Table of contents for Model codes for post-conflict criminal justice / edited by Vivienne O'Connor and Colette Rausch, with Hans Joerg Albrecht and Goran Klemencic.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
Contents 
foreord, by [UnOdC and UnHCR]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Preface, neil J. Kritz and William Schabas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EditorsContributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
*** 
USER'S GUIDE 
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 
1.	the Model Codes Project: A Response to Post-Conflict Criminal Law needs ...................................................3 
2.	Potential Uses of the Model Codes in a Criminal Law Reform Process . . . . . . . . .9 
3.	A Synopsis of the Model Criminal Code..................................17
4.	Guiding Principles for the Criminal Law Reform Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 
*** 
PART I: GENERAL PART 
Section 1: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Article 1: definitions...............................................31 
Section 2: Fundamental Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Article 2: Purpose and Limits of Criminal Legislation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Article 3: Principle of Legality .......................................37 
Section 3: Jurisdiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42Article 4: territorial Jurisdiction.....................................42Article 5: Extraterritorial Jurisdiction ................................43Article 6: Universal Jurisdiction .....................................46Article 7: Personal Jurisdiction ......................................47
Section 4: Ne Bis in Idem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Article 8: Ne Bis in Idem (double Jeopardy). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 
Section 5: 
Article 9: Article 10: 
Article 11: 
Article 12: 
Section 6: 
Article 13: Article 14: 
Section 7: 
Article 15: Article 16: Article 17: Article 18: 
Section 8: 
Article 19: 
Section 9: 
Subsection 1: 
Article 20: Article 21: Article 22: 
Subsection 2: 
Article 23: Article 24: Article 25: Article 26: 
Section 10: 
Article 27: Statutory Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Statutory Limitations for Criminal Prosecution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Statutory Limitations Applicable to an Adult for Criminal Offenses Committed as a Juvenile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 nonapplicability of Statutory Limitations to Genocide, Crimes against Humanity, and War Crimes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Running and Suspension of Statutory Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 
Time and Place of Commission of a Criminal Offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 time of Commission of a Criminal Offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Place of Commission of a Criminal Offense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 
Criminal Offense, Criminal Responsibility, and Commission of a Criminal Offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Criminal Offense .........................................63 Criminal Responsibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Commission of a Criminal Offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Intention, Recklessness, and negligence ......................66 
Criminal Responsibility of Legal Persons . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Criminal Responsibility of Legal Persons .....................72 
Justification and Excusal of Criminal Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 
Justification ............................................. 78 Self-defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 necessity ................................................79 Superior Orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 
Exclusion of Criminal Responsibility...................... 82 Mental Incompetence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Intoxication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 duress ..................................................84 Mistake of fact and Mistake of Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 
Criminal Attempt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Attempt .................................................87 
Section 11: 
Article 28: Article 29: Article 30: Article 31: Article 32: 
Article 33: 
Section 12: 
Subsection 1: 
Article 34: Article 35: Article 36: 
Subsection 2: 
Article 37: Article 38: Article 39: Article 40: 
Subsection 3: 
Article 41: 
Article 42: Article 43: 
Article 44: 
Article 45: 
Article 46: 
Article 47: 
Contents	-	_ii
Participation in a Criminal Offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Participation in a Common Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Ordering, Soliciting, or Inducement .........................93 Incitement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 facilitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Responsibility of Commanders and Other Superiors for the Criminal Offenses of Genocide, Crimes against Humanity, and War Crimes ..........................................95 Punishment as a Perpetrator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 
Penalties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 
Purpose of Penalties, Fundamental Principle, and Other Principles Relating to Penalties.................... 101 Purposes of Penalties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 fundamental Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Other Principles Relevant to the determination of Penalties . . . . 105 
Penalty Structure ....................................... 108 General Penalty Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Principal Penalties .......................................110 Alternative Penalties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Additional Penalties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 
Procedure for Determination of Penalties ................ 116
General Procedure for the determination of an Appropriate Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 
Appraisal of the Applicable Minimum and Maximum Penalty . . 121 Augmentation of the Maximum Period of Imprisonment Based on Individual Aggravating factors Set Out in the Special Part of the MCC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 
Augmentation of the Maximum Period of Imprisonment When a Criminal Offense Is Committed as Part of Organized Criminal Activity ..............................123 
Augmentation of the Maximum Period of Imprisonment 
When a Criminal Offense Is Motivated by Hatred. . . . . . . . . . . . .124 Augmentation of the Maximum Period of Imprisonment for a Criminal Offense Committed by a Public Official . . . . . . . .125 
Reduction of the Minimum Period of Imprisonment due to Particularly Mitigating Circumstances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 
Article 48: 
Reduction of the Minimum Period of Imprisonment for 
Attempted Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 
Article 49: 
determination of the Appropriateness of Life Imprisonment 
as a Principal Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 
Article 50: 
determination of the Appropriateness of a fine as a 
Principal Penalty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 
Article 51: 
determination of the Appropriate term of Imprisonment in 
Light of General Mitigating and Aggravating Circumstances. . . . 131 
Article 52: 
determination of a Joint Penalty for Convictions on 
two or More Criminal Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 
Article 53: 
Subsequent Imposition of a Penalty on a Convicted Person . . . . . 138 
Article 54: 
Replacement of a Principal Penalty with an 
Alternative Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 
Article 55: 
Suspended Sentence as an Alternative Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 
Article 56: 
Community Service as an Alternative Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 
Article 57: 
Semiliberty as an Alternative Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 
Article 58: 
Supplementation of a Principal Penalty with 
Additional Penalties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 
Article 59: 
Supplementation of an Alternative Penalty with 
Additional Penalties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 
Article 60: 
A fine as an Additional Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 
Article 61: 
Confiscation of Property, Equipment, or Other 
Instrumentalities Used in or destined for Use in a 
Criminal Offense as an Additional Penalty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 
Article 62: 
Payment of Compensation to a Victim as an 
Additional Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 
Article 63: 
deprivation of the Right to Be Elected as an 
Additional Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 
Article 64: 
deprivation of the Right to Possess or Carry firearms as an 
Additional Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 
Article 65: 
Prohibition on Holding a Post as a Public Official as an 
Additional Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 
Article 66: 
Prohibition on the Exercise of Managerial or Supervisory 
Positions in Private Legal Entities as an Additional Penalty . . . . . 155 
Article 67: 
Expulsion of a non-national as an Additional Penalty . . . . . . . . . 156 
Subsection 4: 
Penalties for Legal Persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 
Article 68: 
types of Penalties for Legal Persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 
Article 69: 
determination of Penalties for a Legal Person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 
Section 13: 
Article 70: Article 71: Article 72: 
Article 73: 
Section 14: 
Subsection 1: 
Article 74: 
Subsection 2: 
Article 75: Article 76: Article 77: 
Subsection 3: 
Article 78: Article 79: 
Subsection 4: 
Article 80: 
Subsection 5: 
Article 81: Article 82: Article 83: Article 84: Article 85: 
Contents	 -	 ix 
Confiscation of the Proceeds of Crime and Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 
Prohibition on Retention of Proceeds of Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Confiscation of Proceeds of Crime or Property of Corresponding Value from the Convicted Person . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 
Confiscation of Proceeds of Crime or Property of Corresponding Value from a third Party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 
Dispositions Applicable to Juveniles and Adults on Trial for Criminal Offenses Committed as Juveniles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 
Scope of Application of Section 14 and General Principles ...................................... 172 
Scope of Application of Section 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 
Purposes of Juvenile Dispositions and Principles Applicable to Juvenile Dispositions ...................... 173 Purposes of Juvenile dispositions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 fundamental Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174 Principles Applicable to Juvenile dispositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 
Structure of Juvenile Dispositions........................ 178 Principal Juvenile dispositions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 Additional Juvenile dispositions ...........................181 
Procedure for Determining Juvenile Dispositions ......... 183 Procedure for determining Juvenile dispositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 
Principal Juvenile Dispositions .......................... 185 Judicial Admonition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Intensive Supervision of a Juvenile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 disciplinary Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 Institutional Measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189 Juvenile Imprisonment ...................................190 
PART II: SPECIAL PART 
Section 1: 
Article 86: Article 87: Article 88: 
Section 2: 
Article 89: Article 90: Article 91: Article 92: Article 93: 
Section 3: 
Article 94:Article 95:
Article 96:
Article 97:
Article 98:
Article 99:
Article 100:
Section 4: 
Article 101: Article 102: Article 103: 
Article 104: Article 105: Article 106: Article 107: Article 108: Article 109: Article 110: Article 111: Genocide, Crimes against Humanity, and War Crimes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 Genocide ...............................................196 Crimes against Humanity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 War Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 
Offenses against Life and Limb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219 Unlawful Killing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219 Assault .................................................222 Assault Causing Harm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 Assault Causing Serious Harm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 threats to Kill or Cause Serious Harm ......................224 
Sexual Offenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226 Rape ...................................................227 Sexual Intercourse and Acts of a Sexual nature with a Child below the Age of Consent to Sexual Relations . . . . . . . . . . .229 Violation of the Sexual Autonomy of a defenseless Person. . . . . .231 Violation of Sexual Autonomy by Abuse of Authority . . . . . . . . . . 231 Sexual Slavery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 Enforced Prostitution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233 Sexual Violence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234 
Offenses against the Rights of Persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 torture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 trafficking in Persons ....................................238 Establishing Slavery, Slavery-like Conditions, and forced Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243 Enforced disappearance ..................................244 domestic Violence .......................................246 Kidnapping .............................................251 Unlawful deprivation of Liberty ...........................252 Criminal Coercion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253 Unauthorized Search of a Person and His or Her Belongings . . . . 253 Unauthorized Search of a dwelling or Premises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254 Unauthorized Visual Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255 
Article 112:
Article 113:Article 114:
Section 5: 
Article 115: Article 116: Article 117: Article 118: 
Section 6: 
Article 119: Article 120: Article 121: Article 122: Article 123: Article 124: Article 125: Article 126: Article 127: Article 128: Article 129: Article 130: Article 131: Article 132: Article 133: 
Section 7: 
Article 134: Article 135: 
Section 8: 
Article 136: Article 137: 
Violation of the Privacy and Confidentiality of Communications ........................................257 Abuse of Personal data ...................................259 Abuse of Personal Secrets .................................259 
Offenses against Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261 Sale of Children. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262 Child Prostitution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 Child Pornography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 Possession of Child Pornography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 
Property Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 theft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 Robbery and Aggravated Robbery ..........................269 Extortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271 Burglary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272 Aggravated Burglary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273 Receiving and Concealing Stolen Goods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273 Bringing into the State Property Obtained through Crime. . . . . . 274 fraud ..................................................275 Embezzlement of Property ................................276 forgery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278 Using false Instruments ..................................279 Possessing false Instruments ..............................280 Arson ..................................................281 Reckless Burning or Exploding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282 Criminal damage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283 
Economic Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285 Counterfeiting Money ....................................285 Money Laundering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287 
Organized Crime Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292 Participation in an Organized Criminal Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292 Offenses Related to the Smuggling of Migrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296 
Section 9: 
Article 138: Article 139: 
Article 140: 
Section 10: 
Article 141: Article 142: 
Article 143: Article 144: Article 145: Article 146: 
Section 11: 
Article 147: Article 148: Article 149: Article 150: Article 151: 
Article 152: Article 153: Article 154: Article 155: Article 156: Article 157: Article 158: Article 159: Article 160: Article 161: Article 162: Corruption Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303 Corruption Involving a Public Official ......................306 Corruption Involving a foreign Public Official or an Official of a Public International Organization ......................308 Corruption in the Private Sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310 
Corruption-Related Offenses and Other Offenses Involving a Public Official. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313 
trading in Influence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313 Embezzlement, Misappropriation, or Other diversion of Property by a Public Official. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315 
Abuse of functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 Illicit Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 Concealment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318 threat and Improper Influence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319 
Offenses against the State, Public Safety, and Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 financing terrorism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322 terrorist Bombing .......................................324 Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329 
Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation. . . . . . . . . . . . .330 Unlawful Acts of Violence at an Airport Serving International Civil Aviation ...............................332 
Offenses against Internationally Protected Persons . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 taking of Hostages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335 Offenses Related to nuclear Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337 Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime navigation . . . . . . 339 Unlawful Acts against the Safety of fixed Platforms . . . . . . . . . . .341 Piracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343 Bombing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344 disruption of Supply of Public Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345 destruction or Unauthorized Removal of Cultural Property. . . .346 Incitement to Crime on Account of Hatred. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349 Unauthorized Border Crossing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351 
Section 12: 
Article 163: 
Section 13: 
Article 164: 
Article 165: 
Article 166: Article 167: 
Article 168: 
Article 169: 
Section 14: 
Article 170: Article 171: 
Article 172: 
Article 173: Article 174: Article 175: 
Article 176: 
Section 15: 
Article 177: Article 178: Article 179: Article 180: Article 181: Article 182: Article 183: 
Contents	-	xiii
Offenses against United Nations and Associated Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352 
Endangering United nations and Associated Personnel . . . . . . . . 352 
Offenses Involving Firearms, Ammunition, 
Explosives, and Weapons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356 Illicit Manufacturing or trafficking in firearms or Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358 
Illicit Obliteration, Removal, or Altering of Markings on firearms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360 
Illicit Manufacturing or trafficking in Explosives. . . . . . . . . . . . .362 Unlawful Purchase of firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, or Weapons ...................................363 
Unlawful Possession, Control, or Ownership of firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, or Weapons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365 Unlawful Use of firearms .................................367 
Drug Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369 trafficking in narcotic drugs and Psychotropic Substances . . . . 372 Possession or Purchase of narcotic drugs or Psychotropic Substances for the Purpose of trafficking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375 Organizing, Managing, or financing trafficking in narcotic drugs or Psychotropic Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .376 Cultivation of Opium Poppy, Coca Bush, or Cannabis Plant . . . . 377 Manufacture, transport, or distribution of Precursors . . . . . . . .380 Manufacture, transport, or distribution of Equipment or Materials for Use in the Illicit Cultivation, Production, or Manufacture of narcotic drugs or Psychotropic Substances . . . . 381 Possession or Purchase of narcotic drugs or Psychotropic Substances for Personal Use ...............................382 
Election Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 Preventing the Exercise of the Right to Vote. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 Violating the free decision of Voters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386 Abuse of the Right to Vote. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387 Violating Confidentiality in Voting .........................388 Buying and Selling Votes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388 Election fraud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389 threat to an Election Candidate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390 
Section 16: Cybercrime Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391Article 184: Illegal Access to a Computer System ........................392Article 185: Illegal Interception of Computer data.......................393Article 186: Interference with Computer data...........................394Article 187: Interference with a Computer System .......................395Article 188: Misuse of devices........................................396
Section 17: Offenses against the Administration of Justice. . . . . . .398 Article 189: Alteration or destruction of Evidence.......................398 Article 190: fabrication of Evidence ...................................399 Article 191: Presentation of false or forged Evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400 Article 192: false testimony..........................................400 Article 193: Obstruction of Justice of a Witness .........................401 Article 194: Obstruction of Justice of a Justice or Policing Official. . . . . . . . . .403 Article 195: Retaliation against a Witness ..............................404 Article 196: Retaliation against a Justice or Policing Official. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404 Article 197: failure to Respect an Order of the Court.....................405 Article 198: Providing Assistance to Perpetrator after the Commission of a Criminal Offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406 Article 199: false Statements of a Cooperative Witness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407 Article 200: Revealing the Sealed Order for Protective Measures or Anonymity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408 
Annex 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411 
Annex 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413 
Annex 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415 
Legal Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417 
Further Reading Relevant to the General Part of the Model Criminal Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422 
Further Reading Relevant to the Special Part of the Model Criminal Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425 
Criminal Law Reform Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436 
Useful Websites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442 
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Criminal justice, Administration of -- International cooperation.
Criminal law -- International cooperation.
Reparation (Criminal justice).
Restorative justice.