors Affecting 
The Body Temperature 	293
Measuring The Body Temperature 	293
Normal And Abnormal Findings 	297
Pulse 	297
Factors Affecting 
The Pulse 	298
Measuring The Pulse 	298
Normal And Abnormal Findings 	299
Respiration 	300
Factors Affecting Respiration 	300
Measuring Respiration 	300
Normal And Abnormal Findings 	300
Blood Pressure 	301
Factors Affecting 
Blood Pressure 	301
Measuring Blood Pressure 	302
Normal And Abnormal Findings 	305
Height And Weight 	306
Measuring Height 
And Weight 	306
Measuring Vital Signs 
In Children 	308
Chapter 17
Cleanliness and Hygiene	326
The Benefits Of Personal Hygiene 	327
Scheduling Of Routine Care 	328
Assisting With Oral Care 	329
Providing Oral Care For A Person With Natural Teeth 	329
Providing Oral Care For A Person With Dentures 	330
Providing Oral Care For An Unconscious Person 	330
Assisting With Perineal Care 	331
Providing Perineal Care For Female Patients And Residents 	335
Providing Perineal Care For Male Patients And Residents 	335
Assisting With Skin Care 	335
Bathing 	335
Massage 	341
Chapter 18
Grooming	361
Assisting With Hand And Foot Care 	363
Care Of The Hands 	363
Care Of The Feet 	364
Assisting With Dressing And Undressing 	365
Assisting With Hair Care 	367
Shampooing The Hair 	369
Styling The Hair 	369
Preventing Tangles 	370
ASSISTING WITH SHAVING 	370
Assisting Men 	370
Assisting Women 	371
Assisting With The Application Of 
Make-Up 	372
Chapter 19
Basic Nutrition	385
Food And How Our Bodies Use It 	386
Types Of Nutrients 	387
A Balanced Diet 	389
Factors That Affect Food Choices And Eating Habits 	391
Special Diets 	392
Meal Time 	394
Preparing For Meal Time 	395
Assisting The 
Person To Eat 	395
Feeding Dependent Patients And Residents 	396
Measuring And Recording Food Intake 	398
Other Ways Of Providing Fluids And Nutrition 	399
Intravenous (Iv) Therapy 	399
Enteral Nutrition 	399
Total Parenteral Nutrition (Tpn, Hyperalimentation) 	401
Fluids And Hydration 	402
Fluid Balance 	402
Offering Fluids 	402
Measuring And Recording Intake 
And Output 	403
Chapter 20
Assisting With Urinary 
And Bowel Elimination
Assisting With Elimination 
Elimination Equipment 
Promoting Normal Elimination 
Obtaining Urine 
And Stool Specimens 
Urinary Elimination 
Measuring Urine Output 
Urinary Catheterization 
Urinary Incontinence 
Bowel Elimination 
Problems With Bowel Elimination 
Enemas 
Rectal Suppositories 
Chapter 21
Death And Dying	447
Caring For People 
Who Are Terminally Ill	449
Stages Of Grief 	451
Wills 	454
Dying With Dignity 	454
Advance Directives 	454
Hospice Care 	455
Effects Of Caring For The Terminally Ill On The Caregiver 	456
Chapter 22
Caring For People Who Are Dying	459
Caring For A Dying Person 	461
Meeting The Dying Person's Physical Needs 	462
Meeting The Dying Person's Emotional Needs 	463
Care Of The Family 	465
Postmortem Care 	466
Unit 5
Structure And Function Of The Human Body	475
Chapter 23
Basic Body Structure And Function	477
How Is The Body Organized? 	478
Cells 	478
Tissues 	479
Organs 	481
Organ Systems 	481
Health And Disease 	481
Categories Of Disease 	483
Risk Factors For Disease 	483
Rehabilitation And Restorative Care 	484
The Role Of The Nursing Assistant 	485
Types Of Rehabilitation 	486
Chapter 24
The Integumentary System	511
Structure Of The Integumentary System 	513
Skin 	513
Accessory Structures (Appendages) 	513
Function Of The Integumentary System 	514
Protection 	514
Maintenance Of Fluid Balance 	514
Regulation Of Body Temperature 	515
Sensation 	515
Vitamin D Production 	515
Elimination And Absorption 	515
The Effects Of Aging 
On The Integumentary System 	516
Changes In Physical Appearance 	516
Fragile, Dry Skin 	516
Thickening Of The Nails 	517
Less Efficient Temperature Regulation 	517
Disorders Of The Integumentary System 	517
Pressure Ulcers 	517
Wounds 	524
Burns 	527
Lesions 	528
Chapter 25
The Musculoskeletal System	518
Structure Of The Musculoskeletal System 	519
The Skeletal System 	519
The Muscular System 	522
Function Of The Musculoskeletal System 	522
Protection 	522
Support 	522
Movement 	522
Heat Production 	524
Calcium Storage 	525
Production Of 
Blood Cells 	525
The Effects Of Aging On The Musculoskeletal System 	525
Loss Of Bone Tissue 	526
Loss Of Muscle Mass 	526
Wear And Tear 
On The Joints 	526
Disorders Of The Musculoskeletal System 	527
Osteoporosis 	527
Arthritis 	528
Muscular Dystrophy 	530
Fractures 	531
Amputations 	534
General Care Measures 	536
Range-Of-Motion Exercises 	536
Heat And Cold Applications 	537
Rehabilitation 	540
Chapter 26
The Respiratory System	573
Structure Of The Respiratory System 	574
Airway 	574
Lungs 	576
Function Of The Respiratory System 	576
Ventilation 	576
Gas Exchange 	577
The Effects Of Aging 
On The Respiratory System 	578
Less Efficient Ventilation 	578
Increased Risk Of Respiratory Infections 	579
Disorders Of The Respiratory System 	579
Infections 	579
Asthma 	580
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) 	581
Cancer 	582
Pneumothorax And Hemothorax 	584
Respiratory Therapy 	584
Oxygen Therapy 	584
Mechanical Ventilation 	588
Suctioning 	592
General Care Measures 	593
Observation 	593
Promoting Comfort 	594
Chapter 27
The Cardiovascular System	599
Structure Of The Cardiovascular System 	600
Blood 	600
Blood Vessels 	602
Lymphatic System 	603
Heart 	604
Function Of The Cardiovascular System 	606
Transport 	606
Regulation 	608
Protection 	608
The Effects Of Aging 
On The Cariovascular System 	608
Less Efficient Contraction 	609
Decreased Elasticity Of 
The Arteries And Veins 	609
Decreased Numbers Of Blood Cells 	609
Disorders Of The Cardiovascular System 	609
Disorders Of The Blood 	609
Disorders Of The 
Blood Vessels 	610
Disorders Of The Heart 	611
Diagnosis Of Cardiovascular Disorders 	613
Cardiac Rehabilitation 	614
Chapter 28
The Nervous System	617
Structure Of The Nervous System 	618
The Central Nervous System 	619
The Peripheral Nervous System 	620
Function Of The Nervous System 	621
Regulation Of The Internal Environment 	621
Interaction With The External Environment 	621
The Effects Of Aging On The Nervous System 	621
Slowed Conduction Times 	621
Memory Changes 	622
Disorders Of The Nervous System 	622
Transient Ischemic Attacks (Tias) 	622
Stroke 	623
Parkinson's Disease 	625
Epilepsy 	625
Multiple Sclerosis (Ms) 	626
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als, Lou Gehrig's Disease) 	626
Head Injuries 	626
Spinal Cord Injuries 	626
Diagnosis Of Neurologic Disorders 	627
Rehabilitation 	628
Chapter 29
The Sensory System	633
Structure Of The Sensory System 	634
General Sense 	635
Touch 	635
Position 	635
Pain 	635
Taste And Smell 	637
Sight 	638
Structure Of The Eye 	638
Function Of The Eye 	639
The Effects Of Aging 
On The Eye 	640
Disorders Of The Eye 	640
Caring For Eyeglasses, Contact Lenses, And Prosthetic Eyes 	642
Hearing And Balance 	646
Structure Of The Ear 	646
Function Of The Ear 	647
The Effects Of Aging 
On The Ear 	647
Disorders Of The Ear 	647
Chapter 30
The Endocrine System	657
Structure Of The Endocrine System 	658
Function Of The Endocrine System 	659
Pituitary Gland 	659
Pineal Gland 	660
Thyroid Gland 	660
Parathyroid Glands 	661
Thymus Gland 	662
Adrenal Glands 	662
Pancreas 	662
Sex Glands 	663
The Effects Of Aging On The Endocrine System 	663
Disorders Of The Endocrine System 	663
Pituitary Gland Disorders 	663
Thyroid Gland Disorders 	663
Adrenal Gland Disorders 	664
Diabetes 	665
Chapter 31
The Digestive System	673
Structure Of The Digestive System 	674
The Digestive Tract 	674
The Accessory Organs 	677
Function Of The Digestive System 	677
Digestion 	677
Absorption 	678
Excretion 	678
Effects Of Aging On The Digestive System 	678
Less Efficient Chewing 
And Swallowing 	678
Less Efficient Digestion 	678
Increased Risk For Constipation 	678
Disorders Of The Digestive System 	679
Ulcers 	679
Hernias 	679
Gallbladder Disorders 	680
Cancer 	680
Diagnosis Of Digestive Disorders 	680
Caring For A Person With An Ostomy 	681
Chapter 32
The Urinary System	689
Structure Of The Urinary System 	690
The Kidneys 	690
The Ureters 	691
The Bladder 	691
The Urethra 	691
Function Of The Urinary System 	692
Removal Of Liquid Wastes 	692
Maintenance Of Homeostasis 	692
The Effects Of Aging On The Urinary System 	693
Disorders Of The Urinary System 	694
Infections 	694
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi) 	694
Kidney (Renal) Failure 	695
Tumors 	698
Diagnosis Of Urinary Disorders 	699
Chapter 33
The Reproductive System	703
The Female Reproduction System 	705
Structure Of The Female Reproductive System 	705
Function Of The Female Reproductive System 	707
The Effects Of Aging On The Female Reproductive System 	707
Disorders Of The Female Reproductive System 	708
Common Diagnostic Procedures 	710
Common Surgical Procedures 	711
The Male Reproductive System 	711
Structure Of The Male Reproductive System 	711
Function Of The Male Reproductive System 	713
The Effects Of Aging On The Male Reproductive System 	713
Disorders Of The Male Reproductive System 	713
Common Diagnostic Procedures 	714
Sexually Transmitted Diseases 	715
Types Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 	715
Prevention Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 	716
Chapter 34
Caring For People With Developmental Disabilities	723
What Is A Developmental Disability? 	724
Special Needs Of People With Developmental Disabilities 	724
Special Education 	724
Protection Of Rights 	725
Emotional And Social Needs 	725
Types Of Developmental Disabilities 	726
Mental Retardation 	726
Down Syndrome 	727
Autism 	727
Cerebral Palsy 	727
Fragile X Syndrome 	728
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 	728
Spina Bifida 	728
Hydrocephalus 	729
Caring For A Person With A Developmental Disability 	729
Communicating With A Person With A Developmental Disability 	730
Meeting The Physical Needs Of A Person With A Developmental Disability 	731
Chapter 35
Caring For People With 
Mental Illness	734
Mental Health 	735
Coping Mechanisms 	736
Defense Mechanisms 	737
Causes And Treatment Of Mental Illness 	738
Types Of Mental Illness 	739
Anxiety Disorders 	739
Depression 	740
Bipolar Disorder 
(Manic Depression) 	741
Schizophrenia 	741
Eating Disorders 	741
Caring For A Person With Mental Illness 	742
Listening And Observing 	743
Assisting With Activities Of Daily Living (Adls) 	744
Chapter 36
Caring For People With Dementia	748
What Is Dementia? 	749
Types Of Dementia 	750
Alzheimer's Disease 	750
Vascular (Multi-Infarct) Dementia 	751
Behaviors Associated With Dementia 	752
Types Of Behaviors 	753
Managing Difficult Behaviors 	755
Caring For A Person With Dementia 	756
Meeting The Physical Needs Of A Person With Dementia 	756
Meeting The Emotional Needs Of A Person With Dementia 	760
Effects On The Caregiver Of Caring For The Person With Dementia 	762
Chapter 37
Caring For People With Cancer	766
What Is Cancer? 	767
Types Of Cancer 	767
Causes Of Cancer 	768
Detection Of Cancer 	769
Warning Signs Of Cancer 	769
Routine Physical Examinations And Screening Tests 	770
Treatment Of Cancer 	771
Caring For A Person With Cancer 	773
Meeting The Physical Needs Of A Person 
With Cancer 	773
Meeting The Emotional Needs Of A Person With Cancer 	774
Chapter 38
Caring For People With Hiv/Aids	777
What Is Aids? 	778
Who Is At Risk For Hiv/Aids? 	779
A Global Health Crisis 	779
Protection Of Rights 	780
Caring For A Person With Aids 	781
Meeting The Physical Needs Of A Person 
With Aids 	781
Meeting The Emotional Needs Of A Person 
With Aids 	782
Chapter 39
Caring For Surgical Patients	789
Care Of The Pre-Operative Patient 	791
Emotional Preparation 	791
Physical Preparation 	794
Care Of The Post-Operative Patient 	797
Preventing Complications 	798
Assisting With Positioning 	801
Assisting With Nutrition 	801
Assisting With Elimination 	801
Assisting With Hygiene 	801
Assisting With Walking (Ambulation) 	801
Chapter 40
Caring For Mothers And Newborns	807
The Antepartum (Prenatal) Period 	808
Physical Changes In Pregnancy 	808
Routine Prenatal Care 	808
Complications During Pregnancy 	810
Meeting The Pregnant Woman's Physical Needs 	810
Meeting The Pregnant Woman's Emotional Needs 	810
Labor And Delivery 	811
Labor 	811
Delivery 	811
Immediately Following Delivery 	812
The Postpartum Period 	812
Care Of The Mother 	812
Care Of The Baby 	814
Chapter 41
Caring For Pediatric Patients	824
Caring For Infants 	826
Meeting The Infant's Physical Needs 	826
Meeting The Infant's Emotional Needs 	826
Meeting The Infant's Need For Safety 	827
Caring For Toddlers 	827
Meeting The Toddler's Physical Needs 	828
Meeting The Toddler's Emotional Needs 	828
Meeting The Toddler's Need For Safety 	829
Caring For Preschoolers 	829
Meeting The Preschooler's Physical Needs 	829
Meeting The Preschooler's Emotional Needs 	830
Meeting The Preschooler's Needs For Safety 	830
Caring For School-Age Children 	830
Meeting The School-Age Child's Physical Needs 	830
Meeting The School-Age Child's Emotional Needs 	831
Meeting The School-Age Child's Need For Safety 	831
Caring For Adolescents 	831
Meeting The Adolescent's Physical Needs 	832
Meeting The Adolescent's Emotional Needs 	832
Meeting The Adolescent's Need For Safety 	832
Child Abuse 	833
Forms Of Abuse 	833
Risk Factors For 
Child Abuse 	833
Role Of The Nursing Assistant In Reporting Abuse 	834
Chapter 42
Home Health Care	839
Introduction To Home Health Care	841
What Is Home Health Care? 	842
Paying For Home 
Health Care 	842
The Health Care Team 	843
Responsibilities Of The Home Health Aide 	844
Personal Care 	845
Homemaking 	846
Qualities Of The Successful Home Health Aide 	847
Ability To Work Independently 	847
Ability To Be Organized And Manage Time 	847
Reliability 	848
Ability To Set Professional Boundaries 	849
Chapter 43
Safety And Infection Control In The Home Health Care Setting	854
Workplace Safety 	855
Accidents And Medical Emergencies 	855
Abusive Situations 	857
Infection Control 	858
Maintaining A Sanitary Environment 	858
Using Standard Precautions 	860
Personal Safety 	862
Appendix A
Answers To The What Did You Learn? Exercises 867
Appendix B
Introduction To The Language Of Health Care 870
Glossary 882

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Nurses' aides.
Nursing.
Nurses' Aides.
Nursing Care.