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Contents List of figures vii List of tables viii List of contributors x Preface xii Acknowledgements xiii 1 Introduction: Clusters and innovation systems in Africa 1 Dorothy McCormick and Banji Oyelaran-Oyeyinka 2 Industrialization through cluster upgrading: Theoretical perspectives 20 Dorothy McCormick 3 From clusters to innovation systems in traditional industries 39 Lynn K. Mytelka 4 Industrializing Kenya: Building the productive capacity of micro and small enterprise clusters 63 Dorothy McCormick and Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 5 Small and micro enterprise clusters in Tanzania: Can they generate industrial dynamism? 81 Flora Mndeme Musonda 6 Learning in local systems and global links: The Otigba computer hardware cluster in Nigeria 100 Banji Oyelaran-Oyeyinka 7 Power and firms' learning in the Egyptian furniture cluster of Domiatt 132 Samah El-Shahat 8 Learning to change: Why the fish processing clusters in Uganda learned to upgrade 158 Rose Kiggundu 9 The Durban Auto Cluster: Global competition, collective efficiency and local development 189 Jochen Lorentzen, Glen Robbins and Justin Barnes 10 Global markets and local responses: The changing institutions in the Lake Victoria fish cluster 211 Dorothy McCormick and Winnie V. Mitullah 11 Government support and enabling environment for inter-firm cluster cooperation: Policy lessons from South Africa 243 Mike Morris and Glen Robbins 12 Institutional support for collective ICT learning: Cluster development in Kenya and Ghana 269 Banji Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Kaushalesh Lal and Catherine Nyaki Adeya 13 Conclusion and policy implications 294 Banji Oyelaran-Oyeyinka and Dorothy McCormick Index 310 List of figures 2.1 A simple value chain 27 3.1 A dynamic system framework 44 3.2 Innovation in textiles and clothing requires linkages to a wide set of knowledge inputs 49 3.3 Innovation in the wine cluster 56 4.1 Drivers of productive capacity 64 5.1 Raw material import intensity in selected sectors 84 6.1 Computer assembly process 113 7.1 Domiatt's value chains 138 7.2 The showroom value chain 143 8.1 Flow of Victoria perch (Lates niloticus) imports from Uganda to European markets 178 9.1 Domestic OEM sales and exports by volume 193 9.2 South African automotive component output by value 194 9.3 Distribution of automotive component firms in KZN (2004) 195 9.4 Profile of KZN component producers by product type 196 9.5 Operational structure of the DAC 198 10.1 Fish exports 217 12.1 Theoretical framework 273 List of tables 1.1 Levels of analysis of clusters and system of innovation 9 3.1 Typology of constructed clusters 47 3.2 Spontaneous clusters 51 4.1 Sampled clusters by sector and size 70 4.2 Markets, external economies and joint action by sector 73 5.1 Manufacturing value in Tanzania (1997--2000) 84 5.2 Level of education of entrepreneurs 91 5.3 Motives for starting a business 92 5.4 Market destination for major products 93 5.5 Sources of new ideas 95 6.1 Composition of the Otigba Computer Hardware Village 106 6.2 Trends in total employees 106 6.3 Trend in profitability turnover and exports 107 6.4 Structural composition of the computer hardware cluster 107 6.5 Perceptions of firms on changing horizontal and vertical linkages 120 7.1 Size composition of furniture enterprises by number of employees in Domiatt 136 7.2 Base unit's technological capabilities 144 7.3 Sources for the acquiring of knowledge on production and innovation 145 8.1 Geographical location of fish-processing plants by nearest ``city'' in Uganda (as of March 2004) 164 9.1 Average competitiveness improvements recorded at Benchmarking Club members 202 9.2 Relative performance of Benchmarking Club members 203 9.3 Joint action in the DAC: Incidence and gains 205 9.4 Survey results (questions 1--7): Significance of learning 208 9.5 Survey results (question 8): Determinants of required performance levels (mean) 208 10.1 Impact of commercialization on fisheries management 225 11.1 Learning and operational-performance change of firms in clusters 257 12.1 Ownership and use of ICTs 279 12.2 Skill intensity and the use of ICTs 280 12.3 Availability of skill-upgrading facilities 281 12.4 Participation in ICT training programmes 282 12.5 Benefits of using ICTs 283 12.6 Education Level of MDs and the Adoption of ICTs 284 12.7 Determinants of the adoption of ICTs in Kenyan SME clusters 285 12.8 Determinants of adoption of ICTs in Ghanaian SME cluster 286 Appendix 12.1 Nature and composition of clusters 290
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Industrial clusters -- Africa -- Congresses.
Technological innovation -- Economic aspects -- Africa -- Congresses.
Industrial location -- Africa -- Congresses.
Regional planning. -- Africa -- Congresses.
Africa -- Economic policy -- 21st century -- Congresses.