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Contents PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY Static Electricity and Magnetism, Electricity, Electricity's Future, Matter and Electricity, Matter and Molecules, Solids, Gases, and Liquids, Elements and Compounds, Molecule, Mixture, Atom, Atoms, Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons, Properties of Electrons, Orbiting Electrons, Electrical Charge, Neutron, Outer Shell, Valence, Electrons and Ions, A Practical Unit for Charges, The Volt, Controlling Electrons, Difference of Potential (Voltage), Electron Flow (Current), Conductors, Resistance, The Electric Circuit, Connecting a Circuit, Switches, Control Electron Flow, Schematic, Review Questions. CHAPTER 2 CURRENT, VOLTAGE, RESISTANCE, POWER, AND OHM'S LAW Sources of Electricity, Units of Measurement, Ohm, Prefixes, Siemens, Ohm's Law, Power, Joule, Watt, Putting Electricity to Work, Resistors and Heat, Mechanical Energy, Kilowatt-Hour, Review Questions. CHAPTER 3 RESISTORS, COLOR CODE, COMPONENTS, AND SYMBOLS Resistors, Color Code, Variable Resistors, Types of Resistors, Types of Capacitors, Types of Inductors, Transformers, Semiconductors, Switches, Relays, Fuses and Circuit Breakers, Lamps, Meters, Review Questions, CHAPTER 4 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS Series Circuit, Parallel Circuits, Series-Parallel Circuits, Review Questions. CHAPTER 5 MAGNETISM, SOLENOIDS, AND RELAYS Permanent Magnets, Temporary Magnets, Electromagnets, Magnetic Theory, Electromagnetism, Electromagnets, The Solenoid, Applications, Transformers for Low-Voltage Controls, Review Questions. CHAPTER 6 ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Types of Meter Movements, Parallax Error, Ammeter, Voltmeter, AC Ammeter, AC Voltmeter, Ohmmeters, Multimeter, Megger, Digital Meter, Other Instruments, Using an Ohmmeter, Review Questions. CHAPTER 7 ELECTRICAL POWER: DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT Types of Batteries, Dry Cells, Battery Specifications, Connecting Cells, Battery Maintenance, Nickel-Cadmium Cells, Alkaline Cell, Alternating Current, Sine Wave, Sine-Wave Characteristics, Polyphase Alternating Current, Three-Phase Connections, Electrical Properties of Delta and Wye, Review Questions. CHAPTER 8 INDUCTORS AND TRANSFORMERS Inductors, Changing Inductance, Self-Inductance, Mutual Inductance, Inductive Reactance, Power in an Inductive Circuit, Uses for Inductive Reactance Transformers, Voltage Transfer, Power Transformers, Audio Frequency and Radio Frequency Transformers, Autotransformers, Transformer Losses, Inductive Circuits, Utilizing the Inductive Delay, Review Questions. CHAPTER 9 CAPACITORS AND CAPACITIVE REACTANCE The Capacitor, How the Capacitor Works, Capacity of a Capacitor, Breakdown Voltage, Basic Units of Capacitance, Types of Capacitors, Electrolytic Capacitors, Working Voltage, Direct Current (WVDC), Capacitive Reactance, Capacitor Causes a Lagging Voltage, Checking Capacitors, Review Questions, CHAPTER 10 SINGLE-PHASE AND THREE-PHASE ALTERNATING CURRENT Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance, Power, Power Factor, Distributing Electric Power, Polyphase, Circuit Breakers, Review Questions. CHAPTER 11 SOLID-STATE CONTROLS Semiconductor Principles, Diode, Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers, Transistors, Integrated Circuits, Thermistor Sensing, Humidity Sensing, Controllers, Electronic Controllers, Differential Amplifiers, Actuators, Other Devices, Solid-State Compressor, Motor Protection, Review Questions, CHAPTER 12 ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS Shaded-Pole Motor, Split-Phase Motor, Repulsion Start, Induction Run Motor, Capacitor-Start Motor, Permanent Split-Capacitor (PSC), Capacitor-Start, Capacitor-Run Motor, Three-Phase Motor, Capacitor Ratings, Start Capacitors and Bleeder Resistors, Motor Protectors, Compressor Motor Relays, Review Questions. CHAPTER 13 ELECTRICAL SAFETY Safety Precautions, Main Switches, Portable Electrical Tools, Types of Circuit Protectors, Review Questions. CHAPTER 14 CONTROL DEVICES Power Relay, Time-Delay Relays, Solenoids, Thermostats, Microprocessor Thermostats, Thermostat Adjustments, Limit Switches, Pressure Control Switches, Water Tower Controls, Review Questions. CHAPTER 15 HEATING CIRCUITS Basic Gas Furnace Operation, Basic Electric Heating System, Ladder Diagrams, Manufacturer's Diagrams, Field Wiring, Low-Voltage Wiring, Heat Pumps, High-Efficiency Furnaces, Troubleshooting the Pulse Furnace, Review Questions. CHAPTER 16 AIR-CONDITIONING CIRCUITS Basic Air-Conditioning Unit, Schematics, Ladder Diagrams, Troubleshooting, Review Questions. CHAPTER 17 REFRIGERATION CIRCUITS Refrigerator-Freezer Combination, Defrosting, Other Devices, Troubleshooting, Rapid Electrical Diagnosis, Energy-Saver Switch, Review Questions. CHAPTER 18 TROUBLESHOOTING Safety, Compressor Problems, Low-Voltage Operation, Using a System to Troubleshoot (Electrical), Using Meters to Check for Problems, Using a Voltmeter for Troubleshooting Electric Motors, Testing for a Short Circuit Between Run and Start Windings, Capacitor Testing, Troubleshooting Procedure. CHAPTER 19 CONTROLLING ELECTRICAL POWER FOR AIR CONDITIONING UNITS Choosing wire size, Limiting Voltage, Loss Minimum Wire Size, Wire selection, Wire size and Low Voltage, Voltage Drop Calculations, The Effects of Voltage, Variations on AC Motors, Selecting Proper Wire Size, Unacceptable Motor Voltages, Calculating Starting Current, Values and Inrush Voltage Drops, Three-Phase Circuits, Code Limitations on Amperes per Conductor, Heat Generated within Conductors, Circuit Protection, Standard Rule, Fuses, One-Time Single-Element Fuses, Time-Delay Two-Element Fuses, Types of Fuses, Thermostats, Thermostat as a Control Switch, Service, Start Kits, Single-Phase Monitors, Time Delays, Head Pressure Control, Pressure Controls, Line Voltage Head Pressure Controls, Three-Phase Line Voltage Monitor, Current Sensing. CHAPTER 20 CAREERS IN AIR CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION Industries That Employ Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Mechanics, Job Qualifications, The Future, Pay and Benefits, Teaching as a Career, Sources of Information INDEX
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Buildings -- Electric equipment.
Heating -- Control.
Ventilation -- Control.
Air conditioning -- Control.