Table of contents for Guidelines for risk based process safety / Center for Chemical Process Safety.

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CONTENTS
List of Tables	xxix
List of Figures	
Acronyms and Abbreviations	
Glossary	
Acknowledgments	
Preface		xxvi
Executive Summary	
1	INTRODUCTION	
1.1	Purpose of These Guidelines	
1.2	Background	
1.3	Important Terminology	
1.4	Management Systems Concepts	
1.5	Risk Based Process Safety Elements	
1.6	Relationship Between RBPS Elements and Work Activities	
1.7	Application of these RBPS Guidelines	
1.8	Organization of these Guidelines	
1.9	References	
2 	OVERVIEW OF RISK BASED PROCESS SAFETY	
2.1	Risk Based Process Safety System Design Strategies	
2.2	Risk Based Process Safety Design and Improvement Criteria	
2.2.1	Risk of the Process	
2.2.2	Demand for, and Availability of, Resources for Implementing Process Safety Activities	
2.2.3	Process Safety Culture Associated with the Company or Facility	
2.2.4	Examples of How RBPS Criteria Can Affect Element Work Activity Implementation	
2.3	Using Element Chapters to Design and Improve a Process Safety Management System	
I	COMMIT TO PROCESS SAFETY	37
3	PROCESS SAFETY CULTURE	
3.1	Element Overview	
3.1.1	What Is Process Safety Culture?	
3.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
3.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
3.1.4	Who Does It?	
3.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
3.1.6	How Is It Done?	
3.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
3.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
3.2.2	Develop and Implement a Sound Culture	
3.2.3	Monitor and Guide the Culture	
3.3	Possible Work Activities	
3.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
3.3.2	Develop and Implement a Sound Culture	
3.3.3	Monitor and Guide the Culture	
3.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
3.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
3.4.2	Develop and Implement a Sound Culture	
3.4.3	Monitor and Guide the Culture	
3.5	Element Metrics	
3.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
3.5.2	Develop and Implement a Sound Culture	
3.5.3	Monitor and Guide the Culture	
3.6	Management Review	
3.7	References	
4	COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS	
4.1	Element Overview	
4.1.1	What Is It?	
4.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
4.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
4.1.4	Who Does It?	
4.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
4.1.6	How Is It Done?	
4.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
4.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
4.2.2	Conduct Compliance Work Activities	
4.2.3	Follow Through on Decisions, Actions, and Use of Compliance Results	
4.3	Possible Work Activities	
4.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
4.3.2	Conduct Compliance Work Activities	
4.3.3	Follow Through on Decisions, Actions, and Use of Compliance Results	
4.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
4.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
4.4.2	Conduct Compliance Work Activities	
4.4.3	Follow Through on Decisions, Actions, and Use of Compliance Results	
4.5	Element Metrics	
4.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
4.5.2	Conduct Compliance Work Activities	
4.5.3	Follow Through on Decisions, Actions, and Use of Compliance Results	
4.6	Management Review	
4.7	References	
5	PROCESS SAFETY COMPETENCY	
5.1	Element Overview	
5.1.1	What Is It?	
5.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
5.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
5.1.4	Who Does It?	
5.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
5.1.6	How Is It Done?	
5.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
5.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
5.2.2	Execute Activities that Help Maintain and Enhance Process Safety Competency	
5.2.3	Evaluate and Share Results	
5.2.4	Adjust Plans	
5.3	Possible Work Activities	
5.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
5.3.2	Execute Activities that Help Maintain and Enhance Process Safety Competency	
5.3.3	Evaluate and Share Results	
5.3.4	Adjust Plans	
5.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
5.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
5.4.2	Execute Activities that Help Maintain and Enhance Process Safety Competency	
5.4.3	Evaluate and Share Results	
5.4.4	Adjust Plans	
5.5	Element Metrics	
5.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
5.5.2	Execute Activities that Help Maintain and Enhance Process Safety Competency	
5.5.3	Evaluate and Share Results	
5.5.4	Adjust Plans	
5.6	Management Review	
5.7	References	
6	WORKFORCE INVOLVEMENT	
6.1	Element Overview	
6.1.1	What Is It?	
6.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
6.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
6.1.4	Who Does It?	
6.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
6.1.6	How Is It Done?	
6.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
6.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
6.2.2	Conduct Work Activities	
6.2.3	Monitor the System for Effectiveness	
6.2.4	Actively Promote the Workforce Involvement Program	
6.3	Possible Work Activities	
6.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
6.3.2	Conduct Work Activities	
6.3.3	Monitor the System for Effectiveness	
6.3.4	Actively Promote the Workforce Involvement Program	
6.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
6.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
6.4.2	Conduct Work Activities	
6.4.3	Monitor the System for Effectiveness	
6.4.4	 Actively Promote the Workforce Involvement Program	
6.5	Element Metrics	
6.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
6.5.2	Conduct Work Activities	
6.5.3	Monitor the System for Effectiveness	
6.5.4	Actively Promote the Workforce Involvement Program	
6.6	Management Review	
6.7	References	
7	STAKEHOLDER OUTREACH	
7.1	Element Overview	
7.1.1	What Is It?	
7.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
7.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
7.1.4	Who Does It?	
7.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
7.1.6	How Is It Done?	
7.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
7.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
7.2.2	Identify Communication and Outreach Needs	
7.2.3	Conduct Communication/Outreach Activities	
7.2.4	Follow Through on Commitments and Actions	
7.3	Possible Work Activities	
7.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
7.3.2	Identify Communication and Outreach Needs	
7.3.3	Conduct Communication/Outreach Activities	
7.3.4	Follow Through on Commitments and Actions	
7.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
7.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
7.4.2	Identify Communication and Outreach Needs	
7.4.3	Conduct Communication/Outreach Activities	
7.4.4	Follow Through on Commitments and Actions	
7.5	Element Metrics	
7.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
7.5.2	Identify Communication and Outreach Needs	
7.5.3	Conduct Communication/Outreach Activities	
7.5.4	Follow Through on Commitments and Actions	
7.6	Management Review	
7.7	References	
II	UNDERSTAND HAZARDS AND RISK	167
8	PROCESS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT	
8.1	Element Overview	
8.1.1	What Is It?	
8.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
8.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
8.1.4	Who Does It?	
8.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
8.1.6	How Is It Done?	
8.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
8.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
8.2.2	Catalog Process Knowledge in a Manner that Facilitates Retrieval	
8.2.3	Protect and Update Process Knowledge	
8.2.4	Use Process Knowledge	
8.3	Possible Work Activities	
8.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
8.3.2	Catalog Process Knowledge in a Manner that Facilitates Retrieval	
8.3.3	Protect and Update the Process Knowledge	
8.3.4	Use Process Knowledge	
8.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
8.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
8.4.2	Catalog Process Knowledge in a Manner that Facilitates Retrieval	
8.4.3	Protect and Update Process Knowledge	
8.4.4	Use the Process Knowledge	
8.5	Element Metrics	
8.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
8.5.2	Catalog Process Knowledge in a Manner that Facilitates Retrieval	
8.5.3	Protect and Update Process Knowledge	
8.5.4	Use the Process Knowledge	
8.6	Management Review	
8.7	References	
9	HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND RISK ANALYSIS	
9.1	Element Overview	
9.1.1	What Is It?	
9.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
9.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
9.1.4	Who Does It?	
9.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
9.1.6	How Is It Done?	
9.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
9.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
9.2.2	Identify Hazards and Evaluate Risks	
9.2.3	Assess Risks and Make Risk-based Decisions	
9.2.4	Follow Through on the Assessment Results	
9.3	Possible Work Activities	
9.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
9.3.2	Identify Hazards and Evaluate Risks	
9.3.3	Assess Risks and Make Risk-based Decisions	
9.3.4	Follow Through on Assessment Results	
9.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
9.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
9.4.2	Identify Hazards and Evaluate Risks	
9.4.3	Assess Risks and Make Risk-based Decisions	
9.4.4	Follow Through on Assessment Results	
9.5	Element Metrics	
9.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
9.5.2	Identify Hazards and Evaluate Risks	
9.5.3	Assess Risks and Make Risk-based Decisions	
9.5.4	Follow Through on Assessment Results	
9.6	Management Review	
9.7	References	
III	MANAGE RISK	243
10	OPERATING PROCEDURES	
10.1	Element Overview	
10.1.1	What Is It?	
10.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
10.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
10.1.4	Who Does It?	
10.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
10.1.6	How Is It Done?	
10.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
10.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
10.2.2	Identify What Operating Procedures Are Needed	
10.2.3	Develop Procedures	
10.2.4	Use the Procedures to Improve Human Performance	
10.2.5	Ensure that Procedures Are Maintained	
10.3	Possible Work Activities	
10.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
10.3.2	Identify What Operating Procedures Are Needed	
10.3.3	Develop Procedures	
10.3.4	Use Procedures to Improve Human Performance	
10.3.5	Ensure that Procedures Are Maintained	
10.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
10.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
10.4.2	Identify What Operating Procedures Are Needed	
10.4.3	Develop Procedures	
10.4.4	Use Procedures to Improve Human Performance	
10.4.5	Ensure that Procedures Are Maintained	
10.5	Element Metrics	
10.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
10.5.2	Identify What Operating Procedures Are Needed	
10.5.3	Develop Procedures	
10.5.4	Use Procedures to Improve Human Performance	
10.5.5	Ensure that Procedures Are Maintained	
10.6	Management Review	
10.7	References	
11	SAFE WORK PRACTICES	
11.1	Element Overview	
11.1.1	What Is It?	
11.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
11.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
11.1.4	Who Does It?	
11.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
11.1.6	How Is It Done?	
11.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
11.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
11.2.2	Effectively Control Nonroutine Work Activities	
11.3	Possible Work Activities	
11.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
11.3.2	Effectively Control Nonroutine Work Activities	
11.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
11.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
11.4.2	Effectively Control Nonroutine Work Activities	
11.5	Element Metrics	
11.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
11.5.2	Effectively Control Nonroutine Work Activities	
11.6	Management Review	
11.7	References	
12	ASSET INTEGRITY AND RELIABILITY	
12.1	Element Overview	
12.1.1	What Is It?	
12.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
12.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
12.1.4	Who Does It?	
12.1.5	What Are the Anticipated Work Products?	
12.1.6	How Is It Done?	
12.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
12.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
12.2.2	Identify Equipment and Systems that Are Within the Scope of the Asset Integrity Program and Assign ITPM Tasks	
12.2.3	Develop and Maintain Knowledge, Skills, Procedures, and Tools	
12.2.4	Ensure Continued Fitness for Purpose	
12.2.5	Address Equipment Failures and Deficiencies	
12.2.6	Analyze Data	
12.3	Possible Work Activities	
12.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
12.3.2	Identify Equipment and Systems that Are Within the Scope of the Asset Integrity Program and Assign ITPM Tasks	
12.3.3	Develop and Maintain Knowledge, Skills, Procedures, and Tools	
12.3.4	Ensure Continued Fitness for Purpose	
12.3.5	Address Equipment Failures and Deficiencies	
12.3.6	Analyze Data	
12.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
12.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
12.4.2	Identify Equipment and Systems that Are Within the Scope of the Asset Integrity Program and Assign ITPM Tasks	
12.4.3	Develop and Maintain Knowledge, Skills, Procedures, and Tools	
12.4.4	Ensure Continued Fitness for Purpose	
12.4.5	Address Equipment Failures and Deficiencies	
12.4.6	Analyze Data	
12.5	Element Metrics	
12.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
12.5.2	Identify Equipment and Systems that Are Within the Scope of the Asset Integrity Program and Assign ITPM Tasks	
12.5.3	Develop and Maintain Knowledge, Skills, Procedures, and Tools	
12.5.4	Ensure Continued Fitness for Purpose	
12.5.5	Address Equipment Failures and Deficiencies	
12.5.6	Analyze Data	
12.6	Management Review	
12.7	References	
13	CONTRACTOR MANAGEMENT	
13.1	Element Overview	
13.1.1	What Is It?	
13.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
13.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
13.1.4	Who Does It?	
13.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
13.1.6	How Is It Done?	
13.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
13.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
13.2.2	Conduct Element Work Activities	
13.2.3	Monitor the Contractor Management System for Effectiveness	
13.3	Possible Work Activities	
13.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
13.3.2	Conduct Element Work Activities	
13.3.3	Monitor the Contractor Management System for Effectiveness	
13.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
13.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
13.4.2	Conduct Element Work Activities	
13.4.3	Monitor the Contractor Management System for Effectiveness	
13.5	Element Metrics	
13.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
13.5.2	Conduct Element Work Activities	
13.5.3	Monitor the Contractor Management System for Effectiveness	
13.6	Management Review	
13.7	References	
14	TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE ASSURANCE	
14.1	Element Overview	
14.1.1	What Is It?	
14.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
14.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
14.1.4	Who Does It?	
14.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
14.1.6	How Is It Done?	
14.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
14.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
14.2.2	Identify What Training Is Needed	
14.2.3	Provide Effective Training	
14.2.4	Monitor Worker Performance	
14.3	Possible Work Activities	
14.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
14.3.2	Identify What Training Is Needed	
14.3.3	Provide Effective Training	
14.3.4	Monitor Worker Performance	
14.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
14.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
14.4.2	Identify What Training Is Needed	
14.4.3	Provide Effective Training	
14.4.4	Monitor Worker Performance	
14.5	Element Metrics	
14.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
14.5.2	Identify What Training Is Needed	
14.5.3	Provide Effective Training	
14.5.4	Monitor Worker Performance	
14.6	Management Review	
14.7	References	
15	MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE	
15.1	Element Overview	
15.1.1	What Is It?	
15.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
15.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
15.1.4	Who Does It?	
15.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
15.1.6	How Is It Done?	
15.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
15.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
15.2.2	Identify Potential Change Situations	
15.2.3	Evaluate Possible Impacts	
15.2.4	Decide Whether to Allow the Change	
15.2.5	Complete Follow-up Activities	
15.3	Possible Work Activities	
15.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
15.3.2	Identify Potential Change Situations	
15.3.3	Evaluate Possible Impacts	
15.3.4	Decide Whether to Allow the Change	
15.3.5	Complete Follow-up Activities	
15.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
15.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
15.4.2	Identify Potential Change Situations	
15.4.3	Evaluate Possible Impacts	
15.4.4	Decide Whether to Allow the Change	
15.4.5	Complete Follow-up Activities	
15.5	Element Metrics	
15.5.1	Maintain a Dependable MOC Practice	
15.5.2	Identify Potential Change Situations	
15.5.3	Evaluate Possible Impacts	
15.5.4	Decide Whether to Allow the Change	
15.5.5	Complete Follow-up Activities	
15.6	Management Review	
15.7	References	
16	OPERATIONAL READINESS	
16.1	Element Overview	
16.1.1	What Is It?	
16.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
16.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
16.1.4	Who Does It?	
16.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
16.1.6	How Is It Done?	
16.2 	Key Principles and Essential Features	
16.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
16.2.2	Conduct Appropriate Readiness Reviews as Needed	
16.2.3	Make Startup Decisions Based upon Readiness Results	
16.2.4	Follow Through on Decisions, Actions, and Use of Readiness Results	
16.3	Possible Work Activities	
16.3.1	 Maintain a Dependable Practice	
16.3.2	Conduct Appropriate Readiness Reviews as Needed	
16.3.3	Make Startup Decisions Based upon Readiness Results	
16.3.4	Follow Through on Decisions, Actions, and Use of Readiness Results	
16.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
16.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
16.4.2	Conduct Appropriate Readiness Reviews as Needed	
16.4.3	Make Startup Decisions Based upon Readiness Results	
16.4.4	Follow Through on Decisions, Actions, and Use of Readiness Results	
16.5	Element Metrics	
16.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
16.5.2	Conduct Appropriate Readiness Reviews as Needed	
16.5.3	Make Startup Decisions Based upon Readiness Results	
16.5.4	Follow Through on Decisions, Actions, and Use of Readiness Results	
16.6	Management Review	
16.7	References	
17	CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS	
17.1	Element Overview	
17.1.1	What Is It?	
17.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
17.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
17.1.4	Who Does It?	
17.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
17.1.6	How Is It Done?	
17.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
17.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
17.2.2	Control Operations Activities	
17.2.3	Control the Status of Systems and Equipment	
17.2.4	Develop Required Skills/Behaviors	
17.2.5	Monitor Organizational Performance	
17.3	Possible Work Activities	
17.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
17.3.2	Control Operations Activities	
17.3.3	Control the Status of Systems and Equipment	
17.3.4	Develop Required Skills/Behaviors	
17.3.5	Monitor Organizational Performance	
17.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
17.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
17.4.2	Control Operations Activities	
17.4.3	Control the Status of Systems and Equipment	
17.4.4	Develop Required Skills/Behaviors	
17.4.5	Monitor Organizational Performance	
17.5	Element Metrics	
17.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
17.5.2	Control Operations Activities	
17.5.3	Control the Status of Systems and Equipment	
17.5.4	Develop Required Skills/Behaviors	
17.5.5	Monitor Organizational Performance	
17.6	Management Review	
17.7	References	
18	EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT	
18.1	Element Overview	
18.1.1	What Is It?	
18.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
18.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
18.1.4	Who Does It?	
18.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
18.1.6	How Is It Done?	
18.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
18.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
18.2.2	Prepare for Emergencies	
18.2.3	Periodically Test the Adequacy of Plans and Level of Preparedness	
18.3	Possible Work Activities	
18.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
18.3.2	Prepare for Emergencies	
18.3.3	Periodically Test the Adequacy of Plans and Level of Preparedness	
18.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
18.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
18.4.2	Prepare for Emergencies	
18.4.3	Periodically Test the Adequacy of Plans and the Level of Preparedness	
18.5	Element Metrics	
18.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
18.5.2	Prepare for Emergencies	
18.5.3	Periodically Test the Adequacy of Plans and the Level of Preparedness	
18.6	Management Review	
18.7	References	
IV	LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE	549
19	INCIDENT INVESTIGATION	
19.1	Element Overview	
19.1.1	What Is It?	
19.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
19.1.3	Where and When Is It Done?	
19.1.4	Who Does It?	
19.1.5	What Are the Anticipated Work Products?	
19.1.6	How Is It Done?	
19.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
19.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Incident Reporting and Investigation Practice	
19.2.2	Identify Potential Incidents for Investigation	
19.2.3	Use Appropriate Techniques to Investigate Incidents	
19.2.4	Document Incident Investigation Results	
19.2.5	Follow Through on Results of Investigations	
19.2.6	Trend Data to Identify Repeat Incidents that Warrant Investigation	
19.3	Possible Work Activities	
19.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Incident Reporting and Investigation Practice	
19.3.2	Identify Potential Incidents for Investigation	
19.3.3	Use Appropriate Techniques to Investigate Incidents	
19.3.4	Document Incident Investigation Results	
19.3.5	Follow Through on Results of Investigations	
19.3.6	Trend Data to Identify Repeat Incidents that Warrant Investigation	
19.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Efficiency and Effectiveness	
19.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Incident Reporting and Investigation Practice	
19.4.2	Identify Potential Incidents for Investigation	
19.4.3	Use Appropriate Techniques to Investigate Incidents	
19.4.4	Document Incident Investigation Results	
19.4.5	Follow Through on Results of Investigations	
19.4.6	Trend Data to Identify Repeat Incidents that Warrant Investigation	
19.5	Element Metrics	
19.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Incident Reporting and Investigation Practice	
19.5.2	Identify Potential Incidents for Investigation	
19.5.3	Use Appropriate Techniques to Investigate Incidents	
19.5.4	Document Incident Investigation Results	
19.5.5	Follow Through on Results of Investigations	
19.5.6	Trend Data to Identify Repeat Incidents that Warrant Investigation	
19.6	Management Review	
19.7	References	
20	MEASUREMENT AND METRICS	
20.1	Element Overview	
20.1.1	What Is It?	
20.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
20.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
20.1.4	Who Does It?	
20.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
20.1.6	How Is It Done?	
20.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
20.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
20.2.2	Conduct Metrics Acquisition	
20.2.3	Use Metrics to Make Element Corrective Action Decisions	
20.3	Possible Work Activities	
20.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
20.3.2	Conduct Metrics Acquisition	
20.3.3	Use Metrics to Make Corrective Action Decisions	
20.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
20.5	Element Metrics	
20.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
20.5.2	Conduct Metrics Acquisition	
20.5.3	Use Metrics to Make Element Corrective Action Decisions	
20.6	Management Review	
20.7	References	
21	AUDITING	
21.1	Element Overview	
21.1.1	What Is It?	
21.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
21.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
21.1.4	Who Does It?	
21.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
21.1.6	How Is It Done?	
21.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
21.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
21.2.2	Conduct Element Work Activities	
21.2.3	Use Audits to Enhance RBPS Effectiveness	
21.3	Possible Work Activities	
21.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
21.3.2	Conduct Element Work Activities	
21.3.3	Use Audits to Enhance RBPS Effectiveness	
21.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
21.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
21.4.2	Conduct Element Work Activities	
21.4.3	Use Audits to Enhance RBPS Effectiveness	
21.5	Element Metrics	
21.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
21.5.2	Conduct Element Work Activities	
21.5.3	Use Audits to Enhance RBPS Effectiveness	
21.6	Management Review	
21.7	References	
22 MANAGEMENT REVIEW AND CONTINUOUS 
IMPROVEMENT	
22.1	Element Overview	
22.1.1	What Is It?	
22.1.2	Why Is It Important?	
22.1.3	Where/When Is It Done?	
22.1.4	Who Does It?	
22.1.5	What Is the Anticipated Work Product?	
22.1.6	How Is It Done?	
22.2	Key Principles and Essential Features	
22.2.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
22.2.2	Conduct Review Activities	
22.2.3	Monitor Organizational Performance	
22.3	Possible Work Activities	
22.3.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
22.3.2	Conduct Review Activities	
22.3.3	Monitor Organizational Performance	
22.4	Examples of Ways to Improve Effectiveness	
22.4.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
22.4.2	Conduct Review Activities	
22.4.3	Monitor Organizational Performance	
22.5	Element Metrics and Indications	
22.5.1	Maintain a Dependable Practice	
22.5.2	Conduct Review Activities	
22.5.3	Monitor Organizational Performance	
22.6	Management Review	
22.7	References	
23 	IMPLEMENTATION	
23.1	Reasons to Implement a Risk-based Process Safety Management System	
23.2	First Steps Toward Implementation	
23.3	Start with RBPS Elements that Provide the Greatest Risk Benefit to Your Facility	
23.4	Implementation Examples	
23.4.1	Using RBPS to Upgrade the Operating Procedures Element	
23.4.2	Implementing the Conduct of Operations Element	
23.4.3	Using RBPS to Fix a Deficient Management of Change System	
23.4.4	Using RBPS to Develop and Implement a New Process Safety Management System	
23.5	Other Applications	
23.6	Conclusions	
23.7	References	
24	THE FUTURE	
INDEX		

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Chemical processes -- Safety measures -- United States..
Hazardous substances -- Safety regulations -- United States.
Hazardous substances -- Risk assessment -- United States.