Table of contents for Nanoelectronics / George W. Hanson.

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Contents 
PREFACE xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii PHOTO CREDITS xv 
PART I FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOSCOPIC PHYSICS 1 1 INTRODUCTION TO NANOELECTRONICS 3 
1.1 The "Top-Down" Approach 6 
1.1.1 Lithography, 8 
1.2 The "Bottom-Up" Approach 12 
1.3 Why Nanoelectronics? 12 
v 
vi Contents 
1.4 Nanotechnology Potential 14 
1.5 Main Points 15 
1.6 Problems 16 
2 CLASSICAL PARTICLES, CLASSICAL WAVES, AND QUANTUM PARTICLES 17 
2.1 Comparison of Classical and Quantum Systems 18 
2.2 Origins of Quantum Mechanics 20 
2.3 Light As a Wave, Light As a Particle 21 
2.3.1 Light As a Particle, or Perhaps a Wave - The Early Years, 21 
2.3.2 A Little Later - Light as a Wave, 21 
2.3.3 Finally, Light As a Quantum Particle, 26 
2.4 Electrons As Particles, Electrons As Waves 29 
2.4.1 Electrons As Particles - The Early Years, 29 
2.4.2 A Little Later - Electrons (and Everything Else) As Quantum Particles, 29 
2.4.3 Further Development of Quantum Mechanics, 32 
2.5 Wavepackets and Uncertainty 34 
2.6 Main Points 41 
2.7 Problems 42 
3 QUANTUM MECHANICS OF ELECTRONS 44 
3.1 General Postulates of Quantum Mechanics 46 
3.1.1 Operators, 48 
3.1.2 Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions, 49 
3.1.3 Hermitian Operators, 50 
3.1.4 Operators for Quantum Mechanics, 53 
3.1.5 Measurement Probability, 57 
3.2 Time-Independent Schr 63
odinger's Equation 
3.2.1 Boundary Conditions on the Wavefunction, 66 
3.3 Analogies Between Quantum Mechanics and Classical Electromagnetics 71 
3.4 Probabilistic Current Density 72 
3.5 Multiple Particle Systems 76 
3.6 Spin and Angular Momentum 80 
3.7 Main Points 82 
3.8 Problems 83 
Contents vii 
4 	87 
FREE AND CONFINED ELECTRONS 
4.1 Free Electrons 87 
4.1.1 One-Dimensional Space, 88 
4.1.2 Three-Dimensional Space, 91 
4.2 The Free Electron Gas Theory of Metals 92 
4.3 Electrons Con*ned to a Bounded Region of Space, and Quantum Numbers 93 
4.3.1 One-Dimensional Space, 93 
4.3.2 Three-Dimensional Space, 99 
4.3.3 Periodic Boundary Conditions, 100 
4.4 Fermi Level and Chemical Potential 101 
4.5 Partially Con*ned Electrons - Finite Potential Wells 103 
4.5.1 Finite Rectangular Well, 104 
4.5.2 Parabolic Well - Harmonic Oscillator, 111 
4.5.3 Triangular Well, 112 
4.6 Electrons Con*ned to Atoms - The Hydrogen Atom and the Periodic Table 4.6 113 
4.6.1 The Hydrogen Atom and Quantum Numbers, 114 
4.6.2 Beyond Hydrogen - Multiple Electron Atoms and the Periodic Table , 118 
4.7 Quantum Dots, Wires, and Wells 120 
4.7.1 Quantum Wells, 124 
4.7.2 Quantum Wires, 126 
4.7.3 Quantum Dots, 128 
4.8 Main Points 130 
4.9 Problems 130 
5 	ELECTRONS SUBJECT TO A PERIODIC POTENTIAL - BAND THEORY OF SOLIDS 134 
5.1 Crystalline Materials 135 
5.2 Electrons in a Periodic Potential 139 
5.3 Kronig-Penney Model of Band Structure 140 
5.3.1 Effective Mass, 144 
5.4 Band Theory of Solids 153 
5.4.1 Doping in Semiconductors, 157 
5.4.2 Interacting Systems Model, 160 
5.4.3 The Effect of an Electric Field on Energy Bands, 163 
5.4.4 Bandstructures of Some Semiconductors, 163 
5.4.5 Electronic Band Transitions - Interaction of Electromagnetic Energy and Materials, 165 
5.5 Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes 173 
5.5.1 Graphene, 173 
5.5.2 Carbon Nanotubes, 175 
viii 	Contents 
5.6 Main Points 180 
5.7 Problems 180 
PART II 	SINGLE-ELECTRON AND FEW-ELECTRON PHENOMENA AND DEVICES 185 
6 TUNNEL JUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF TUNNELING 	187 
6.1 Tunneling Through a Potential Barrier 188 
6.2 Potential Energy Pro*les for Material Interfaces 194 
6.2.1 Metal-Insulator, Metal-Semiconductor, and Metal-Insulator-Metal Junctions, 194 
6.3 Applications of Tunneling 199 
6.3.1 Field Emission, 199 
6.3.2 Gate-Oxide Tunneling and Hot Electron Effects in MOSFETs, 202 
6.3.3 Scanning Tunneling Microscope, 206 
6.3.4 Double Barrier Tunneling and the Resonant Tunneling Diode, 210 
6.4 Main Points 214 
6.5 Problems 214 
7 COULOMB BLOCKADE AND THE SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSISTOR 216 
7.1 Coulomb Blockade 216 
7.1.1 Coulomb Blockade in a Nanocapacitor, 218 
7.1.2 Tunnel Junctions, 223 
7.1.3 Tunnel Junction Excited by a Current Source, 226 
7.1.4 Coulomb Blockade in a Quantum Dot Circuit, 230 
7.2 The Single-Electron Transistor 240 
7.2.1 Single-Electron Transistor Logic, 248 
7.3 Other SET and FET Structures 250 
7.3.1 Carbon Nanotube Transistors (FETs and SETs), 250 
7.3.2 Semiconductor Nanowire FETs and SETs, 255 
7.3.3 Molecular SETs and Molecular Electronics, 257 
7.4 Main Points 261 
7.5 Problems 262 
PART III MANY ELECTRON PHENOMENA 265 8 267
PARTICLE STATISTICS AND DENSITY OF STATES 
8.1 Density of States 268 
8.1.1 Density of States in Lower Dimensions, 270 
8.1.2 Density of States in a Semiconductor, 273 
Contents 
ix 
8.2 Classical and Quantum Statistics 273 
8.2.1 Carrier Concentration in Materials, 276 
8.2.2 The Importance of the Fermi Electrons, 280 
8.2.3 Equilibrium Carrier Concentration and the Fermi Level in Semiconductors, 280 
8.3 Main Points 283 
8.4 Problems 283 
9 	MODELS OF SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM WELLS, QUANTUM WIRES, AND QUANTUM DOTS 286 
9.1 Semiconductor Heterostructures and Quantum Wells 288 
9.1.1 Con*nement Models and Two-Dimensional Electron Gas, 292 
9.1.2 Energy Band Transitions in Quantum Wells, 295 
9.2 Quantum Wires and Nanowires 301 
9.3 Quantum Dots and Nanoparticles 305 
9.3.1 Applications of Semiconducting Quantum Dots, 306 
9.3.2 Plasmon Resonance and Metallic Nanoparticles, 312 
9.3.3 Functionalized Metallic Nanoparticles, 313 
9.4 Fabrication Techniques for Nanostructures 315 
9.4.1 Lithography, 315 
9.4.2 Nanoimprint Lithography, 317 
9.4.3 Split-Gate Technology, 318 
9.4.4 Self-Assembly, 318 
9.5 Main Points 322 
9.6 Problems 322 
10 	NANOWIRES, BALLISTIC TRANSPORT, AND SPIN TRANSPORT 326 
10.1 Classical and Semiclassical Transport 327 
10.1.1 Classical Theory of Conduction-Free Electron Gas Model, 327 
10.1.2 Semiclassical Theory of Electrical Conduction - Fermi Gas Model , 330 
10.1.3 Classical Resistance and Conductance, 333 
10.1.4 Conductivity of Metallic Nanowires - The In*uence of Wire Radius, 335 
10.2 Ballistic Transport 337 
10.2.1 Electron Collisions and Length Scales, 338 
10.2.2 Ballistic Transport Model, 340 
10.2.3 Quantum Resistance and Conductance, 341 
10.2.4 Origin of the Quantum Resistance, 348 
10.3 Carbon Nanotubes and Nanowires 349 
10.3.1 The Effect of Nanoscale Wire Radius on Wave Velocity and Loss , 353 
10.4 Transport of Spin and Spintronics 356 
10.4.1 The Transport of Spin, 356 
10.4.2 Spintronic Devices and Applications, 361 
x Contents 
10.5 Main Points 362 
10.6 Problems 362 
APPENDIX A SYMBOLS AND ACRONYMS 
365 
APPENDIX B PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 367 
APPENDIX C CONVENTIONAL MOSFETS 372 
APPENDIX D ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS 376 
Problems Chapter 2: Classical Particles, Classical Waves, and Quantum Particles, 376 Problems Chapter 3: Quantum Mechanics of Electrons, 377 Problems Chapter 4: Free and Con*ned Electrons, 378 Problems Chapter 5: Electrons Subject to a Periodic Potential - Band Theory of Solids, 379 Problems Chapter 6: Tunnel Junctions and Applications of Tunneling, 380 Problems Chapter 7: Coulomb Blockade and the Single-Electron Transistor, 381 Problems Chapter 8: Particle Statistics and Density of States, 381 Problems Chapter 9: Models of Semiconductor Quantum Wells, Quantum Wires, and Quantum Dots, 382 Problems Chapter 10: Nanowires, Ballistic Transport, and Spin Transport, 383 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 383 
INDEX 393 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Molecular electronics.
Nanoelectronics.