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Contents Preface 00 PART ONE Foundations of Evolutionary Psychology 00 1 The Scientific Movements Leading to Evolutionary Psychology 00 Landmarks in the History of Evolutionary Thinking 00 Evolution before Darwin 00 Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection 00 Darwin's Theory of Sexual Selection 00 The Role of Natural and Sexual Selection in Evolutionary Theory 00 The Modern Synthesis: Genes and Particulate Inheritance 00 The Ethology Movement 00 The Inclusive Fitness Revolution 00 Clarifying Adaptation and Natural Selection 00 Trivers's Seminal Theories 00 The Sociobiology Controversy 00 Common Misunderstandings about Evolutionary Theory 00 Misunderstanding 1: Human Behavior Is Genetically Determined 00 Misunderstanding 2: If It's Evolutionary, We Can't Change It 00 Misunderstanding 3: Current Mechanisms Are Optimally Designed 00 Milestones in the Origins of Modern Humans 00 # BOX 1.1 Out of Africa versus Multiregional Origins: The Origins of Modern Humans 00 Landmarks in the Field of Psychology 00 Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory 00 William James and the Psychology of Instincts 00 The Rise of Behaviorism 00 The Astonishing Discoveries of Cultural Variability 00 The Garcia Effect, Prepared Fears, and the Decline of Radical Behaviorism 00 Peering into the Black Box: The Cognitive Revolution 00 Summary 00 Suggested Readings 00 2 The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology 00 The Origins of Human Nature 00 Three Theories of the Origins of Complex Adaptive Mechanisms 00 The Three Products of Evolution 00 Levels of Evolutionary Analysis in Evolutionary Psychology 00 The Core of Human Nature: Fundamentals of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 00 All Species Have a Nature 00 Definition of an Evolved Psychological Mechanism 00 Important Properties of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 00 Methods for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses 00 Comparing Different Species 00 Comparing Males and Females 00 Comparing Individuals within a Species 00 Comparing the Same Individuals in Different Contexts 00 Experimental Methods 00 Sources of Data for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses 00 Archeological Records 00 Data from Hunter-Gatherer Societies 00 Observations 00 Self-Reports 00 Life-History Data and Public Records 00 Human Products 00 Transcending the Limitations of Single Data Sources 00 Identifying Adaptive Problems 00 Guidance from Modern Evolutionary Theory 00 Guidance from Knowledge of Universal Human Structures 00 Guidance from Traditional Societies 00 Guidance from Paleoarcheology and Paleoanthropology 00 Guidance from Current Mechanisms 00 Guidance from Task Analysis 00 Organization of Adaptive Problems 00 Summary 00 Suggested Readings 00 PART TWO Problems of Survival 00 3 Combating the Hostile Forces of Nature: Human Survival Problems 00 Food Acquisition and Selection 00 Food Selection in Rats 00 Food Selection in Humans 00 Why Humans Like Spices: The Antimicrobial Hypothesis 00 Why Humans Like to Drink Alcohol: An Evolutionary Hangover? 00 Sickness in Pregnant Women: The Embryo Protection Hypothesis 00 The Hunting Hypothesis 00 The Gathering Hypothesis 00 Comparing the Hunting and Gathering Hypotheses 00 The Scavenging Hypothesis 00 Adaptations to Gathering and Hunting: Sex Differences in Specific Spatial Abilities 00 Finding a Place to Live: Shelter and Landscape Preferences 00 The Savanna Hypothesis 00 Combating Predators and Other Environmental Dangers: Fears, Phobias, Anxieties, and "Evolutionary Memories" 00 Most Common Human Fears 00 Children's Antipredator Adaptations 00 # BOX 3.1 The Adaptive Conservation Hypothesis of Fears 00 Combating Disease 000 Are Humans Programmed to Die? 000 The Theory of Senescence 000 The Puzzle of Suicide 000 Summary 000 Suggested Readings 000 PART THREE Challenges of Sex and Mating 000 4 Women's Long-Term Mating Strategies 000 Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Mate Preferences 000 Parental Investment and Sexual Selection 000 Mate Preferences as Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 000 The Content of Women's Mate Preferences 000 Preference for Economic Resources 000 Preference for Good Financial Prospects 000 Preference for High Social Status 000 Preference for Older Men 000 Preference for Ambition and Industriousness 000 Preference for Dependability and Stability 000 Preference for Athletic Prowess 000 Preference for Good Health and Physical Appearance 000 Love and Commitment 000 Preference for Willingness to Invest in Children 000 Preference for Similarity 000 Additional Mate Preferences 000 Context Effects on Women's Mate Preferences 000 Effects of Women's Personal Resources on Mate Preferences 000 Effects of Temporal Context on Women's Mate Preferences 000 Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Mate Preferences 000 Effects of Women's Mate Value on Mate Preferences 000 How Women's Mate Preferences Affect Actual Mating Behavior 000 Women's Responses to Men's Personal Ads 000 Women's Marriages to Men High in Occupational Status 000 Women's Marriages to Men Who Are Older 000 Effects of Women's Preferences on Men's Behavior 000 Summary 000 # BOX 4.1 What about Lesbian Sexual Orientation? 000 Suggested Readings 000 5 Men's Long-Term Mating Strategies 000 Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Men's Mate Preferences 000 Why Men Might Benefit from Commitment and Marriage 000 The Problem of Assessing a Woman's Fertility or Reproductive Value 000 The Content of Men's Mate Preferences 000 Preference for Youth 000 Evolved Standards of Physical Beauty 000 Preference for Body Fat and the Critical Waist-to-Hip Ratio 000 Sex Differences in the Importance of Physical Appearance 000 Do Men Have a Preference for Ovulating Women? 000 Solutions to the Problem of Paternity Uncertainty 000 Context Effects on Men's Mating Behavior 000 # BOX 5.2 Homosexual Orientation 000 Men in Positions of Power 000 Context Effects from Viewing Attractive Models 000 Testosterone and Men's Mating Strategies 000 The Necessities and Luxuries of Mate Preferences 000 Effect of Men's Preferences on Actual Mating Behavior 000 Men's Responses to Women's Personal Ads 000 Age Preferences and Marital Decisions 000 Effect of Men's Mate Preferences on Women's Competition Tactics 000 Summary 000 Suggested Readings 000 6 Short-Term Sexual Strategies 000 Theories of Men's Short-Term Mating 000 Adaptive Benefits for Men of Short-Term Mating 000 Potential Costs of Short-Term Mating for Men 000 # BOX 6.1 Functions versus Beneficial Effects of Short-Term Mating 000 Adaptive Problems Men Must Solve When Pursuing Short-Term Mating 000 Evidence for an Evolved Short-Term Mating Psychology 000 Physiological Evidence for Short-Term Mating 000 Psychological Evidence for Short-Term Mating 000 Behavioral Evidence of Short-Term Mating 000 Women's Short-Term Mating 000 Evidence for Women's Short-Term Mating 000 Hypotheses about the Adaptive Benefits to Women of Short-Term Mating 000 Costs to Women of Short-Term Mating 000 Empirical Tests of Hypothesized Benefits to Women 000 Context Effects on Short-Term Mating 000 Individual Differences in Short-Term Mating 000 Other Contexts Likely to Affect Short-Term Mating 000 Summary 000 Suggested Readings 000 PART FOUR Challenges of Parenting and Kinship 000 7 Problems of Parenting 000 Why Do Mothers Provide More Parental Care Than Fathers 000 The Paternity Uncertainty Hypothesis 000 The Mating Opportunity Cost Hypothesis 000 An Evolutionary Perspective on Parental Care 000 Genetic Relatedness to Offspring 000 Offspring's Ability to Convert Parental Care into Reproductive Success 000 Alternative Uses of Resources Available for Investment in Children 000 The Theory of Parent¿Offspring Conflict 000 Mother¿Offspring Conflict In Utero 000 The Oedipal Complex Revisited 000 # BOX 7.1 Killing Parents and the Asymmetry of Valuing Parents and Children 000 Summary 000 Suggested Readings 00 8 Problems of Kinship 00 Theory and Implications of Inclusive Fitness 00 Hamilton's Rule 00 Theoretical Implications of Hamilton's Rule 00 Empirical Findings that Support the Implications of Inclusive Fitness Theory 00 Alarm Calling in Ground Squirrels 00 Kin Recognition and Kin Classifications in Humans 000 Patterns of Helping in the Lives of Los Angeles Women 00 Life-or-Death Helping among Humans 229 Genetic Relatedness and Emotional Closeness: Is Blood Thicker Than Water? 231 Kinship and Survival 232 Vigilance over Kin's Romantic Relationships 000 Kinship and Stress 000 Patterns of Inheritance¿Who Leaves Wealth to Whom 00 Investment by Grandparents 00 # BOX 8.1 Investment by Aunts and Uncles 00 A Broader Perspective on the Evolution of the Family 00 The Dark Side of Families 00 Summary 00 Suggested Readings 00 PART FIVE Problems of Group Living 00 9 Cooperative Alliances 000 The Evolution of Cooperation 000 The Problem of Altruism 000 A Theory of Reciprocal Altruism 000 Tit for Tat 00 # BOX 9.1 Strategies for Promoting Cooperation 000 Cooperation Among Non-Humans 000 Food Sharing in Vampire Bats 000 Chimpanzee Politics 000 Cooperation Among Humans 000 Social Contract Theory 000 The Detection of Prospective Altruists 000 The Psychology of Friendship 000 Costs and Benefits of Friendship 000 Cooperative Coalitions 00 Summary 00 Suggested Readings 00 10 Aggression and Warfare 00 Aggression as a Solution to Adaptive Problems 00 Coopt the Resources of Others 00 Defend against Attack 00 Inflict Costs on Intrasexual Rivals 00 Negotiate Status and Power Hierarchies 00 Deter Rivals from Future Aggression 00 Deter Long-Term Mates from Sexual Infidelity 00 The Context-Specificity of Aggression 00 Why Are Men More Violently Aggressive Than Women? 00 Empirical Evidence for Distinct Adaptive Patterns of Aggression 00 Evidence for Sex Differences in Same-Sex Aggression 00 Contexts Triggering Men's Aggression against Men 00 Contexts Triggering Women's Aggression against Women 00 Contexts Triggering Men's Aggression against Women 00 Contexts Triggering Women's Aggression against Men 00 Warfare 00 # BOX 10.1 Yanomamö Warfare 00 Do Humans Have Evolved Homicide Mechanisms? 00 Summary 00 Suggested Readings 00 11 Conflict between the Sexes 00 Strategic Interference Theory 00 Conflict about the Occurrence and Timing of Sex 00 Conflict over Sexual Access 00 Sexual Aggression and Evolved Defenses Against Sexual Aggression 000 Jealous Conflict 00 Sex Differences in Jealousy 00 From Vigilance to Violence: Tactics of Mate Retention 00 Sex Differences in the Use of Mate-Retention Tactics 00 Contexts Influencing Intensity of Mate-Retention Tactics 00 Violence toward Partners 00 Conflict over Access to Resources 00 Causes of Resource Inequality: Women's Mate Preferences and Men's Competitive Tactics 00 # BOX 11.1 Are All Men United to Control Women? 00 Summary 00 Suggested Readings 00 12 Status, Prestige, and Social Dominance 00 The Emergence of Dominance Hierarchies 00 Dominance and Status in Nonhuman Animals 00 Evolutionary Theories of Dominance and Status 00 An Evolutionary Theory of Sex Differences in Status Striving 00 Dominance Theory 00 Social Attention-Holding Theory 00 Determinants of Dominance 00 # BOX 12.1 Facial Dominance 00 Self-Esteem as a Status-Tracking Mechanism 00 Strategies of Submissiveness 00 Summary 00 Suggested Readings 00 PART SIX An Integrated Psychological Science 00 13 Toward a Unified Evolutionary Psychology 00 Evolutionary Cognitive Psychology 00 Problem Solving: Heuristics, Biases, and Judgment under Uncertainty 00 The Evolution of Language 00 Evolutionary Social Psychology 00 Capitalizing on Evolutionary Theories about Social Phenomena 00 The Evolution of Moral Emotions 00 The Return of Group Selection as Multilevel Selection Theory 00 Evolutionary Developmental Psychology 00 Theory of Mind Mechanisms 00 Attachment and Life-History Strategies 00 Evolutionary Personality Psychology 00 Alternative Niche Picking or Strategic Specialization 00 Adaptive Assessment of Heritable Qualities 00 Frequency-Dependent Adaptive Strategies 00 Evolutionary Clinical Psychology 00 Causes of Mechanism Failure 00 Evolutionary Insights into Problems Erroneously Thought to Be Dysfunctions 00 Evolutionary Cultural Psychology 00 Evoked Culture 00 Transmitted Culture 00 The Evolution of Art, Fiction, Movies, and Music 00 Toward a Unified Psychology 00 Suggested Readings 00 Bibliography 00 Index 00
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Evolutionary psychology -- Textbooks.
Human evolution -- Textbooks.